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ISSUED AUGUST 19th, 1915. 



Vol. XLIX. Part I. 

JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS 

\ 

OP THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



1915 



PART I., (pp. 1-144). 

Containing Papers bead in 

MAY to JULY (in part). 
WITH TWELVE PLATES. 




2*?'* + 



SYDNEY : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH STREET NORTH, SYDNEY, 

LONDON AGENTS : 

GEORGE BOBEETSON & Co., PROPRIETARY LIMITED, 

I? Warwick Square, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 

1915. 



F. WHITE Typ., 344 Kent Street Sydney. 



JOURNAL 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW SOUTH WALES 



1915 

(INCORPORATED 1881.) 



VOL. SLIX. 

EDITED BY 

THE HONORARY SECRETARIES. 



THE AUTHORS OF PAPERS ARE ALONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE STATEMENTS 
MADE AND THE OPINIONS EXPRESSED THEREIN. 




SYDNEY : 

TBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH STREET, SYDNEY. 

LONDON AGENTS : 

GEORGE ROBERTSON & Co., PROPRIETARY LIMITED, 

17 Warwick Square, Paternoster Bow, London, E.C. 

1915. 






CONTENTS. 



VOLUME XLIX. 

Page. 

Art. I. — Presidential Address. By Charles Hedley, f.l.s. 

[With Plates I - VII.'] 1 

Art. II. — A note on the occurrence of Urease in Legume Nodules 
and other Plant Parts. By Maurice S. Benjamin, d.i.c. 
(Communicated by Mr. F. B. Guthrie). ... ... ... 78 

Art. III. — Acacia Seedlings, Part I. By R. H. Cambage, f.l.s. 

[With Plates VIII - XII] 81 

Art. IV. — Some notes on Blechnum capense, (L.) Schlecht, with 

description of var. Gregsoni var. nov. By Rev. W. W. Watts 122 

Art. V.— The Mosses of the New Hebrides. By Dr. V. F. Bro- 

therus and Rev. W. Walter Watts 127 

Art. VI. — On the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Smithii, from 
various forms of growth. By H. G. Smith, f.c.s. [With 
Plates XIII - XXIII. ,] 158 

Art. VII. — On the Composition of Human Milk in Australia, 

Part 1. By H. S. H. Wardlaw, b.Sc 169 

Art. VIII. — Notes on Australian Fungi, No. II., Phalloids and 
Geasters. By J. B. Cleland, m.d., ch.M., and* E: Cheel. 
[With Plates XXIV, XXV.] 199 

Art. IX. — Descriptions of New Australian Blood-Sucking Flies 
belonging to the Family Leptidse. By Eustace W. Fer- 
guson, m.b., Ch.jM. (Communicated by Dr. J. B. Cleland.) 
[With Plate XXVI.] 233 

Art. X.— The age of the Southern Coal Field Tableland Basalts, 

By L. F. Harper, f.g.s 244 

Art. XI. — A Note on tbe Relation between the Thermal Conduc- 
tivity and the Viscosity of Gases, with reference to 
Molecular Complexity. By Professor J. A. Pollock, d.sc. 249 

Art. XII. — The Wave-length of the Electrical Vibration associ- 
ated with a Thin Straight Terminated Conductor. By 
Professor J. A. Pollock, d.sc. .. ... ... ... ... 253 

Art. XIII. — The Australian "Grey Mangrove" (Avicennia officin- 
alis Linn.). By R. T. Baker, f.l.s. [With Plates XXVII- 
XLVI] 257 

Art. XIV.— The Origin of the Heliman or Shield of the Coast 
Aborigines, N.S.W. By Thomas Dick. (Communicated by 
R. T. Baker, f.l.s. [With Plates XLVII- LI.] 282 



(iv.) 

Page. 
Art. XV. — Cerussite Crystals from Broken Hill, N.S.Wales and 

Muldiva, Queensland. By C. Anderson, m.a., d.Sc , [With 

Plates LII—L IV and six text figures. ] ... ... ... ... 2S9 

Art. XVI. — Notes on Eucalyptus, (with descriptions of new 

species) No. IV. By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s 309 

Art. XVII. — Geology of the Jenolan Caves District. By C. A. 

Sussmilch, f.g.s., and W. G. Stone. [With Plates LV, LVI] 332 
Art. XVIII. — Two Lord Howe Island Polypodia. By the Eev.W. 

Walter Watts 385 

Art. XIX. — Notes on the Native Flora of Tropical Queensland. 

By E. H. Cambage, f.l.s. [With Plates LVII-LXIand map.'] 389 
Art. XX. — Some Geo-physical Observations at Burrinjuck. By 

Leo A. Cotton, b.a., b.Sc [With Plate LXII and three text 

figures'], .,. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 448 

Art. XXI. — Notes on Acacia, (with descriptions of new species), 

No. I. By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s ... 463 

Art. XXII. — Eucalyptus australiana sp. no v., (Narrow-leaved 

Peppermint) and its essential oil. By E. T. Bakeb, f.l.s., 

and H. G. Smith, f.c.s. ... ... ... ... ... ... 514 

Abstract of Proceedings ... i. — xxiii. 

Proceedings of the Geological Section xxv-xxxii. 

Proceedings of the Public Health and Kindred Sciences 

Section ... ... ... ... xxxiii - xxxvi. 

Title Page, Contents, Publications, Notices, (i. -viii.) 

Officers for 1915-1916 ( v ii-) 

List of Members, &c (ix.) 

Index to Volume XLIX xxxvii. 



DATES OF PUBLICATION. 



Volume XLIX. 
Part I— pp. 1-144, published August 19, 1915. 
„ II— pp. 145-257, „ November 15, 1915. 
„ III— pp. 257 - 525, „ April 28, 1916. 
,, IV — pp. i. -xxxviii., (i.) — (xxii.) published May 30, 
1916. 



PUBLICATIONS. 



The following publications of the Society, if in print, can be 

obtained at the Society's House in Elizabeth-street: — 

Transactions of the Philosophical Society, N.S.W., 1862-5, pp. 374, out of print. 
Vol. i. Transactions of the Royal Society, N.S.W., 1867, i 



ii. 
in. 

IV. 

v. 

VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 

x. Journal and Proceedings 



XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 

xv. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

xx. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XL VII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX, 



1868 

1869, 

1870, 

1871, 

1872, 

1873, 

1874, 

1875, 

1876, 

1877, 

1878, 

1879, 

1880, 

1881, 

1882, 

1883, 

1884, 

1885, 

1886, 

1887, 

1888, 

1889, 

1890, 

1891, 

1892, 

1893, 

1894, 

1895, 

1896, 

1897, 

1898, 

1899, 

1900, 

1901, 

1902, 

1903, 

1904, 

1905, 

1906, 

1907 

1908, 

1909, 

L910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913, 

1914, 

1915, 



.83, 
120, 
173, 
106, 
72, 
123, 
182, 
116, 
235, 
333, 
305, 

324, price 10s.6d. 
255, 
391, 
440, 
327, 
324, 
224, 
240, 
396, 
296, 
390. 
534, 
290, 
348, 
426, 
530, 
368, 
600, 
568, 
626, 
476, 
400, 
484, 
581, 
531, 
663, 
604, 
274, 
368, 
377, 
593, 
466, 
719, 
611, 
275, 
318, 
584, 
587, 



Jtogai c^ocietg of gtefo ^autlj Males, 



OFFIGBBS ZFOIR, 1915-1916. 



Patron : 

HIS EXCELLENCY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR RONALD 

CRAUFURD MUNRO FERGUSON, p.c, g.c.m.g. 

Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. 



Vice-Patron: 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR GERALD STRICKLAND, g.c.m.g., etc. 

Governor of the State of New South Wales. 



President : 
R. GREIG-SMITH, d.s= 



F. H. QUAIFE, m.a., m.d. 
J. H. MAIDEN, f.r.s., f.l.s. 



Vice-Presidents : 

HENRY G. SMITH, f.c. 



C. HEDLEY, f.l.s. 



Hon. Treasurer: 
H. G. CHAPMAN, m.d. 



Hon. Secretaries: 
R. H. CAMBAGE, l.s., f.l.s. | Prof. POLLOCK, d.Sc, f.r.s. 



Members of Council : 



D. CARMENT, f.i.a., f.f.a. 
J. B. CLELAND, m.d., Ch.M. 
Prof. T. W. E. DAVID, c.m.g., b.a., 
W. S. DUN. [> Sc - F - R - s ' 

T. H. HOUGHTON, m. inst. c.e. 



J. NANGLE, f.r.a.s. 
Prof. R. ROBINSON, d.sc. 
C. A. SUSSMILCH, f.g.s. 

H. D. WALSH, B.A.T., M. INST. C.E. 

Prof. W. H. WARREN, ll.d., m. s^ 



NOTICE, 



The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 as 
the "Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an interval of 
inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, it assumed its present 
title, and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New 
South Wales in 1881. 



TO AUTHORS. 



Authors of papers desiring illustrations, are advised to consult 
the editors (Honorary Secretaries). before preparing their drawings. 
Unless otherwise specially permitted, such drawings should be 
carefully executed to a large scale on smooth white Bristol board 
in intensely black Indian ink, so as to admit of the blocks being 
prepared directly therefrom, in a form suitable for photographic 
"process." The size of a full page plate in tne Journal is 4 J in. 
x 6| in. The cost of all original drawings, and of colouring plates 
must be borne by Authors. ** 



FORM OF BEQUEST. 



3£ bequeath the sum of £ to the Royal Society op 

New South Wales, Incorporated by A t of the Parliament of 
New South Wales in 1881, and I declare ,hat the receipt of the 
Treasurer for the time being of the said ( crporation shall be an 
effectual discharge for the said Bequest, w lich I direct to be paid 
within calendar months after my decease, without 

any reduction whatsoever, whether on account of Legacy Duty 
thereon or otherwise, out of such part of my estate as may be 
awfully applied for that purpose. 

[Those persons who feel disposed to benefit the Royal Society of 
New South Wales by Legacies, are recommended to instruct their 
Solicitors to adopt the above Form of Bequest.] 



NOTICE. 

Members are particularly requested to communicate any 
change of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose 
this slip is inserted. 

Corrected Address : 



Name . 



» Titles, etc. 



Address. 



Date. 
To the 



Hon. Secretaries, 

The Koyal Society of N. S. Wales, 
5 Elizabeth Street, Sydney. 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Uogal j&octetg of |tefo <£out|} IBaUs. 



P Members who have contributed papers which have been published in the Society's 
Transactions or Journal ; papers published in the Transactions of the Philosophical 
Society are also included. The numerals indicate the number of such contributions. 

X Life Members . 
Elected. 

1908 Abbott, George Henry, b.a., m.b., Oi.m., Macquarie-street; p.r. 

'Cooringa,' 252 Liverpool Road, Summer Hill. 

1877 P 5 Abbott, W. E., 'Abbotsford/ Wingen. 

1904 Adams, William John, m. i. mech. e., 175 Clarence-street. 

1898 Alexander, Frank Lee, c/o Messrs. Goodlet and Smith Ltd., 

Cement Works, Granville. 
Anderson, Charles, m.a., d.sc Edin., Australian Museum, Col- 
lege-street. 

.1909 P7 Andrews, E. C.b.a., f.g.s., Geological Surveyor, Department 
of Mines, Sydney. 
Armit, Henry William, m.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., 30 - 34 
Elizabeth-street. 



1878 

1894 
1894 
1896 
1908 
1895 



1906 
1894 

1877 
1909 
1913 
1915 
1905 
1888 

1893 

1898 



P22 



PI 
P9 



P2 



Backhouse, His Honour Judge A. P., m.a., ' Melita,' Elizabeth 

Bay. 
Baker, Eichard Thomas, f.l.s., Curator,Technological Museum. 
JBalsille, George, 'Lauderdale,' N.E. Valley, Dunedin, N.Z. 
Barff, H. E., m.a., Warden of the University of Sydney. 
Barling, John, l.s., ' St. Adrians/ Eaglan-street, Mosman. 
Barraclough, S. Henry, b.e., m.m.e., Assoc, m. inst. c.e., m. i. 

mech. e., Memb. Soc. Promotion Eng. Education ; Memb. 

Internat. Assoc. Testing Materials; Professor of Mechanical 

Engineering in the University of Sydney; p.r. ' Marmion/ 

Victoria-street, Lewisham. 
Basnett, Nathaniel James, Punch-st-, Mosman. 
Baxter, William Howe, l.s., Chief Surveyor, Existing Lines 

Office, Railway Department, Bridge-street. 
Belfield, Algernon H., ' Eversleigh/ Dumaresq. 
Benson, William Noel, d.Sc, The University, Sydney. 
Bishop, Joseph Eldred, Killarney-street, Mosman. 
Bishop, John, 24 Bond-street. 
Blakemore, George Henry, 4 Bridge-street. 
JBlaxland, Walter, f.b.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., F^emantle, 

West Australia. 
Blomfield, Charles E., b.c.e. Melb., ' Woombi,' Kangaroo Camp, 

Guyra. 
Blunno, Michele, Licentiate in Science (Eome), Government 

Viticultural Expert, Department of Agriculture. Sydney. 



(X.) 



Elected 
1907 
1879 
1910 

1876 

1891 

1914 
1878 

1913 

1906 

1898 

1890 
1907 



PI 



1909 
1904 

1907 
1876 
1897 
1901 

1891 

1909 

1903 

1913 

1909 

1913 
1909 

1913 

1896 
1904 



P8 



P4 



PI 



P2 

P2 

P4 
P 16 



P2 



P2 



Bogenrieder, Charles, m.a., No. 2 Little's Avenue, Balmain. 
JBond, Albert, 131 Bell's Chambers, Pitt-street. 

Bradley, Clement Henry Burton, m.b., ch.M., d.p.h., Demon- 
strator in Physiology in the University of Sydney. 

Brady, Andrew John, l.k. and q.c.p, Irel., l.r.c.s. Irel., 175 
Macquarie-street, Sydney. 

Brennand, Henry J. W., b a., m.b., ch.M. Syd., 'The Albany/ 
Macquarie-st., p.r. ' Wobun/ 310Miller-st., North Sydney. 

Broad, Edmund F., 'Cobbam/ Woolwich Road, Hunter's Hill. 
JBrooks, Joseph, j.p. l.s., f.ra.s.,f.r.g.s., 'Hope Bank,' Nelson- 
street, Woollahra. 

Browne, William Eowan, b.sc, Assistant Lecturer and Demon- 
strator in Geology in the University, Sydney. 

Brown, James B., Resident Master, Technical School, Gran- 
ville; p.r. 'Aberdour/ Daniel-street, Granville. 
JBurfitt, W. Fitzmaurice, b.a., b.Sc, m.b., ch.M. 8yd., 'Wyom- 
ing/ 175 Macquarie-street, Sydney. 

Burne, Alfred, d.d.s., Buckland Chambers, 183 Liverpool-st. 

Burrows, Thomas Edward, m. inst. c.e., l.s., Metropolitan 
Engineer, Public Works Department ; p.r. ' Balboa/ Fern- 
street, Randwick. 



Calvert, Thomas Copley, Assoc, m. inst. c.e., 'Maybank/ 

Manly. 
Cambage, Richard Hind, l.s., f.l.s., Under Secretary for Mines, 

Department of Mines, Sydney; p.r. Park Road, Burwood. 

(President 1912-13). Hon. Secretary. 
Campbell, Alfred W., m.d., ch.M. Edin., 183 Macquarie-street. 
Cape, Alfred J., m.a. 8yd., 'Karoola/ Edgecliffe Rd„ Edgecliffe.. 
Cardew, John Hay don, m. inst. c.e., l.s., 75 Pitt-street. 
Card, George William, a.r.s.m., f.g s., Curator and Mineralogist 

to the Geological Survey, Department of Mines, Sydney, 
Carment, David, f.i.a. Grt. Brit. & Irel. f.f.a., Scot., 4 Whaling 

Road, North Sydney. Vice-President. 
Carne, Joseph Edmund, f.g.s., Government Geologist, 

Department of Mines, Sydney. 
Carslaw, H. S., m.a., Scd., Professor of Mathematics in the 

University of Sydney. 
Challinor, Richard Westman, f.i.c, f.c.s., Lecturer in Chem- 
istry, Sydney Technical College. 
Chapman, H. G., m.d., b.s., Assistant Professor of Physiology 

in the University of Sydney. Hon. Treasurer. 
Cheel, Edwin, Botanical Assistant, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 
Cleland, John Burton, m.d., ch.M., Principal Assistant Micro- 
biologist, Department of Public Health, 93 Macquarie-st. 
Cooke, William Ernest, m.a., f.r.a.s., Government Astronomer 

and Professor of Astronomy in the University of Sydney, 

The Observatory, Sydney. 
Cook, W. E., m.ce. Melb., m. inst. c.e., Water and Sewerage 

Board, North Sydney. 
Cooksey, Thomas, Ph.D., b.pc Lond., f. i.e., Government Analyst; 

p.r. 'Clissold/ Calypso Avenue, Mosman. 



(xi.) 



Elected 
1913 



1876 

1906 
1882 
1909 

1892 

1886 
19J2 



P2 
PI 



1875 
1890 

1876 
1910 

1886 



1909 
1892 

1885 



1894 

1915 

1875 
1906 
1876 

1913 

1913 

1908 



1908 
1879 



1896 
1868 
1887 



P3 
P21 

PI 
P3 



PI 

P 12 



P2 
P3 

P4 



Coombs, F. A., f.c.s., Instructor of Leather Dressing and 
Tanning, Sydney Technical College ; p.r. 55 Willoughby 
Road, North Sydney. 

Codrington, John Frederick, m.r.c.s. Eng., l r.c.p. Lond., l.r.c.p. 
Edin., 'Roseneath,' 8 Wallis- street, Woollahra. 

Colley, David John K., Superintendent, Royal Mint, Sydney. 

Cornwell, Samuel, J. p., Brunswick Road, Tyagarah. 

Cotton, Leo Arthur, m.a., b.sc, Assistant Lecturer and Demon- 
strator in Geology in the University of Sydney. 

Cowdery, George R., Assoc, m. inst. c.e., Blashki Buildings, 
Hunter-st.; p,r. 'Glencoe,' Torrington Road, Strathfield. 

Crago, W. H., m.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., 185 Macquarie-st. 

Curtis, Louis Albert, l.s., ' Redlands,' Union-street, Mosman. 



Dangar, Fred. H., c/o W. E. Deucher, 12 and 14 Loftus-street. 
Dare, Henry Harvey, m.e., m. inst. c.e., Water Conservation 

and Irrigation Commission, 29 Elizabeth-street, Sydney. 
Darley, Cecil West, m. inst. c.e., Australian Club. Sydney. 
Darnell-Smith, George Percy, b.sc, f. i.e., f.c.s., Department 

of Agriculture, Sydney. 
David, T. W. Edgeworth, c.m.g., p.. a., d.Sc, f.r.s., f.g.s., 

Professor of Geology and Physical Geography in the 

University of Sydney. (President 1895-96, 1910-11.) 
Davidson, George Frederick. 
Davis, Joseph, m. inst. c.e., Director-General, Public Works 

Department, Sydney. 
Deane, Henry, m.a., m. inst. c.e., p.l.s., p.r. met. soc, p.r.h.s., 

'Campsie/ 14 Mercer Road, Malvern, Victoria. (President 

1897-98, 1907-8.) 
Dick, James Adam, b.a. 8yd., m.d., ch.M.,p.R.c.s. Edin., ' Catfoss/ 

Belmore Road, Randwick. 
Dick, Thomas, j.p., Port Macquarie. 

Dixon, W. A., p. i.e., f.c.s., ' Girton/ McLaren-st., North Sydney. 
Dixson, William, ' Merridong/ Gordon Road, Killara. 
Docker, His Honour Judge E. B., m.a., ' Mostyn/ Billyard 

Avenue, Elizabeth Bay. 
Dodd, Sydney, d.v.Sc, f.r.cv.s., Lecturer in Veterinary 

Pathology in the University of Sydney. 
Doherty, William M., Analyst, Department of Public Health, 

Sydney. 
Dun, William S., Palaeontologist, Department of Mines. 



Esdaile, Edward William, 54 Hunter-street. 
Etheridge, Robert, Junr., j.p., Curator, Australian Museum 
p.r. 'Inglewood/ Colo Vale, N.S.W. 



Fairfax, Geoffrey E., S. M. Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
Fairfax, Sir James R., Knt., S. M. Herald Office, Hunter-st. 
Faithfull, R. L., m.d., New York, l.r.c.p., l.s. a. Lond., ' Wilga/ 
18 Wylde-street, Potts Point. 



(xii.) 



Elected 
1902 

1910 

1909 

1881 
1915 

1888 

1900 

1879 

1905 
1904 

1907 
1899 

1881 



1906 
1897 

1907 
1899 

1912 
1912 
1891 



1880 
1912 

1892 
1909 
1912 

1887 



1912 
1905 
1913 

1884 

1900 



P 1 



P16 



P4 



P8 

PI 
PI 
PI 



Faithfull, William Percy. Australian Club 

Farrell, John, Assistant Teacher, Sydney Technical College ; 

p.r. 8 Thompson-street, Darling-hurst. 
Fawsitt, Charles Edward, d.Sc, ph.d., Professor of Chemistry 

in the University of Sydney. 
Fiaschi, Thos., m.d., M.ch. Pisa. 

227 Macquarie-street. 

Honour Judge G. H., m.a., « Ked Hill,' 



M.B., 

His 



l.r.c.p. Edin., ' Wyoming/ 



Finckh, A. E., 

Fitzhardinge, 
Beecroft. 
JFlashman, James Froude, b.a., b.sc, m.d., ch-M., 'Eltham,' 

Edgcliff Road, Edgecliff. 
^Foreman, Joseph, m.r.c.s. 
Macquarie-street. 

Foy, Mark, ' Eumemering,' Belle vue Hill, Woollahra. 

Fraser, James, m. inst. c.e., Engineer-in-Chief for Existing 
Lines, Bridge-street ; p.r. 'Arnprior,' Neutral Bay. 

Freeman, William, ' Clodagh,' Beresford Road, Rose Bay. 

French, J. Russell, General Manager, Bank of New South 
Wales, George-street. 

Furber, T. F., f.r.a.s., c/o Dr. R. J. Furber, ' Sunnyside,' Stan- 
more Road, Stanmore. 



Gosche, W. A. Hamilton, 24£ Pitt-street, Sydney. 

Gould, Senator The Hon. Sir Albert John, k.c.m.g., ' Eynes- 

bury/ Edgecliffe. 
Green, W. J., Chairman, Hetton Coal Co., Athenaeum Club. 
Greig-Smith, R., d.Sc Edin., m.Sc. Dun., Macleay Bacteriologist, 

Linnean Society's House, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay. 

(President 1915-16.) 
Grieve, Robert Henry, b.a., ' Langtoft,' Llandaff-st.,Waverley. 
Griffiths, F. Guy, b.a., m.d., ch.m., 135 Macquarie-st., Sydney. 
Guthrie, Frederick B., f.i.c, f.c.s., Chemist, Department of 

Agriculture, 137 George-street, Sydney. (President 1903-4). 



Halligan, Gerald H., l.s., f.g.s., 'Riversleigh,' Hunter's Hill. 

Hallmann, E. F., b.Sc„ Biology Department, The University, 
Sjdney. 

Halloran, Henry Ferdinand, l.s., 82 Pitt-street. 

Hammond, Walter L., b.s c ., Hurlstone Avenue, Summer Hill. 

Hamilton, A. G., Lecturer on Nature Study, Teachers' College, 
Blackfriars. 

Hamlet, William M., f.i.c, f.c.s., Member of the Society of 
Public Analysts ; ' Strathallen.' Blaxland Ridge, via Rich- 
mond, N.S.W. (President 1899-1900, 1908-9). 

Hare, A. J., Under Secretary for Lands, ' Booloorool/ Monte 
Christo-street, Woolwich. 

Harker, George, d.Sc. Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator 
in Organic Chemistry in the University of Sydney. 

Harper, Leslie F., f.g.s., Geological Surveyor, Department of 
Mines, Sydney. 

Haswell, William Aitcheson, m.a., d.Sc, f.r.s., Professor of 
Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of 
Sydney; p.r. ' Mimihau,' Woollahra Point. 

Hawkins, W. E., 88 Pitt-street. 



(xiii.) 



Elected 

1914 

1891 

1899 

1884 

1905 
1914 

1892 
1901 
1905 

1891 
1906 

1913 



P3 
PI 



P2 



1904 

1905 

1907 
1909 



P8 
P13 



1867 
1911 



1907 
1883 
1873 

1914 

1887 
1901 

1896 

1878 

1881 



1877 
1913 



1911 
1913 



P3 



P23 



P2 



Hector, Alex. Burnet, 481 Kent-street. 

Hedley, Charles, f.l.s., Assistant Curator, Australian Museum, 

Sydney. Vice-President. (President 1914-15.) 
Henderson, J., f.r.e.s., Manager, City Bank of Sydney, Pitt-st. 
Henson, Joshua B., Assoc, m. inst.c.e., Hunter District Water 

Supply and Sewerage Board, Newcastle. 
Hill, John Whitmore, ' Willamere,' May's Hill, Parramatta. 
Hoare, Kobert R., Staff Paymaster, Eoyal Navy, Garden 

Island, Sydney. 
Hodgson, Charles George, 1 57 Macquarie-street. 
Holt, Thomas S., 'Amalfi/ Appian Way, Burwood. 
Hooper, George, Assistant Superintendent, Sydney Technical 

College; p.r. ' Banksome/ Hen son-street, Summer Hill. 
Houghton, Thos. Harry, m. inst. c.e., m. i. mech. e., 63 Pitt-st. 
Howie, Walter Cresswell, l.s.a. Lond., Bradley's Head Road, 

Mosman. 
Hudson, G. Iuglis, j.p., 'Gudvangen,' Arden-street, Coogee. 



.m., e.g.s., Chief Inspector of Mines, 
Government Geologist, 



Jaquet, John Blockley, a.r.s 

Department of Mines. 
Jensen, Harold Ingemann, d.Sc. 

Darwin, Northern Territory. 
Johnson, T. R., m. inst. c.e. 
Johnston, Thomas Harvey, m.a., d.Sc , f.l.s., Lecturer in 

Biology in the University of Queensland, Brisbane. 
Jones, Sir P. Sydney, Knt., m.d. Lond., f.r.c.s. Eng., ' Llandilo, 

Boulevarde, Strathfield. 
Julius, George A., b.Sc, m.e., m. i. mech. e., Culwulla Chambers, 

Castlereagh-street, Sydney. 



Kaleski, Robert, Holdsworthy, Liverpool. 

Kater, The Hon. H. E., j.p., m.l.c, Australian Club. 

Keele, Thomas William, l.s., m. inst. c.e., Commissioner, Sydney 

Harbour Trust, Circular Quay; p.r. Llandaff-st., Waverley. 
Kemp, William E., a.m. inst. c.e., Public Works Department, 

Sydney. 
Kent, Harry C, m.a., f.r.i.b.a., Dibbs' Chambers, Pitt-street. 
Kidd, Hector, m. inst. c.e., m. i. mech. E.,|Cremorne Road, 

Cremorne. 
King, Kelso, 120 Pitt-street. 
Knaggs, Samuel T., m.d. Aberdeen, f.r.c.s. Irel., ' Northcote/ 

Sir Thomas Mitchell Road, Boudi. 
Knibbs, G. H., l.s.,c.m.g.,f.s.s.,f.r.a.s., Member Internat. Assoc. 

Testing Materials; Memb. Brit. Sc. Guild ; Commonwealth 

Statistician, Melbourne. (President 1898-99.) 
Knox, Edward W., ' Rona/ Bellevue Hill, Double Bay. 
Kuntzen, Harold Eric. 



Laseron, Charles Francis, Technological Museum. 
Lawson, A. Anstruther, d.s c ., f.r.s.e., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Sydney. 



(xiv.) 



Elected 
1906 
1909 
1914 

1883 

1906 

1911 

1912 

1884 

1887 
1878 

1903 

1891 

1906 
1891 

1876 

1880 

1912 
1903 
1901 

1894 

1899 

1909 

1883 



P2 

P9 
PI 
PI 



P29 



Lee, Alfred, * Glen Roona/ Penkivil-street, Bondi. 

Leverrier, Frank, b.a., b.Sc. k.c, 182 Phillip-street. 

Lightoller, G. H. Standish, m.b., ch.M., ' Yetholm" New South 
Head Road, Darling Point. 

Lingen, J. T., m.a. Cantab., University Chambers, 167 Phillip- 
street, Sydney. 

Loney, Charles Augustus Luxton, m. am. soc. refr. e., Equi- 
table Building, George-street. 

Longmuir, G. F., b.a., Science Master, Technical College, 
Bathurst. 

Lovell, Henry Tasnian, m.a., Ph.D., ' Tane/ Hodson Avenue, 
Cremorne. 



MacCormick, Sir Alexander, m.d., cm. Edin., m.r.c.s. Eng., 185 
Macquarie-street, North. 

MacCulloch, Stanhope H., m.b., ch.M, Edin., 24 College-street. 

MacDonald, Ebenezer, j.p., c/o Perpetual Trustee Co, Ld., 2 
Spring-street. 

McDonald, Robert, j.p., Pastoral Chambers, O'Connell-street ; 
p.r. ' Wairoa/ Holt-street, Double Bay, 

McDouall, Herbert Chrichton, m.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.cs. Lond., 
d.p.h. Cantab., Hospital for the Insane, Gladesville. 

Mcintosh, Arthur Marshall, 'Glenbourne/ Hill-st., Roseville. 

McKay, R. T., l.s., Assoc, m. inst. c.e., Geelong Waterworks and 
Sewerage Trusts Office, Geelong, Victoria. 

Mackellar, The Hon. Sir Charles Kinnaird, m.l.c. m.b., cm. 
Glas., Equitable Building, George-street. 

McKinney, Hugh Giffin, m.e., Roy. Univ. Irel., m. jnst. c.e., 
Sydney Safe Deposit, Paling's Buildings, Ash-street. 

MacKinnon, Ewen, b.Sc, Agricultural Museum, George-st. N. 

McLaughlin, John, Union Bank Chambers, Hunter-street. 

McMaster, Colin J., l.s.. Chief Commissioner of Western Lands; 
p.r. Wyuna Road, Woollahra Point. 

McMillan, Sir William, k.cm.g., * Darrah,' 311 Edgecliff 
Road, Woollahra. 

MacTaggart, J. N. C, m.e. 8yd., Assoc m. inst. c.e., Water and 
Sewerage Board District Office, Lyons Road, Drummoyne. 

Madsen, John Percival Vissing, d.Sc, b.e., P. N. Russell Lec- 
turer in Electrical Engineering in the University of Sydney. 

Maiden, J. Henry, j.p., f.r.s., f.l.s., f.r.h.s., Hon. Fellow Roy. 
Soc. S.A.; Hon. Memb. Royal Society, W.A.; Netherlands 
Soc.for Promotion of Industry; Philadelphia College Pharm. 
Southern Californian Academy of Sciences ; Pharm. Soc. 
N.S.W.; Brit. Pharm. Conf.; Corr. Fellow Therapeutical 
Soc, Lond.; Corr. Memb. Pharm. Soc. Great Britain; Bot. 
Soc. Edin.; Soc Nat. de Agricultura (Chile); Soc. d' 
Horticulture d' Alger ; Union Agricole Caledonienne ; Soc. 
Nat. etc., de Cherbourg; Roy. Soc. Tas.; Roy. Soc. Queensl.; 
Inst. Nat. Genevois ; Hon. Vice-Pres. of the Forestry 
Society of California ; Diplome of the Societe Nationale 
d'Acclimatation de France; Linnean Medallist, Linnean 
Society; N.S.W. Govt. Rep. of the "Commission Consulta- 
tive pour la Protection Internat. de la Nature"; Govern- 
ment Botanist and Director, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 
Vice-President, (President 1896-7, 1901-2, 1911-12.) 



(XV.) 



Elected 

1880 

1897 



PI 



1908 
1914 
1875 



1903 
1912 
1905 

1889 

1879 
1879 
1915 



1876 



1893 



1891 
1893 



1903 
1913 
1896 
1875 

1891 



1880 
1878 
1901 
1899 

1877 
1899 
1909 

1879 



P27 



P8 



P3 



PI 
P7 



Manfred, Edmund C, Montague-street, Goulburn. 

Marden, John, m.a., ll.d., Principal, Presbyterian Ladies' 

College, Croydon, Sydney. 
Marshall, Frank, b.d.s. Syd., 'Beanbah/ 235 Macquarie-street. 
Martin, A. H., ' Glengarriff/ Nea-street, Chatswood. 
Mathews, Robert Hamilton, l.s., Assoc. Etran. Soc. d' Anthrop. 

de Paris; Cor. Mem. Anthrop. Soc, Washington, U.S.A..; 

Corr, Mem. Anthrop. Soc. Vienna ; Corr. Mem. Roy. Geog. 

Soc. Aust. Q'sland; Local Correspondent Roy. Anthrop. 

Inst., Lond.; ' Carcuron,' Hassall-st., Parramatta. 
Meggitt, Loxley, Co-operative Wholesale Society, Alexandria. 
Meldrum, Henry John, p.r. ' Craig Roy/ Sydney Rd., Manly. 
Miller, James Edward, Broken Hill, New South Wales. 
Mingaye, John C. H., f.i.c, f.c.s., Assayer and Analyst to the 

Department of Mines , p.r. Campbell-street, Parramatta. 
Moore, Frederick H., Union Club, Sydney, c/o Dalgety's Ltd., 

London. 
Mullins, John Francis Lane, m.a. 8yd., ' Killountan/ Dar- 
ling Point. 
Murphy, R. K., Dr. Ing., Chem. Ens:., Consulting Chemical 

Engineer^ and Lecturer in Chemistry, Technical College, 

Sydney. 
Myles, Charles Henry, ' Dingadee/ Everton Rd., Strathfield. 



Nangle, James, p.r.a.s., Superintendent of Technical Educa- 
tion, The Technical College, Sydney; p.r. 'St. Elmo/ 
Tupper-street, Marrickville. 
JNoble, Edward George, l.s., 8 Louisa Road, Balmain. 

Noyes, Edward, Assoc, inst. c.e., Assoc, i. mech. e., c/o Messrs. 
Noyes Bros., 115 Clarence-street, Sydney. 



JOld, Richard, ' Waverton/ Bay Road, North Sydney. 
Olle, A. D., 'Kareema/ Charlotte-street, Ashfield. 
Onslow, Col. James William Macarthur, 'Gilbulla/ Menangle. 
O'Reilly, W. W. J., m.d., ch.M. Q. Univ. Irel., m.r.c.s. Eng., 

171 Liverpool -street, Hyde Park. 
Osborn, A. F., Assoc, m. inst. c.e., Water Supply Branch, 

Sydney, ' Uplands/ Meadow Bank, N.S. W. 



Palmer, Joseph, 96 Pitt-st.; p.r. Kenneth-st., Willoughby. 
Paterson, Hugh, 183 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 
Peake, Algernon, m. inst. c.e., l.s., 25 Prospect Road, Ashfield. 
Pearse, W., Union Club; p.r. ' Plashett/ Jerry's Plains, via 

Singleton. 
Pedley, Perceval R., Lord Howe Island. 
Petersen, T. Tyndall, f.c.p.a., 4 O'Connell-street. 
Pigot, Rev. Edward F., s.j., b.a.., m.b. Dub., Director of the 

Seismological Observatory, St. Ignatius'College, Riverview. 
Pittman, Edward F., Assoc, r.s.m., l.s., Uuder Secretary for 

Mines, 'Carnarvon/ Bayswater Road, Darlinghurst. 



(xvi.) 



Elected 
1881 

1879 

1887 



1896 

1910 

1914 

1893 
1901 

1908 



P 10 



PI 



1876 



1912 

1890 
1865 

1906 
1914 
1909 

1902 

1906 
1913 

1915 
1913 

1884 
1895 
1897 



1893 



1915 
13 



PI 



P2 
PI 
PI 



P2 



PI 



Poate, Frederick, l.s., Surveyor-General, Lands Department, 
Sydney. 

Pockley, Thomas F. G., Union Club, Sydney. 

Pollock, J. A., d.Sc, f.r.s., Corr. Memb. Roy. Soc. Tasmania; Roy. 
Soc. Queensland ; Professor of Physics in the University 
of Sydney. Hon. Secretary. 

Pope, Roland James, b.a., 8yd., m.d., cm., f.r.cs., Edin., 
183 Macquarie-street. 

Potts, Henry William, p. l.s., f.cs., Principal, Hawkesbury 
Agricultural College, Richmond, N.S.W. 

Purdy, John Smith, m.d., cm. Aberd., d.p.h. Camb., Metro- 
politan Medical Officer of Health, Town Hall, Sydney. 

Purser, Cecil, b.a., m.b., Ci.m. 8yd., 139 Macquarie-street. 

Purvis, J. G. S., Assoc m. inst. ce., Water and Sewerage Board, 
341 Pitt-street. 

Pye, Walter George, m.a., b.sc. * Gainsford Lodge/ 331 Ernest- 
street, North Sydney. 



05 



Quaife, F. H., m.a., m.d., m.s. 
Killara. Vice-President. 



Yirrimbirri,' Stanhope Road, 



Radcliff, Sidney, Radium Hill Works, Woolwich. 
Rae, J. L. C. ' Lisgar/ King-street, Newcastle. 
JRamsay, Edward P., ll.d. St. And., f.r.s. e., f.l.s., Queens- 
borough Road, Croydon Park. 
Redman, Frederick G., P. and O. Office, Pitt-street. 
Rhodes, Thomas, Civil Engineer, Public Works Department, 

Sydney. 
Reid, David, ' Holmsdale,' Pymble. 
Richards, G. A., Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Mount 

Morgan, Queensland. 
Richardson. H. G. V., 32 Moore-sireet. 
Robinson, Robert, d.Sc. Professor of Organic Chemistry in 

the University of Sydney. 
Ross, A. Clunies, b.sc, C. of E. Grammar School, North Sydney. 
Roseby, Rev. Thomas, m.a., ll.d. Syd., f.r.a.s., 'Tintern/ 

Mosman. 
Ross, Chisholm, m.d. Syd., m.b., cm. Edin., 151 Macquarie-st. 
Ross, Herbert E., Equitable Building, George-street. 
Russell, Harry Ambrose, b.a., c/o Messrs. Sly and Russell, 

369 George-street ; p.r. ' Mahuru,' Fairf ax Road, Bellevue 

Hill. 
Rygate, Philip W., m.a., b.e. Syd., Assoc m. inst. ce., l.s., 

City Bank Chambers, Pitt-street, Sydney- 



Sach, A. J., f.cs., ' Kelvedon,' North Road, Ryde. 

Scammell, W. J., Mem. Phar. Soc. Grt. Brit., 18 Middle Head 

Road, Mosman. 
Scheidel, August, Ph.D., Managing Director, Commonwealth 

Portland Cement Co., 4 O'Connell-street. 



(xvii.) 



Elected 



1892 


PI 


1856 
1904 
1883 


PI 
P 1 
P4 


1900 
1910 




1882 




1893 
1891 


P3 


1912 
1893 


P50 


1874 
1892 


PI 
P2 


1914 




1913 




1900 




1903 
1909 




1883 


P4 


1901 
1912 


P7 


1906 
1915 
1906 


PI 


1905 




1893 
1899 




1861 


P 19 


1878 
1879 
1913 





Schofield, James Alexander, f.c.s., a.r.s.m., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in the University of Sydnev. 
JScott, Rev. William, m.a. Cantab., Archer-street, Chatswood. 

Sellors, E. P., b.a. Syd., ' May field/ Wentworthville. 

Shellshear. Walter, m. inst. c.e,. Consulting Engineer for N. S. 
Wales, 64 Victoria-street, Westminster, London. 

Simpson, E. C, Technical College, Sydney. 

Simpson, William Walker, ' Abbotsford/ Leichhardt-street, 
Waverley. 

Sinclair, Eric, m.d., cm. Glas., Inspector-General of Insane, 
9 Richmond Terrace, Domain;, p.r. ' Broomage,' Kangaroo- 
street, Manly. 

Sinclair, Russell, m. i. mech. e., Vickery's Chambers, 82 Pitt-st. 

Smail, J. M., m. inst. c.e., Chief Engineer, Metropolitan Board 
of Water Supply and Sewerage, 341 Pitt-street. 

Smart, Bertram James, b.Sc, Public Works Office, Lithgow. 

Smith, Henry G., f.c.s., Assistant Curator, Technological 

Museum, Sydney. Vice-President. (President 1913-14.) 
JSmith, John McGarvie, 89 Denison-street, Woollahra. 

Statham, Edwyn Joseph, Assoc, m. inst. c.e., Cumberland 
Heights, Parramatta. 

Stephens, Frederick G. N., f.r.c.s., m.b., ch.M., 'Gleneugie/ 
New South Head Road, Rose Bay. 

Stewart, Alex. Hay, b.e., Metallurgist, Technical College, 
Sydney. 

Stewart, J. Douglas, b.v.sc, m.r.c.v.s., Professor of Veterinary 
Science in the University of Sydney; ' Berelle,' Homebush 
Road, Strathfield. 

Stoddart, Rev. A. G., The Rectory, Manly. 

Stokes. Edward Sutherland, m.a. Syd., f.b.c.p. Irel., Medical 
Officer, Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and S werage, 
341 Pitt-street. Principal Medical Officer, Seconc* Military 
District. 

Stuart, Sir Thomas P. Anderson, m.d., ch.M., ll.d.Ii iin., d.Sc, 
Professor of Physiology in the University of S\ ney ; p.r. 
« Lincluden/ Fairfax Road, Double Bay. (President 1893-4, 
1906-07.) 

Siissmilch, C. A., f.g.s., Technical College, Newcastle, N.S.W. 

Swain, E. H. F., District Forester, Narrabri. 



Taylor, The Hon. Sir Allen, m.l.c, A.M.P. Society, Pitt-street. 

Taylor, Harold B., b.Sc, ' Ronsahl,' Moruben Road, Mosman. 

Taylor. Horace, Registrar, Dental Board, 7 Richmond Terrace, 
Domain, 

Taylor, John M., m.a., ll.b. Syd., ' Woonona/ 43 East Crescent- 
street, McMahon's Point, North Sydney. 
JTaylor, James, b.Sc, a.r.s.m. ' Cartref,' Brierly-st., Mosman. 

Teece, R., f.i.a., f.f.a., General Manager and Actuary, A.M.P. 
Society, 87 Pitt-street. 

Tebbutt, John, f.r.a.s., Private Observatory, The Peninsula, 
Windsor, New South Wales. 

Thomas, F. J., « Lovat,' Nelson-street, Woollahra. 

Thomson, The Hon. Dugald, Carrabella-st., North Sydney. 

Thompson, Joseph, m.a., ll.b., Vickery's Chambers, 82 Pitt- 
street, Sydney. 



(xviii.) 



Elected 
1913 
1879 
1900 



1913 



1883 
1890 

1892 
1903 



P3 



1879 
1899 

1910 
1910 

1901 
1891 

1903 



P2 



1901 
1913 

1883 



1876 

1910 

1910 

1911 

1915 
1910 

1897 
1892 



P4 
P17 



P4 
PI 



Tietkens, William Harry, 'Upna/ Eastwood. 

Trebeck, P. C, 12 O'Connell-street. 

Turner, Basil W., a.r.s.m., f.c.s., Victoria Chambers, 83 Pitt-st. 



Ullrich., Richard Emil, Accountant, 43 Bond-street, Mosman. 



Vause, Arthur John, m.b., cm. Edin., 'Bay View House/ Tempe. 
Vicars, James, m.e., Memb. Intern. Assoc. Testing Materials; 

Memb. B. S. Guild; Challis House, Martin Place. 
Vickery, George B.. 78 Pitt-street. 
Von wilier, Oscar XL, b.sc, Assistant Professor of Physics in 

the University of Sydney. 



Walker, H. O., Commercial Union Assurance Co., Pitt-street. 
J Walker, The Hon. J. T., f.r.ci., Fellow of Institute of Bankers 
Eng., ' Wallaroy/ Edgecliffe Road, Woollahra. 

Walker, Charles, 'Lynwood/ Terry Road, Ryde. 

Walker, Harold Hutchison, Major, C.M.F., ' Vermont/ Bel- 
more Road, Randwick. 

Walkom, A. J., a.m.i.e.e., Electrical Branch, G.P.O., Sydney. 

Walsh, Henry Deane, b.a.i. Du6., m. inst. c.e., Commissioner 
and. Engineer-in-Chief, Harbour Trust, Circular Quay. 
(President 1909-10.) 

Walsh, Fred., j.p., Capt. C.M.F., Consul-General for Honduras 
in Australia and New Zealand ; For. Memb. Inst. Patent 
Agents, London ; Patent Attorney Regd. U.S.A.; Memb. 
Patent Law Assoc, Washington ; For. Memb. Soc German 
Patent Agents, Berlin ; Regd. Patent Attorn. Comm. of 
Aust ; Memb. Patent Attorney Exam. Board Aust.; George 
and Wynyard-streets ; p.r. * Walsholme,' Centennial Park, 
Sydney. 

Walton, R. H., r.cs., 'Flinders/ Martin's Avenue, Bondi. 

Wardlaw, Hy. Sloane Halcro, d.sc 8yd., 87 Macpherson-street, 
Waverley. 

Warren, W. H., ll.d., wh. sc, m. inst. c.e., m. am. soc c.e., 
Member of Council of the International Assoc, for Testing 
Materials, Professor of Engineering in the University of 
Sydney. (President 1892-93, 1902-03.) 

Watkins, John Leo, b.a. Cantab., m.a. 8yd., Parliamentary 
Draftsman, Attorney General's Department, Macquarie-st. 

Watson, James Frederick, m.b., ch.M, Australian Club, Sydney, 
p.r. 'Midhurst/ Woollahra. 

Watt, Francis Langston, f.i.c, a.r.cs., 10 Northcote Cham- 
bers, off 16i Pitt-street, City. 

Watt, R. D., m.a., b.sc, Professor of Agriculture in the Uni- 
versity of Sydney. 

Watts, Rev. W. Walter, 'The Manse,' Gladesville. 

Wearne, Richard Arthur, b.a , Principal, Technical College, 
Ipswich, Queensland. 

Webb, Frederick William, cm.g., j.p., * Livadia/ Manly. 

Webster, James Philip, Assoc m. inst. c.e., l,s., New Zealand, 
'Tantallan, Middleton-street, Stanmore. 



(xix.) 



Elected 
1907 
1881 
1892 

1877 
1909 

1908 I P 1 



1901 
1890 

1907 
1891 

1906 



P6 



Welch, William, f.r.g s., 'Roto-iti,' Bo\le-street, Mosman. 
JWesley, W. H., London. 
White, Harold Pogson, f.c.s., Assistant Assayer and Analyst, 

Department of Mines ; p.r. 'Quantox/ Park Road, Auburn. 
JWhite, Rev. W. Moore, a.m., ll.d. Dub. 

White, Charles Josiah, b.Sc. Science Lecturer, Sydney Train- 
ing College ; p.r. ' Byrntryird/ 49 Prospect Rd. Summer H. 
Willis, Charles Savill, m.b., cum. Syd., m.r c.s. Eng., l.ec.p. 

Lond., d.p.h., Lond., Department of Public Instruction, 

Bridge-street. 
Willmot, Thomas, j.p., Toongabbie. 
Wilson, James T., m.b., ch,M. Edin., f.r.s., Professor of Anatomy 

in the University of Sydney. 
Wilson, W. C, l.s., c.b., 30 and 34 Elizabeth-street, Sydney. 
Wood, Percy Moore, l.r.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.s. Eng., 'Redcliffe/ 

Liverpool Road, Ashfield. 
Woolnough, Walter George, d.Sc, f.g.s., Professor of Geology 

in the University of Western Australia, Perth. 



1914 

1900 
1905 
1911 



1914 
1901 

1908 

1908 

1915 
1912 



Honorary Members. 

Limited to Twenty. 

M. — Recipients of the Clarke Medal. 

Bateson, W. H., m.a., f.r.s., Director of the John Innes Horti- 
cultural Institution, England, The Manor House, Merton, 
Surrey. 

Crookes, Sir William, Kt., o.m., ll.d., d.Sc,, f.r.s., 7 Kensington 
Park Garden?, London W. 

Fischer, Emil, Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Berlin. 

Hemsley, W. Botting, ll.d. (Aberdeen), f.r.s*, f.l.s., v.m.h., 
Formerly Keeper of the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kewj, 
Korresp. Mitgl. der Deutschen Bot. Gesellschaf t ; Hon. 
Memb. Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural ; New Zea- 
land Institute ; Roy. Hort. Soc. London ; 24 Southfield 
Gardens, Strawberry Hill, Middlesex. 

Hill, J. P., d.Sc, f.r.s., Professor of Zoology, University 
College, London. 

Judd, J.W., c.b., ll.d., f.r.s., f.g.s., Formerly Professor of 
Geology, Royal College of Science, London ; 30 Cumber- 
land Road, Kew, England. 

Kennedy, Sir Alex. B. W., Kt., ll.d., d. eng., f.r.s., Emeritus 
Professor of Engineering in University College, London, 
17 Victoria-street, Westminster, London S.W. 
P 57 *Liversidge, Archibald, m.a., ll.d., f.r.s., Emeritus Professor 
of Chemistry in the University of Sydney, ' Fieldhead/ 
George Road, Coombe Warren, Kingston. Surrey. (Presi- 
dent 1889-99, 1900-01.) 

Maitland, Andrew Gibb, f.g.s., Government Geologist of 
Western Australia. 

Martin, C. J., d.Sc. f.r.s., Director of the Lister Institute of 
Preventive Medicine, Chelsea Gardens, Chelsea Bridge- 
Road, London. 



(XX.) 



Elected 
19U5 

1894 

1900 

1915 

1908 



1901 
1908 



1902 



1903 
1873 

1877 
1876 
1887 
1876 
1877 
1896 



M 



Oliver, Daniel, ll.d., f.r.s., Emeritus Professor of Botany in 
University College, London. 

Spencer, W. Baldwin, c.m.g., m.a., d.sc, f r.s., Professor of 
Biology in the University of Melbourne. 

Thiselton-Dyer, Sir William Turner, k. c.m.g., c.i.b., m.a., ll.d., 
sc.d., f.r.s., The Ferns, Witcombe, Gloucester, England. 

Thomson, Sir J. J., o.m., d.Sc, f.r.s., Nobel Laureate, Caven- 
dish Professor of Experimental Physics in the University 
Cambridge. 

Turner, Sir William, k.c.b., m.b., d.c.l., ll.d., sc d., f.r.c.s. 
Edin., f.r.s., Principal and Emeritus Professor of the 
University of Edinburgh, 6 Eton Terrace, Edinburgh, 
Scotland. 
* Retains the rights of ordinary membership. Elected 1872. 



Judd, Prof. J. W. 
Turner, Sir William. 



Obituary 1915-16. 
Honorary Members. 



Clarke Memorial Medallist. 



Bailey, F. Manson. 



Ordinary Members. 



Bruck, L. 

Du Faur, E. 

Fairfax, E. R. 

George, W. R. 

Hargrave, Lawrence. 

Hirst, G. D. 

Mullens, Josiah. 

Thompson, Lieutenant-Colonel, A. J. Onslow. 



AWARDS OF THE CLARKE MEDAL: 

Established in memory of 
The Rbvd. W. B. CLARKE, m.a., f.r.s., f.g.s., etc., 

Vice-President from 1866 to 1878. 

To be awarded from time to time for meritorious contributions to the 
Geology, Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australia. The /prefix * 
indicates the decease of the recipient. 
Awarded 

1878 * Professor Sir Richard Owen, k.c.b., f.r.s. 

1879 *George Bentham, c.m.g., f.r.s. 

1880 *Professor Thos. Huxley, f.r.s. 

1881 ^Professor F. M'Coy, f.r.s., f.g.s. 

1882 *Professor James Dwight Dana, ll.d. 



(xxi.) 

Awarded. 

1883 *Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, k. c.m.g , m.d., Ph.D., f.r.s., f.l.s. 

1884 * Alfred E. C. Selwyn, ll.d., f.r.s., f.g.s. 

1885 # Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, o.m., q.c.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d.,f.r.s. 

1886 ^Professor L. G. De Koninck, m.d., University of Liege. 

1887 # Sir James Hector, k.cm.g., m.d., f.r.s. 
18S8 *Eev. Julian E. Tenison- Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s. 

1889 *Eobert Lewis John Ellery, f.e.s., f.r.a.s. 

1890 # George Bennett, m.d., f.r.c.s. Eng., f.l.s., f.z.s. 

1891 *Captain Frederick Wollaston Hutton, f.r.s., f.g.s. 

1892 Sir William Turner Thiselton Dyer, k.c.m.g., c.i.b., m.a., ll.d., sc d., 

f.r.s., f.l.s., late Director, Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

1893 ^Professor Ealph Tate, f.l.s., f.g.s. 

1895 Eobert Logan Jack, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., late Government Geologist, 
Brisbane, Queensland. 

1895 Eobert Etheridge, Junr., Curator of the Australian Museum, Sydney 

1896 *The Hon. Augustus Charles Gregory, c.m.g., f.r.g.s. 

1900 *Sir John Murray, k.c.b., ll.d., scd., f.r.s. 

1901 *EdwardJohn Eyre. 

1902 # F. Manson Bailey, c.m.g.. f.l.s. 

1903 " * Alfred William Howitt, d.Sc, f.g.s. 

1907 Walter Howchin, f.g.s., University of Adelaide. 

1909 Dr. Walter E. Eoth, b.a., Pomeroon Eiver, British Guiana, South 

America. 
1912 W. H. Twelvetrees, f.g.s., Government Geologist. Launceston, 

Tasmania. 
1914 A. Smith Woodward, ll.d., f.r.s., Keeper of Geology, British 

Museum (Natural History) London. 
}915 Professor W. A. Haswell, m.a., d.Sc, f.r.s., The University, Sydney, 



AWAEDS OF THE SOCIETY'S MEDAL AND MONEY PEIZE. 

Money Prize of ,£25. 

1882 John Fraser, b. a., West Maitland, for paper entitled ' The Aborigines 

of New South Wales/ 
1882 Andrew Eoss, m.d., Molong, for paper entitled ' Influence of the 

Australian climate and pastures upon the growth of wool.' 

The Society's Bronze Medal and £25. 

1884 W. E. Abbott, Wingen, for paper entitled ' Water supply in the 
Interior of New South Wales.' 



(xxii.) 

Awarded. 

1886 S. H. Cox, f.g.s., f.c.s., Sydney, for paper entitled ' The Tin deposits 

of New South Wales/ 

1887 Jonathan Seaver, f.g.s., Sydney, for paper entitled 'Origin and 

mode of occurrence of gold-bearing veins and of the associated 
Minerals/ 

1888 Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., Sydney, for paper entitled 

'The Anatomy and Life-history of Mollusca peculiar to 
Australia/ 

1889 Thomas Whitelegge, f.r.m.s., Sydney, for paper entitled ' List of 

the Marine and Fresh-water Invertebrate Fauna of Port 
Jackson and Neighbourhood.' 
1889 Rev. John Mathew, m.a., Coburg, Victoria, for paper entitled 
' The Australian Aborigines/ 

1891 Rev. J. Milne Curran, f.g.s., Sydney, for paper entitled ' The Micro- 

scopic Structure of Australian Rocks.' 

1892 Alexander G. Hamilton, Public School, Mount Kembla, for paper 

entitled ' The effect which settlement in Australia has pro- 
duced upon Indigenous Vegetation/ 
1894 J. V. De Coque, Sydney, for paper entitled the ' Timbers of New 
South Wales/ 

1894 R. H. Mathews, l.s., Parramatta, for paper entitled ' The Abori- 

ginal Rock Carvings and Paintings in New South Wales/ 

1895 C. J. Martin, d.sc, m.b., f.r.s., Sydney, for paper entitled 'The 

physiological action of the venom of the Australian black 
snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) / 

1896 Rev. J. Milne Curran, Sydney, for paper entitled ' The occurrence 

of Precious Stones in New South Wales, with a description of 
the Deposits in which they are found.' 




JAN 15 1916 
PRESIDENTIAL ADDREsfesU 



By Charles Hedley. 

With Plates I -VII. 



(Delivered to the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, May 5, 1915.'] 



On this, our ninety-fourth anniversary, we assemble under 
a world wide shadow. For this year the minds of men have 
been turned from the quiet paths of industry and of science 
to the tremendous^fferuggle of European conflict. So in 
this serious timei$fe refrain from such pleasure as our 
annual dinner or conversazione, but endeavour to carry on 
our work as usual. 

Chief among the scientific events of the past year was 
the visit of the British Association to Australia. For some 
time we had looked forward to this, and had prepared for 
its success. Now looking back we remember it as a festival 
thoroughly enjoyed both by visitors and residents. 

The aggregate membership of the various centres totalled 
4,700, a figure considerably higher than the previous maxi- 
mum of the Manchester meeting. Unfortunately the first 
crash of the European war coincided with the arrival of 
the Association. This interfered with means of travel, 
forced some to return to England immediately, caused a 
hasty revision of plans for others and made difficulties for 
several foreign members. The decease of the Chancellor 
of the University cast a gloom over the proceedings, and 
quenched a conversazione which had been prepared as a 
finale to the meeting. 

Both State and Federal Governments accorded gracious 
welcome and granted official assistance, and such privileges 
as free railway passes over the whole continent. 

A— May 5, 1915. 



Z C. HEDLEY. 

Many lasting friendships, much educational correspond- 
ence, and many novel ideas were originated by the visit to 
Australia of the British Association. Probably it is not 
too much to say that every worker here in every branch 
has received a stimulus to more and better work. Even 
before the arrival of our guests, we benefited by prepara- 
tion, by setting our house in order, by producing as hand- 
books, the best summaries of the fauna, flora, geology, 
ethnology, and social evolution of Australia that have yet 
appeared. Again, we benefited by the personal contact 
of student with student, of specialist with specialist ; by 
advice or suggestions, even by communication of ideas too 
nebulous for print or paper, but which yet may be fruitful 
and far-reaching. Yet again benefits are to accrue to us 
from field work on long journeys conducted by our visitors, 
such as the researches on ethnology by Haddon, Rivers, 
Malinowski, Layard, and Brown; on geology by Davis; on 
echinoclerm larva by Mortensen; on monotreme affinity by 
Watson ; on the Formicidse by Wheeler. 

Several grants were made by the Association in aid of 
Australian research in palseobotany, marsupial anatomy, 
the biology of the Abrolhos Islands and Antarctic oceano- 
graphy. 

The aim of our existence, the production and distribution 
of knowledge, has been pursued diligently. Our annual 
volume may be regarded with satisfaction. In 519 pages 
and 12 plates the Journal includes 29 contributions from 24 
authors. These range over botany, zoology, geology, 
chemistry, mechanics, mathematics and statistics. Indeed 
so wide a field has not, I think been covered in any previous 
year. 

Under the care of Professor Pollock considerable pro- 
gress has been made in the rearrangement of the library. 
During the year location lists have been completed of the 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 6 

whole of the periodical literature in the possession of the 
Society. The current numbers of journals are now arranged 
ou the shelves round the basement room according to sub- 
jects, so that all the periodicals regularly received dealing 
with any subject may be seen at a glance. Shelving to the 
full accommodation of the basement room has been erected 
at a cost of £210 17s. 6d. This additional shelving, so long 
and urgently required, will allow the considerable number 
of foreign periodicals, hiterto stored, to be displayed and 
made available for ready reference. While making this 
addition to the library, it is considered advisable to 
rearrange the whole contents according to subject matters 
instead of according to country of origin as heretofore. On 
the completion of this rearrangement, a catalogue will be 
available, giving the location of all the journals in the 
library. In the past year, 914 volumes have been bound. 

The tercentenary of Napier of Merchiston was com- 
memorated by a lecture, on the discovery of logarithms, 
delivered by Professor H. S. Oarslaw. This interesting 
discourse was enjoyed by a large audience, including His 
Excellency the State Governor. The kindness of Professor 
Oarslaw enabled us to participate in a world-wide celebra- 
tion in honour of this British genius. 

Popular Science lectures were given in our rooms to 
audiences of about a hundred on the following dates, June 
18th, "The Ore Deposits of Australia and their origin," by 
Mr. O. A. Siissmilch; July 16th, "Oomets," by Professor 
Cooke; and October 15th, "The Milk Supply of a Great 
City," by Professor Chapman. To these gentlemen, the 
Society is indebted for intellectual profit and pleasure. 

Next year we shall miss from the Council table two trusty 
and experienced members, both Ex-Presidents, Mr. F. B. 
Guthrie and Mr. W. M. Hamlet, who have intimated that 
other engagements will not allow them to attend. We offer 



C. HEDLEY. 



them grateful thanks for the care with which they have 
conducted our business for so many years. 

Finally it is an agreeable duty to acknowledge how much 
the President and the Society owe to their honorary officers 
Professor Pollock, Mr. Oambage, and Professor Chapman. 
The successful management of our affairs has been at the 
cost of much leisure time sacrificed by these gentlemen. 

This year our Clarke Memorial Medal was awarded to 
Professor W. A. Haswell, in appreciation of his biological 
researches. For thirty-six years he has continuously 
published important papers on the Australian fauna, usually 
selecting for elucidation those groups which other writers 
had avoided as difficult or unattractive. To such industry 
is happily united breadth of grasp, lucidity and finish. The 
text-book of zoology which he produced in conjunction 
with Professor Parker, is used and valued as much in 
Europe and America as in Australasia. But Professor 
Haswell has given us men as well as memoirs, workers as 
well as work; from his laboratory have come Professor 
J. P. Hill of London, Professor Goddard of Cape Town, 
Professor Flynn of Hobart, Dr. Harvey Johnston of Bris- 
bane, Dr. Stephen Johnston and others. 

We have the pleasure of congratulating Professor David 
on yet another honour, another upward step in his dis- 
tinguished career. This session, the Geological Society of 
London awarded to him the Wollaston medal, the highest 
honour it has to bestow. The list of the medallists begins 
in 1831 with William Smith the "Father" of Geology, con- 
tinues with such famous names as Agassiz, Owen, Darwin, 
Lyell, Dana, Huxley, Geikie, Suess, Woodward, and now 
terminates with that of Professor T. W. E. David. 

It is perhaps hardly a coincidence that this award was 
immediately preceded by the publication of a magnificent 
volume by Professor David and Mr. Priestly on the "Geology 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

of the British Antarctic Expedition under the command of 
Sir H. E. Shackleton." This standard work on the climate 
and structure of the Polar Continent is profusely illustrated 
by 150 maps, photographs and sketches. It treats of the 
greatest glaciers of the globe, the meteorological conditions 
under which they form and the phenomena to which they 
give rise. Then it continues to deal with the preglacial 
formations, their structure, history and relation to the 
outside world. 

The Linnean Society of London have recently expressed 
their appreciation of Mr. J. H. Maiden's contributions to 
Australian Botany by awarding to him the Linnean Gold 
Medal. This coveted distinction is allotted annually alter- 
nately to a Botanist and then to a Zoologist. The medal 
has not previously come to the southern hemisphere, and 
the honour bestowed on our friend and colleague is a pride 
to the whole Society. 

It was with satisfaction that we read the announcement 
that the David Syme Prize for scientific research had again 
been awarded to a member of this Society, and based partly 
on the investigations published in our journal. This year 
it was allotted to Mr. E. O. Andrews in recognition of his 
work on economic geology, and on the physiography of 
Eastern Australia. 

Necrology:; 

A sketch of the careers of those comrades of whose 
company death has deprived us since our last anniversary 
here follows: — 

Mr. Henry Joseph Brown was the son of Mr. Octavius 
Brown, an old time Sydney lawyer. Establishing in 
Newcastle the firm of Brown and Mitchell, he gained, 
throughout the State the reputation of a sound and capable 
practitioner. For half a century he acted as legal adviser 
to the Australian Agricultural Company and other impor- 



6 C. HEDLEY. 

tant corporations. Educational matters, particularly 
interested him, and for thirty years he successfully presided 
over the Newcastle School of Arts. Having been elected 
in 1876, he was one of our senior members, but a constant 
residence in Newcastle rarely allowed him an opportunity 
of attending the meetings. After a brief illness he expired 
in his eightieth year, on August 12th, 1914. 

Mr. Thomas James Bush, m. inst. c.b.. was born in London. 
Early in life he entered the service of the Gas-light and 
Ooke Co. of Beckton, England. Gaining here a reputation 
as an authority on gas matters, he was invited to assume 
the management of the engineering department of the 
Australian Gas-light Co. of Sydney, in 1878. He was 
elected a member of this Society in 1880. Retiring from 
business last year he returned to London, where he died at 
the age of 67, on September 23rd, 1914. 

Mr. Michael Canty was for many years secretary and 
registrar of the Department of Taxation. He was born on 
August 22nd, 1850, and educated at the Sydney Grammar 
School. Tn 1871 he entered the Lands Department, and 
becoming a proficient draftsman, was appointed to various 
positions in succession in the Roads, Charting, and Com- 
piling Departments. When thirty-seven years of age he 
withdrew from the Public Service to embark in commercial 
pursuits. But on the introduction of the Land and Income 
Tax of 1895, Mr. Canty was invited to organise the new 
machinery. In 1899, he was appointed Registrar of the 
Department, a post that he occupied till he finally retired 
from the Service in April 1914. He was elected a member 
of this Society during the session of 1900. At the age of 
64 he died on September 29th, 1914, regretted by a large 
circle of friends, to whom his genial disposition had long 
endeared him. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 7 

Mr. Eccleston Frederic Du Faur, f.r.g.s., was born 
in London, in 1832, and educated at Harrow. He arrived 
in Victoria when he was twenty-one, and after some years 
of travel settled down in Sydney in 1863, where he was 
engaged as a draftsman in the Lands Office, becoming 
Chief Draftsman of the Department of Survey of Runs 
and Occupation of Lands. In 1881 he retired from the 
Government service and was engaged in business pursuits 
for the following twenty years. Turning his attention to 
the progress of geography, he organised in 1874 an expedi- 
tion to ascertain the fate of Leichhardt, and another in 
1877 to despatch Wilfrid Powell on a voyage of discovery 
to New Britain. He assembled in 1883 a local Geographical 
Society of which he was the first chairman, and which in 
1885 arranged a party under Captain Everill to explore the 
Fly River. This State owes much to the keen interest 
which Mr. Du Faur took in Art. For he helped to form an 
Academy of Art in 1871, and when this was succeeded by 
the National Art Gallery, he became first the honorary 
secretary and treasurer, and finally president. The high 
position now reached by the Gallery is due largely to his 
energy, administrative ability and taste. Mr. Du Faur 
joined this Society in 1873. He contributed two papers to 
our periodical, viz., "Re notable hailstorm of 17 November 
1896 in parts of Parish of Gordon," (Journ. xxx, 1897, 
pp. 361-368, pi. xxiii); "The effect of Polar Ice on the 
weather," (Journ. xli, 1907, pp. 176-189, plates xiii-xvi. 
He died in his eighty-fourth year, on 24th April, 1915, 
leaving a family of one daughter and two sons. 

Science lost a staunch friend, and the State one of her 
most worthy citizens when the Hon. Sir Henry Normand 
MacLaurin died. He was born on September 10th, 1835, 
at Kilconguhar in Fife, Scotland, where his father James 
MacLaurin was a school master. As a boy he showed 



8 



C. HEDLEY. 



remarkable ability, for at the early age of 15 he won an 
open scholarship at St. Andrews. Here he gained first in 
every subject, and left as a Master of Arts at the age of 
19. In 1857 he received a degree in medicine from the 
Edinburgh University. Entering the Royal Navy, he served 
as a medical officer for thirteen years. Then he established 
himself in practice in Sydney in 1871, where he married a 
a daughter of Dr. Charles Nathan. He joined the Royal 
Society in 1876, but his many public duties allowed him 
little time to take part in our affairs. For several years he 
was associated, first as a member, then as President, of 
the Board of Health, where he conducted a successful 
crusade against typhoid and plague. His administrative 
talent ranged over a wide sphere. In 1889, he was appointed 
to the Legislative Council, and in 1893 attained Cabinet 
rank as Vice-President of the Executive Council. It is 
said that the measures which ameliorated the financial 
crisis of that year were initiated by him. He took a 
vigorous part in the discussions, especially on the financial 
aspect, that preceded Australian Federation. The service 
of higher education had early enlisted his forceful person- 
ality; in 1883 he was elected to the Senate of the University, 
became Vice-Chancellor in 1887, and was appointed Chan- 
cellor in 1895. To the control of University work he brought 
an uncommon combination of talents. For the material 
welfare of the institution was advanced by his shrewd fore- 
sight and financial ability, while the intellectual aspect 
was cherished by the sympathetic guidance of the scholar. 
A man of kindly disposition, a brilliant scholar, and a master 
of finance, his abilities were ever employed for the advance- 
ment of the public good. Rich in honour and dignity, in 
years and in esteem, he passed away in his seventy-ninth 
year on August 23rd, 1914. 

Mr. William John Clunies Ross, b.Sc, f.g.s., was related 
to the famous pioneer of Cocos Keeling Island, of the same 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. » 

name. He was born in London in 1850, and made his first 
visit to Australia in 1864. Returning to England he com- 
pleted liis education at King's College, London, where he 
was Science Scholar and Associate. In 1884 he was 
appointed to the charge of the Technical College Bathurst. 
He found the institution meanly lodged in a basement in 
the School of Arts, and he left it in possession of a fine 
building in William Street, where there was also an excel- 
lent Museum. This transformation was due to his guiding 
care, energy and enthusiasm. Among his students and 
fellow citizens he strove with a success to foster a love of 
science. Eleven years ago he was transferred to the 
capital and placed in charge of the chemical and mineral- 
ogical departments of the Technical College. For these 
classes he wrote various school books. He joined our 
Society as soon as he became a resident of Sydney, and 
from 1904 he was a regular attendant and frequent speaker 
at our meetings. A wide range of information and fluent 
expression enabled him to offer interesting comment to 
most scientific discussions. Also he contributed three 
papers to our Journal: — "The Geology of Limekilns, 
Bathurst District," Vol. xxviii, 1894, pp. 289 - 301; "Notes 
on the Basalts of Bathurst and the neighbouring districts," 
Vol. xxxi, 1898, pp. 296-213; "Experiments with Silicate 
of Soda and observations thereon," Vol. xliv, 1910, pp. 583 
- 592. He was also author of a paper on the flora of 
Bathurst, 1 considered in its ecological aspect, a pioneer 
study in the relation of Australian plants to rocks. On 
November 7th, 1914, he died, as he was about to retire on 
a pension after thirty years service. He leaves a widow 
and four sons. 

Among the brave men who fell on 24th April, 1915, while 
storming Turkish entrenchments near the Dardanelles, was 

1 Boss, Rep. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1898, pp. 467- 481. 



10 C. HEDLEY. 

Lieut-Oolonel Astley John Onslow Thompson, v.d. He 

was related to a well known family of Australian pioneers, 

and was born at Tenby, Wales, on 3rd January, 1865, being 

■ 
the eldest son of Astley Thompson of Glyn Abbey, 

Carmarthenshire, High Sheriff of the County, and Udea 
Thompson, nee Onslow. He received his education at 
Rugby, and came to Australia when eighteen years of age. 
At first he was engaged in the Harbours and Rivers Depart- 
ment, but withdrew from the Government service to follow 
pastoral work. In 1887 he returned to his native land, 
and studied dairying in England and irrigation in Northern 
Italy. He returned to Australia in 1889, and was appointed 
manager of "Camden Park," which position he filled with 
conspicuous ability up to the time he left on active service 
last year. Military matters had always interested him, so 
that in 1892, with Colonel J. W. Macarthur Onslow he 
raised the Camden Squadron of the New South Wales 
Mounted Rifles (now known as Light Horse) and subse- 
quently rose to the command of the regiment. In 1897 he 
acted as Adjutant and Paymaster to the detachment of 
this regiment which went to England to take part in the 
Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and while there went 
through a course of training with the Scots Greys at 
Hounslow and Carabiniers at Aldershot. At the time of 
the Boer War he did much useful work in the training and 
organising of one of the contingents that was formed for 
active service in South Africa. His business capacity was 
recognised by his election to the Board of the Commercial 
Banking Company of Sydney Ltd., Colonial Sugar Refining 
Company, and several others. He was president of the 
Camden Agricultural Society for several years past, and a 
generous giver to all charitable objects. Our late member, 
who was in his fifty-first year, joined us in 1896, but as a 
country member seldom attended the meetings. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 1 1 

Also I shall refer to two gentlemen, who, though not in 
association with us at the time of their decease, were 
formerly valued members of the Society. 

Mr. Richard Helms was born at Altona, Germany, on 
December 12th, 1842. He was one of a type, now vanishing, 
of keen, self-taught, field-naturalists, of which George 
Masters, John Brazier, and William Petterd were exponents 
and who did such excellent work in the past generation. 
The whole range of natural science attracted him; in 
botany, zoology, geology, and ethnology, he was equally 
interested and of these his knowledge was encyclopaedic. In 
the field he was an expert hunter, handy with tricks and 
traps and having the wisdom of a savage as to where a 
bird would nest or a beetle burrow. Quite careless of 
hardships, such as cold, hunger, or fatigue, he would 
explore alone in the roughest country. He arrived in 
Australia in 1858, and assisted his cousin in a cigar business 
in Melbourne. About 1862 he crossed over to New Zealand 
and spent some time in Dunedin. After another visit to 
Melbourne he commenced practice in 1876 as a dentist in 
Nelson, New Zealand. During the late seventies and early 
eighties he resided at Greymouth; in 1879 he married and 
engaged in business as a watch-maker. Here he made 
his first contributions to scientific literature. 1 Becoming 
interested in the coleoptera, he formed a large collection. 
Then he added conchology to his studies and maintained 
an active correspondence on the subject with Oapt. F. W. 
Hutton. The west coast of the South Island was then 
zoologically unknown, and as a pioneer Helms was able to 
add largely to the number of species recorded from New 
Zealand. His industry may be illustrated by some of the 
species discovered by, and named after him. Fereday 
named for him a new butterfly Dodonidia lielmsi. Dr. 

1 Helms, New Zealand Journ. of Science, i, 1883, pp. 466, 516, 



12 C. HEDLEY. 

David Sharp 1 from 1882 to 1886, in recognition of his 
researches named the following: — Lissotes helmsi, Cicin- 
dela helmsi, Anchemenus helmsi, Steropus helmsi, Zolus 
helmsi, Tomus helmsi, Adelopus helmsi, Dasytes helmsi, 
Pycnomeras helmsi, Periatrum helmsi, Somatidia helmsi, 
Anagotus helmsi, Icmalius helmsi, and Pentarthrum helm- 
sianum. Among many novelties in land shells furnished 
from Greymouth to Oapt. Hutton, there was included Zonites 
helmsi. 2 In 1894 a marine shell from New Zealand was 
called Acmaea helmsi by Mr. E. A. Smith, and in 1915, the 
writer named an Australian shell Erycina helmsi. 

In November 1888 he came to Sydney and entered the 
service of the Australian Museum. Early in 1889 he was 
despatched on a collecting excursion to Mount Kosciusko, 
an interesting account of which has been published. 3 Here 
he gathered a large series of the hitherto unknown alpine 
fauna. One discovery of especial interest was the primi- 
tive isopod Phreatoicus australis. Kosciusko exercised an 
attraction for Helms for the rest of his life, and he returned 
to it again in 1893, and again in 1901. He wrote an article 
"On the recently observed evidences of an extensive glacial 
action at Mount Kosciusko." 4 This evidence was subse- 
quently doubted by Milne Ourran, but was finally vindicated 
in an important paper in which Helms was associated with 
Professor David and Mr. Pittman. 5 The natives of the 
Monaro Highlands were described in his Anthropological 
Notes. 6 He summed up his knowledge of the climate, 
fauna and topography of the Range in a memoir "The 

1 Sharp, Trans. Entomol. Soc, 1887, p. lxxiii. 

2 Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv, 1883, pp. 134-141; xvi, 1884, p. 161. 

3 Helms, Rec. Austr. Mus., i, 1890, pp. 11-16. 

4 Helms, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xviii, 1894, pp. 349-364. 
6 Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvi, 1901, pp. 26-74, 

6 Helms, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xx, 1896, pp. 387-408. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 13 

Australian Alps or Snowy Mountains." 1 Concluding his 
alpine explorations in 1889, he proceeded on a collecting 
tour along the Darling River. After this he relinquished 
the Museum service and proceeded to the Richmond River 
in the interest of a private syndicate. He joined the 
Department of Agriculture of New South Wales in November 
1890 as collector, but resigned the position in April 1891, 
to join the Elder Exploring Expedition. As naturalist he 
travelled through Central Australia with this expedition, 
which started in May 1891, and was dissolved in June 1892* 
Here, as usual, he proved an expert and indefatigable 
collector. Among his numerous discoveries, Baron von 
Mueller called a new shrub Grevillea helmsiana, and Dr. J. 
Miiller named a new lichen Endocarpon helmsianum. In 
describing the results of the expedition, the Rev. J. Black- 
burn took the occasion to name after Helms, ten new beetles 
of the following genera: — Belus, Calycopeplus, Olivina, 
Tetracha, Thryptomene, Zonitis, Dasytes, Heteronyx, 
Plagianthus and Telaurina. An article on the Ethnology 
of the expedition was written by Helms. 2 

Returning to Sydney, he was re-engaged by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, as Assistant Entomologist. He 
resigned this position in March 1896 to accept an appoint- 
ment as Fruit Inspector in Western Australia. He finally 
returned to Sydney in January, 1900, as Experimentalist to 
the Department of Agriculture, the last occupation of this 
versatile man. Here he was valued by Mr. Guthrie as 
"one of the keenest and most original of workers." Helms 
joined this Society in 1900, but relinquished his membership 
in 1910. In conjunction with Mr. P. B. Guthrie, he wrote 
three papers in our Journal on "Pot Experiments to deter- 
mine the limit of endurance of different farm crops for 

1 Helms, Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc. N.S.W., vi, pp. 75 - 96. 

2 Helms, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., xvi, 1896, pp. 238 - 332. 



14 C. HEDLEY. 

certain injurious substances." 1 To the Agricultural Gazette 
of N. S. Wales, Vols, iv to xix, he contributed fourteen 
papers, dealing with apiculture, bacteriology, wheat, and 
manure. After he was superannuated from the Govern- 
ment Service he busied himself with naming, arranging and 
expanding the large natural history collections he had 
formed. Returning from a voyage to the Solomons, the 
sudden change of climate brought on a cold to which he 
succumbed in his seventy-second year on July 17th, 1914. 
He left a family of two daughters. 

Mr. Leslie A. B. Wade, Assoc, m. inst. c.b., adopted the pro- 
fession of his father, Mr. W. B. Wade, and entered the 
service of the Government as an engineer in 1880. For 
some time he was engaged in drainage works, but on the 
formation of an irrigation branch he joined it, and ultim- 
ately rose to its control, as Commissioner for Water Con- 
servation and Irrigation. Amongst other works he designed 
the Cataract Dam, the Burrenjuck Dam, and the Murrum- 
bidgee irrigation scheme. His work in this direction was 
very sound, and will benefit a future large agricultural 
population. He joined our Society in 1898, contributing a 
paper in 1903, "A Review of Water Conservation in New 
South Wales," and retired in 1909. On January 13th, 1915, 
he died rather suddenly, at the age of 50 years, leaving a 
widow and four daughters. 

The loss of the Fisheries Investigation vessel 'Endeavour' 
with all hands, about the end of last year, off Macquarie 
Island, was a scientific, as well as a social disaster. For 
several years Mr. H. O. Dannevig, Director of Fisheries, 
equipped with every modern requisite for oceanographic 
research had been engaged in examining the coasts of most 
Australian States. His collections were remitted to the 

3 This Journal, xxxvi, 1902, pp. 191-200 ; Id. xxxvii, 1903, pp. 165 - 
171 ; Id. xxxviii, 1904, pp. 390 - 401. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 15 

Australian Museum for study, and a couple of volumes of 
valuable zoological reports on them have been already- 
issued by the Federal Government. But important reports 
which Mr. Dannevig was preparing on the physical con- 
ditions of the continental shelf have unfortunately dis- 
appeared with him and his vessel. He published in our 
forty-first volume an article "On Some Peculiarities in 
Our Ooastal Winds and Their Influence upon the Abund- 
ance of Pish in Inshore Waters." 

For the scientific portion of the address the following 
subject is chosen for discussion because it has been, hitherto, 
but little cultivated. 

An Ecological Sketch of the Sydney Beaches. 

SYNOPSIS : 

Introduction. 

Environment — Ground, 

Temperature, 
Salinity, 
Tides. 
Comparison of Local and Foreign Fauna. 
Changes op Climate and Time. 
Changes by Epidemics and Accidents.* 
Transition prom Marine to Terrestrial. 
Types of Beaches — Shingle beach, 

Ocean sand beach, 
Estuarine beach, 
Ocean reef beach. 

Introduction. 
Marine ecology, that is the relation of marine organisms 
to their surroundings and to one another, is undeveloped 
in comparison with terrestrial ecology, because our know- 
ledge of the life history and physiology on which such 
studies depend is deficient. Yet exceptional advantages 
are offered to the Sydney naturalist, because a variety of 
stations ranging from fresh water to salt, from rock to 



16 C. HEDLEY. 

i 

mud, and from shelter to exposure are here concentrated 
in an area conveniently small for comparative study. The 
shore line of the Port Jackson "ria" winds by so many 
creeks and coves that from Head to Head it extends for 
one hundred and eighty-three miles. 

The intertidal zone around Sydney may be grouped, 
ecologically, into three divisions, decided by the situation 
of the fauna and flora; viz., (1), the sandy beach, (2), the 
muddy estuary, and (3), the rocky reef. Each of these 
areas maintains a marine community which by internal 
relation and external distinction rank with such a ter- 
restrial society as may dwell in a forest, a marsh or a 
meadow. These three associations of beach life are 
repeated, with slight local modifications, over such wide 
geographic space, perhaps even right round the world, that 
we may regard them as having persisted with little change 
for a long geologic period. 

As the plants of an English forest may be more closely 
related to those of an American forest in another hemi- 
sphere than to those of a fen in a neighbouring county, so 
the marine fauna of the Parramatta River is more akin to 
another estuarine fauna, even if it be one or two thousand 
miles away, than to the rock fauna of the nearby Bondi 
Beach. It is as if two cities stood side by side, yet remained 
foreign to each other in race, language, and customs. 

Though the ocean does not present to migration such 
barriers, — mountains, deserts or forests, — as does the land, 
marine species rarely, but genera frequently, attain a 
world wide range. 1 The sea being more monotonous than 
the land would less frequently originate new types. But 
when it did come into existence a new marine type would 
spread more readily than a terrestrial one, hence the greater 
uniformity of marine life. In the sea as well as upon the 

1 M'Intosh, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xiii, 1904, p. 130. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 17 

land, the conditions of life are fixed and the range of species 
limited by physical environment; thus the nature of the 
ground, whether hard or soft, sheltered or exposed, decides 
whether a particular spot shall support eel-grass or kelp, 
cockles or limpets, but, within broad geographic limits, 
temperature then decides which kind of a limpet or a cockle 
it shall be. As Dr. F. B. Sumner wisely observes, "any 
investigation not based on knowledge of physical data may 
be dismissed as futile." 1 Records of such physical data 
for this neighbourhood are scanty, and it is very desirable 
that more information should be collected, especially as 
this knowledge has an important economic bearing on the 
study of the migrations, spawning and abundance of food 
fishes. 

Environment. 
Environment of the intertidal flora and fauna may be 
discussed under the following headings ; (1) the nature of 
the floor, whether of sand or mud or rock, whether bare or 
draped with vegetation, (2) the temperature of the air and 
the water, (3) the purity of the sea, whether quite salt or 
mixed with fresh or muddy water, (4) the action of the 
tides and currents. The local disposition of beach animals 
follows naturally the plant formation, such as a mangrove 
forest, a zosteretum or a hormosiretum. So that if a beach 
be classified for its plant contents, it will be found arranged 
into natural faunal areas. The intertidal, like any other 
fauna, ultimately depends for food and shelter upon the 
vegetation. 

ROCK FLOOR. 

Since the "roots" or rather rhizoids of seaweeds convey 
no nourishment, but merely serve as anchors, it might be 
thought that the nature of the ground on which they grew 
was not a matter of importance. But actually the stones 

1 Sumner, et al. Publ. Univ. Calif. Zool., xiv. 1914, p. 5. 
B— May 5, 1915. 



18 C. HEDLEY. 

of the shore exercise considerable influence on the flora 
and fauna that inhabit it. One geological outcrop produces 
a broken beach of pools and crags, another a smooth flat. 
Loose rocks that roll about and crush are a danger to the 
marine community, while large immovable boulders afford 
a long lease of shelter to their lodgers. The rough beach 
presented by limestone supports a rich fauna. Algae are 
favoured by the harsh minutely pitted surface of basaltic 
rock, but granite worn smooth is distasteful both to plants 
and animals. Where the rock is friable, a storm tears off 
together the weed and the stone to which it has made fast. 
The nature of the rock also determines the quality of the 
sand or pebbles on the beach. Where rock is stained by 
infusions of iron, some molluscs which adhere to it, such as 
limpets or chitons, assume a dark hue to match the back- 
ground. 

Shale beds round Sydney are bored by Pholas which can- 
not face the gritty sandstone. But the sandstone is pierced 
both by the bivalve Venerupis and the crustacean Sphae- 
roma. 1 Oups in the sandstone are carved by the urchin 
Toxocidaris (Plate VII, fig. 11). . 

TEMPERATURE. 

For many years records were kept of the temperature in 
Sydney Harbour by the Government Astronomer of New 
South Wales. These readings were taken only once a day 
at 9 a.m. from a thermometer sunk three feet below the 
surface at Fort Denison, an island in mid-channel. 2 

The following decennial average is based on Russell's 
"Monthly Record" for the period of 1881-1890, expressed 
in Fahrenheit. 

1 Hedley, Rep. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, viii, 1901, p. 240. 

2 Russell, H. C, Meteorological Observations made at the Government 
Observatory. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



19 





Mean. 


Maximum. 


Minimum 


January 


... 70*9 


72*3 


69*1 


February 


... 71*2 


72*4 


70*0 


March 


... 70*5 


72*1 


68'7 


April 


... 68'4 


70-5 


66*3 


May 


... 64*6 


67*0 


61*8 


June 


... 60*4 


62*5 


57*5 


July 


... 57-0 


59*3 


55*8 


August 


... 57'9 


59*3 


56*6 


September 


... 60*2 


61*5 


58*9 


October 


... 63*1 


64*6 


61*8 


November 


... 66*4 


68*2 


64-5 


December 


... 70'3 


71*4 


66*9 



Such observations, limited to a single spot, and to a 
single hour, present too narrow a view of the water climate. 
Probably they convey a better idea of the maxima than of 
the minima. In shallow water, and in the remoter reaches 
of the harbour, the temperature might be warmer in sum- 
mer and colder in winter than this. 

The decennial maximum 75*5 was reached on January 
15th and 20th, 1887; the minimum 50*1 occurred on July 
20th, 1881. The hottest days of the year happen in either 
December, January, February or March, and the coldest 
days either in July or August. February has the highest 
mean temperature and July the lowest. It is noticeable 
that the warmest months are the most equable, the tem- 
perature sometimes oscillating only from one to two degrees, 
while the coldest months are the most variable. Compared 
with the range of temperatures noted at biological stations 
abroad, the Sydney records are singularly level. Thus at 
Woods Hole in the western Atlantic the temperature 
ranges from below freezing to 70°, and in the Bay of San 
Francisco from 42° to 69V Off Plymouth, England, some 



1 Sumner, Bull. U.S. Fisheries, xxxi, 1913, p. 436, Id. Univ. Calif. Zool. 
Publ., xiv, 1914, p. 99. 



20 C. HEDLEy. 

incomplete sea surface temperatures range from 44*1° to 

58'9V 

The temperature of the water both in Sydney Harbour 
and along the coast is altogether governed by the Noto- 
nectian Current, the Gulf Stream of Australia. 2 In mid- 
winter this is blown off shore and the temperature normal 
to the latitude then prevails. But in midsummer the Noto- 
nectian running at its highest volume, speed and tempera- 
ture, hugs the land and overflows the harbour water. Thus 
a warmth is attained, independent of the locality, which 
may temporarily establish tropical conditions. If conti- 
nental land were to arise once more between New Zealand 
and New Guinea, then this current would be shut off from 
the Australian coast, and both our climate and our fauna 
would change at once. 

The critical temperature, that which determines life or 
death for plants and animals, is likely here to be the mini- 
mum. A low spring tide of a winter's night must be the 
trial for existence of all intertidal life. 

SALINITY. 

Scarcely any observations have been made on the salinity 
of the sea water in the neighbourhood of Sydney. From 
the irregularity of the rainfall, the absence of large streams 
flowing into the harbour, and the clearness of the water to 
the eye, it is apparent that the salinity is unusually high 
for a coast station. At the upper ends of the inlets the 
water is of course more fresh and muddy than at the 
entrance. 

Mr. T. W. Fowler has published some observations on the 
density of sea water off the coast of New South Wales. 3 

1 Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, ii, 1892, p. 276. 

2 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxxv, 1910, p. 9. 

3 Fowler, Eep. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1898, p. 695. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



21 







22 C. HEDLEY. 

As a contribution to this subject, Dr. H. G. Chapman 
has kindly handed to me the following observations : — 

"The same constituents are found in all samples of sea water, 
and practically they are in the same relative proportions every- 
where. In other words, when the quantities of the salts in any 
sea water are expressed in percentages of total solids similar figures 
are obtained for each constituent of the sea water. The total 
amount of solid matter, however, is subject to much variation. 

"The chemical composition of ocean water off Sydney does not 

differ much from that of ocean water generally. A sample taken 

15*56° 
off Coogee at a temperature of 22° C. had a specific gravity 



4" 
of 1*0261. Its solid contents were calculated at 35*2 gm. per kilo. 

of sea water. The total halogens estimated as 19*475 gm. per 

kilo, and the sulphates estimated as SO* were found to be 2 '7 6 

gm. per kilo. x 

"An analysis of a sample taken one foot below the surface about 
50 metres from the shore at Balmoral Beach, Middle Harbour,, 
Port Jackson at half tide on the ebb gave the following data: — 

Temperature ... 25° 0. 

15*5° 

Specific gravity ^—^ — 1025. 

Freezing point ... -1*9 C. 

Total solids... ... 34*7 gm. per kilo sea water. 

Halogens as chlorides 19*25 gm. per kilo, sea water. 
Sulphates as S0 4 ... 2*62 gm. per kilo, sea water. 

"When the sea water stands in a rocky pool on the shore, even 
if awash with the tide, concentration of the salts occurs. From a 
pool on the eastern shore of Bradley's Head in which many living- 
shells, sponges, sea weeds, etc. were present, a sample of water 
was obtained, yielding the following data: — 

Temperature ... 20° C. 

15*5° 

Specific gravity — - — 1027*3 

2 These figures are calculated from a paper by Mr. C. J. White, Journ. 
Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, xli, p. 55, 1907. 



PRESIDENTIAL ALDRESS. 23 

Freezing point ... - 2*335 C. 

Total solids ... ... 43 '8 gm. per kilo, sea water. 

Halogens as chlorides 24*29 gm. per kilo, sea water. 
Sulphates as S0 4 ... 3*59 gm. per kilo, sea water. 

The ratio of halogens to sulphates which is close to that found in 
all samples of sea water is evidence that this water is sea water 
concentrated by evaporation." 

TIDES. 

On the open coast the tides are regular, and of consider- 
able amplitude. A stream of flood tide runs northwards, 
and the ebb southwards. At the entrance to the harbour 
it is high water at new and full moon at 8*15 when the 
spring tides rise about six feet. Further up the harbour 
at Circular Quay, the tides are twenty-five minutes later, 
and about ten inches lower. The highest tide recorded in 
the harbour was that of January 5th, 1912, which amounted 
to six feet nine and a quarter inches. 

A curious phenomenon is the difference between the night 
and the day tides in summer and winter. In the winter 
the night tides are highest but in summer those of the day. 
After the equinoxes the difference gradually increases till, 
in July and January, it may amount to as much as two 
feet. The sedentary intertidal organisms are exposed to 
both extremes of air temperature, cold in winter and heat 
in summer. The on and off shore winds may magnify or 
diminish any particular tide. 

Comparison of Local and Foreign Fauna. 

Both in species and in individuals, the local fauna is 
extremely rich, probably more so than in any marine area 
in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Rocks 
are turfed with ascidians for yards without exposing an 
inch of stone. In other places oysters sheath the rocks 
with a continuous crust. There is a crab that marches in 
regiments. Even above ordinary tide level a small gre- 



24 



C. HEDLEY. 



garious periwinkle packs together in scores. Once a 
collector picked up a derelict bottle among the rocks at 
Watson's Bay. Washing out its contents with care, he 
found this chance handful to contain a hundred and fifty-five 
different species of shells. 1 

In Europe or the United States where the marine fauna 
is comparatively scanty and where there are a host of 
specialists, it has been a heavy task to catalogue the fauna. 
Here where the harvest is greater and the labourers fewer 
it is of course more difficult still. Work in this direction 
has, however, been proceeding steadily of late years. 

There is no recent summary, brut a census of the marine 
invertebrate fauna of Port Jackson prepared by Mr. T. 
Whitelegge, twenty-five years ago, enumerated 2,136 
species. 2 

No other similar area in the southern hemisphere has yet 
been catalogued. From a larger and infinitely better 
studied district, the Irish Sea, Prof. Herdman reports 1681 
marine invertebrates. From the neighbourhood of Trieste 
in the Adriatic, Dr. Graeffe gives 1,268 species, and Dr. 
Sumner repeats exactly the same total for Woods Hole, 
U.S.A. 3 From an excellent summary of the fauna of the 
Firth of Forth, lately presented by Mr. William Evans, 4 
it appears that 1,213 marine invertebrates have been 
identified from this area. Lest we, in this young country, 
should be discouraged at the slow progress of our science, 
we may observe the confession of Mr. Evans that scarcely 
more than half his local fauna is yet catalogued, after two 
centuries of research by one of the most intellectual cities 
of the world. 

1 Henn and Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, (2) ix, 1894, p. 165. 

2 Whitelegge, this Journal, xxiii, 1889, pp. 163-296. 

3 Sumner, op. cit., 1913, p. 88. 

4 Eoyal Physical Society of Edinburgh, xvii, 1909, pp. 1— 64d. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 25 

The composition of these northern faunae appears to differ 
somewhat from ours. There the Crustacea are the most 
populous group, but here it is the mollusca. The sponges 
form a larger proportion of the Australian than of the 
Atlantic fauna. In the Irish Sea the Echinodermata are 
but a fiftieth of the total, here they are an eighteenth. 
But the Protozoa of the Irish Sea contribute one-seventh 
of its invertebrate fauna while our list represents them 
only as one-fifteenth. So it may be that the discrepancy 
between north and south lies in the early recognition here 
of the large conspicuous forms and the late (or rather 
future) detection of the smaller and inconspicuous species; 
that the southern fauna though absolutely richer, may be 
levelled up to northern proportions as between group and 
group, by discovery of the smaller forms; that, for instance 
the Crustacea may regain their supremacy over the mol- 
lusca by the recognition of numerous minute forms. So 
when a future census of the Sydney marine invertebrates 
attains symmetry by the due representation of small, 
neglected species, the total will exceed still further those 
of the northern fauna. 

About 550 species of fish are recorded from New South 
Wales. A catalogue of this fauna was published by Mr. 
E. R. Waite 1 in 1904. 

Of marine algse, about 160 species have been recognised 
on the coast of this State. These were recently catalogued 
by Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, 2 who remarks that the local marine 
flora is poor and monotonous compared to that of colder 
seas. The great kelp forests of the south which may reach 
the surface from a depth of fifty feet are here wanting. 
As with the fauna, our shores are a meeting ground for 

1 Waite, Mem. N. S. Wales Naturalist Club, ii, 1904. 

2 Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxiv, 1909, pp. 9-60; xxxvii, 
1912, pp. 157 - 171; xxxviii, 1913, pp. 49 - 60. 



26 



C. HEDLEY. 



tropical and temperate plants ; several Japanese species 
extending thus far. 

Changes of Climate and Time. 
It was noticed by Darwin how the organisms of the 
beach leave the scantiest record in geological history. 
Inhabitants of the river, the lake, or the continental shelf 
are frequently preserved as fossils, but of the barnacles, 
limpets, chitons, or whelks of the intertidal zone there is 
hardly a trace. "The explanation, no doubt, is that the 
littoral and sublittoral deposits are continually worn away,, 
as soon as they are brought up by the slow and gradual 
rising of the land within the grinding action of the coast 
waters." 1 

A rare and interesting exception to this rule of destruc- 
tion is a raised beach which occurs at the apex of the 
Hunter delta, near Maitland. On investigation by David 
and Etheridge it proved to contain thirty-two species of 
mollusca, and one cirrhipede. 2 The interest of the collec- 
tion centres on the four following shells : — Beaten strangei, 
Brachyodontes erosus, ( = Mytilus menkeanus), Euchelus 
atratus and Arcularia dorsata (=Nassa livkla). All these 
have now disappeared from New South Wales. The mussel 
B. erosus has even vanished from East Australia, though 
it persists as a dwarf form in Tasmania. But large speci- 
mens like the Maitland fossils still occur in the corres- 
ponding latitudes of Western Australia. 

Arcularia dorsata (fig. 1) inhabits estuaries from Torres 
Strait to Port Curtis, while the other two reach Moreton 
Bay. That so large a proportion as one-tenth of this fauna 
should have now gone from New South Wales shows not 
only an appreciable geological antiquity, but also a change 
of climate. Such exact criteria do these fossils afford 



1 Darwin, Origin of Species, 1860, pp. 289, 291. 

2 David and Etheridge, Kec. Geol. Surv. N.S. Wales, ii, 1890, pp. 37 - 52. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



27 



that they may be read as a self-registering thermometer 
(fig. 2) telling that when and where they lived, a climate 
like that of, let us say, Bundaberg prevailed. At such a 
time crocodiles may have swum up 
the Hunter River, a Rhizophora 
forest would have flourished on its 
banks, and turtles may have come 
to the predecessor of Stockton 
beach to lay their eggs. 





Fig. 1. Arcularia 
dorsata a member of 
the Maitland beach 
fauna. 



While the fauna of the deep sea 
is probably the most conservative 
in the world, that of the beach 
zone appears to be less stable than 
the ordinary land fauna. The least 
fluctuation of temperature evokes g^ re re ^ ired by A ' 
a response from northern species 

pressing south and southern species moving north. Here 
are two armies perpetually in advance or retreat. 
Tropical forms such as Bonellia 1 incessantly attempt to 
colonise our coast, when the Notonectian floods the port, 



Fig. 2. Recession north- 
wards in recent geological 
time of the minimum tem- 



1 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxi, 1906, p. 462. 



28 C. HEDLEY. 

these gain a footing, but perish when the stream swings 
off shore. 

Strombus luhuanus, a common and conspicuous shell on 
coral reefs was once abundant at the Bottle and Glass rocks. 
Then it disappeared from May 1865 till April 1896 when it 
again made its appearance. 1 A living specimen of the 
tropical Bursa mammata, Bolten (= venustula, Reeve) 
was found alive in the Harbour by T. Rossiter, but in the 
forty years that have since elapsed, it has not once been 
seen again. 

After the passage of years changes occur in the distri- 
bution of species. Thus collectors constantly note that 
some particular species has become more or less abundant 
than formerly. At the time of its description (1891) 
Eulimella monili forme, 2 was quite abundant on Ruppia at 
the mouth of the Curl Curl Lagoon. Since then I have 
searched in vain for a single specimen. Local history does 
not extend back sufficiently far to register many such 
changes, so the following instances are quoted from abroad. 
The common periwinkle of the European market, Littorina 
litorea, was unknown at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, before 
the year 1876. 3 Migrating from the north this periwinkle 
took possession of a new field, and so thrived there that in 
thirty years it actually became more abundant than any 
other shell on the beach. 

In 1850 Prof. C. B. Adams examined and catalogued the 
mollusca of the beach at Panama, noting the position, and 
relative abundance of each species. Sixty years afterwards 
this area was re-examined by Mr. E. W. Presbrey, 4 who 
observed that, " Everywhere in the region covered by 

1 Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xviii, 1894, p. 432, and Hedley, 
op. cit., xxi, 1896, p. 88. 

2 Hedley and Musson, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S, Wales, xvi, 1891, p. 247. 

3 Verrill, Am. Journ. Sci., (3), xx, 1880, p. 251. 

4 Presbrey, The Nautilus, xxvi, 1913, pp. 121 - 125. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



29 



Adams thestations and the habits have materially changed." 
Where Adams had gathered 4,500 specimens of Oliva 
volutella, Presbrey got three. Adams took 1,500 Nassa 
panamensis and 330 N. luteostoma near the old sea wall 
where there are none now. Where Adams took 3,000 
specimens of Columbella representing 29 species, there 
Presbrey merely saw a few individuals of seven species. 
It may be that this depreciation was partly caused by the 
opening of the Panama Canal, but the changes involve 
some gain as well as heavy loss. For in other cases the 
species noted as rare by the first investigator had become 
abundant in the time of his successor. Strombus galea, of 
which Adams only saw a few fragments, is now plentiful, 
and Purpura is more common than it used to be. Both 
Pecten and Pectuneulus were rare in 1850 and common in 
1913. 

Striking changes which occurred in the marine fauna of 
Plymouth between 1893 and 1895 are noted by Mr. E. T. 
Browne. 1 

Changes by Epidemics and Accidents. 

The desolating sweep of a bush fire is unknown in the 

marine world, but the sea is not exempt from destructive 

visitations. Our fauna though safe from being scalded by 

hot lava, or planed away by floating ice, has its own plagues. 

Sudden and widespread mortality occurred among the 
sedentary intertidal organisms of Port Jackson in 1866 and 
again in March 1891. Oysters and mussels were com- 
pletely exterminated over wide areas, the stench from the 
mussel beds at Watson's Bay was described as unbearable. 
At Little Sirius Cove all the limpets and periwinkles were 
found to be lying about with the animals decaying in the 
shells. Such forms as live under stones, the zoophytes, 

1 Browne, Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc, iv, 1896, p. 168. 



30 C. HEDLEY. 

polyzoa, ascidians, echinodermata and gasteropoda also 
suffered. In some places half the fauna was dead, in others 
the rocks which usually swarm with life were so deserted 
that only a few worms remained alive of a great congrega- 
tion. Mobile creatures like fish and crabs withdrew from 
the putrifying beach to deeper water. 

Whitelegge 1 considered that dense swarms of a micro- 
scopic red GlenocMnium suffocated the mussels and oysters 
by clogging their gills. The death and decay of these 
bivalves, diffusing corruption in the water, spread destruc- 
tion through their neighbourhood. This microbe, Gleno- 
dinium rubrum, appeared in March and April 1891, in such 
vast numbers as to discolour the waters of the harbour in 
long streaks and patches of blood red. So immense a 
development of the dinoflagellate was thought by White- 
legge to be fostered by a heavy rainfall reducing the salinity 
of the surface water and by a long continuance of calm 
weather. The final disappearance of the Glenodinium was 
due partly to the fall in autumn temperature and partly to 
the efforts of an allied protozoan Gymnodinium, which 
arrived to prey on it. Had the plague Glenodinium been 
colourless and consequently invisible, the disaster would 
have been without apparent cause. 

Certain reefs, where both animals and plants suddenly 
and mysteriously perish, are described by the fishermen in 
Japan as having been "burnt." On one occasion this 
happened on so large a scale that the loss to the gatherers 
of sea-weed for food, glue, or manure, and of fish to the 
fishermen was estimated at £1,200 per annum per mile of 
the infected area. Within a few days the sea-weeds on 
these reefs were destroyed from low water downwards. 
The softer plants rotted away, while the harder corallines 
stood, though faded from red to white. The banks grew 

1 Whitelegge, Eec. Aust. Mus., i, 1891, pp. 179 - 192. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 31 

bare and desolate, migrant shoals of fish avoided the place, 
those that had lived amid the forest of brown kelp, dis- 
appeared, and molluscs including the valuable Haliotis also 
vanished. 

The explanation of this phenomenon supplied by Yendo 1 
is that the fresh water pouring out of a river in heavy flood 
was turned aside by the coastal current and projected on 
to the affected area. When thus immersed in fresh water, 
the marine algse at once died, and their loss carried destruc- 
tion to their associates. 

After storms of wind and rain, I have noticed numbers 
of the razor-shell Solen solanii and the gephyrean Dendro- 
stoma dehamata thrown up on a beach in Middle Harbour 
in a moribund condition. 2 A gale without rain does not 
dislodge these, so their destruction is probably caused by 
poison of tannin or other deleterious matter from decayed 
plants. 

Transition from Marine to Terrestrial. 

It is agreed that all terrestrial organisms had a marine 
origin. The beach is at last the font of all life whether 
aerial, fluviatile, terrestrial, pelagic or abyssal. In the 
higher animals, vestigal features demonstrate that respir- 
ation was aqueous before it was aerial. 

Dr. A. B. Macallum 3 considers that the difference in 
chemical composition between blood and salt water is slight, 
and that the Paleozoic Sea being poorer in magnesium, 
was still more like blood than is the existing sea water. 
He concludes that a circulatory system, once open to the 
sea, of a marine vertebrate ancestor became closed, and 
that the animal, then migrating ashore, carried with it a 

1 Yendo, Econ. Proc. Eoy. Dubl. Soc. ii, 1914, pp. 105 - 122. 

2 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxv, 1899, p. 432; and Kesteven, 
Eec. Aust. Mus., v, 1903, p. 69. 

3 Macallum, Trans. Canad. Inst,, vii, 1904, p. 535. 



32 C. HEDLEY. 

supply of sea water perpetuated by heredity. Every 
vertebrate thus maintains its viscera in a bath of warm 
sea water and its very life depends on that aquarium being 
kept unbroken. So in this way we are all sea creatures 
still. 

If it had been upon the land that an animal first made 
bones there would have been at its disposal such hard sub- 
stances as iron or aluminium, while to a marine animal the 
softer calcium was the best material available. 1 Hence 
for the building of a firm frame it was lime that was 
employed by all sea dwellers, the worms, the crabs, the 
snails, and finally the vertebrates. The suggestion is that 
this choice of lime for a skeleton was made by vertebrates 
before migrating from the sea to the shore, after which its 
use became a fixed habit. 

At times the land has repaid the sea, as in the case for 
instance, of the whales, dugong, seals or sea-snakes which 
had terrestrial origins. There are two roads from the sea 
landwards, the easiest and most gradual way is to ascend 
a river and undergo the transformation in marshes. The 
other is to make the beach a changing ground, where may 
be learned how to endure a greater change of temperature, 
to support the body in a thinner medium and to breathe air. 
Where a sea was tideless, there would be little opportunity 
for transformation, and in proportion as the tide had a larger 
range, so would be the facilities for change. Probably the 
process of acclimatisation from sea to land was chiefly 
through the estuaries, and an animal has rarely grown 
independent of the water by traversing the beach. The 
ocean existed, of course, before the rivers. Both these 
routes are practised here. In the streams, fish like 
Galaxiasattenuatus and the Blue-eye, Pseudomugil signifer 
pass from salt to fresh water, and back again. 2 

1 Johnstone, Conditions of life in the Sea, 1908, p. 301. 

2 McCulloch, The Australian Zoologist, i, 1915, p. 47. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 33 

In mangrove swamps are numerous air breathers, which 
are immersed frequently, yet do not venture beyond the 
farthest reach of the sea, these include the slug Onchidium, 
the snails Salinator and Ophicardelns. In the tropics this 
amphibious fauna multiplies and includes fish in the case 
of two species of Periopthalmus, Crustacea as Ccenobita 
spinosa 1 and TJca, mollusca as Ceritliidea, Melaraphe and 
Truncatella. Indeed migration from the sea to the shore, 
or from salt water to fresh, is easier and more frequent in 
a warm climate than in a cold one. 2 On Funafuti I found 
Nerita plicata packed together in crevices of the rocks 
far above high tide mark, behaving like a terrestrial rather 
than a marine animal. 3 

All over the world the molluscan family Littorinidse, are 
pioneers in emergence from the sea. Pelseneer describes 
how the gill plume of a European species is shortened and 
broadened to form an incipient lung. 4 Quoy and Gaimard, 5 
observed that the ctenidium of Littorina angulifera had 
shrunk from disuse in consequence of living more in the 
air than in the water. 

A correlation between the station on the beach, and 
embryonic life of different species is traced by Mr. W. M. 
Tattersall, 6 as follows: — "Of the four British species of 
Littorina, L. litorea is exposed only at low spring tides, and 
is freed as a trochosphere, later becoming a veliger ; L. 
obtusata is generally exposed at ordinary low water, and 
is freed as a veliger ; L. rudis is exposed during the greater 
part of the day, and is viviparous; L. neritoides lives 
between the high water of springs and neaps and is also 

1 McCulloch, B,ec. Aust. Mus., vii, 1909, p. 303, pi. 88. 
8 Origine des Animaux <T eau douce, Pelseneer, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg. 
1905, p. 724. 

3 Mem. Aust. Mus., iii, 1899, p. 409. 

* Pelseneer, Mollusca, 1906, p. 104. 

6 Quoy and Gaimard, Zool. Astrolabe, ii, 1833, p. 476. 

6 Tattersall, Nature, vol. lxxix, 1909, p. 478. 

C— May 5, 1915. 



34 



C. HEDLEY. 



viviparous. Both in habit and life history these four seem 
to represent stages in adaptation to a land existence." 

On this coast the littorinoids in ascending order are: — 
Bembicium melanostoma, Melaraphe acutispira,M.infans, 
M. mauritiana, Tectarius pyramidalis, and Melaraphe 
scabra. It would be interesting to prove if Tattersall's 
generalisation connecting larval history with beach horizon 
holds good in Australian seas also. 

In his charming account of the animal ecology of the 
Cold Spring sand-spit, Prof. O. B. Davenport 1 relates how, 
near New York, Littorina palliata clings to the stems of 
the marsh grass, Spartina polystachys, and how near New 
Orleans L. irrorata climbs the rushes. He suggests that 
the lack of a siphon exposed Littorina to the danger of 
suffocation by mud, and that escape from the mud induced 
a habit of climbing. Thus it started on the road to adap- 
tation to a terrestrial life — "a road that the Pulmonates 
must have travelled long ago." 




Fig. 3. Avicennia branch supporting sea-snails, Melaraphe 
scabra, on the leaves. 

1 Davenport, Decennial Publ. Univ. Chicago, x, 1903, p. 168. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 35 

A remarkable expression of the landward migration of 
the littorinoids is Melaraphe scabra, whose special haunt 
is the leaf of the mangrove (fig. 3). More than two cen- 
turies ago Rumphius, who saw it in the Moluccas called it 
Buccinum foliorum in allusion to this habit. The variety 
filosa was gathered in November 1847 by MacgiJlivray on 
the leaves of Mgiceras at Port Curtis. 1 A depauperated 
form called luteola by Quoy and Gaimard occurs on Avi- 
cennia about Sydney and Port Stephens. Its tropical 
companion Cerithidea which perches on the boughs and 
twigs of the mangroves does not descend so far south. 

Exposed to the hottest sunshine 
and watered only by spray or by the 
highest tide, Tectarius pyramidalis 
(fig. 4) creeps furthest in the ascent 
of the ocean rock beach. Kesteven 
observed that its osphradium has 
degenerated so as to be almost use- 
less, he thought that the animal was 
Fig. 4. Tectarius pyra- protected against evaporation by an 

midalis, the highest climber . 

from the sea on the ocean abundant secretion of mucous, seal- 
beach, magnified. ing up the mouth f the shell.* 

In the estuary the boundaries of land and sea overlap, 
though a wide neutral zone separates them on the rocky 
ocean beach. 

To the amphibious fauna of the transition area, the 
mangrove swamp contributes the Auriculidse, the rocky 
beach supplies the littorinoids and the ocean sand beach 
has for its representatives the swift-sand-crab Ocypoda 
(fig. 8) and the sand-hoppers of the family Orchestidse. 

1 Eumphius, Amboinische Eareitkamer, 1705, p. 98; Forbes, Voy. 
Rattlesnake, ii, 1852, p. 362. 

2 Kesteven, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxvii, 1903, p. 621. 




36 C. HEDLEY. 

Types of Beach. 
THE SHINGLE BEACH. 

The desert of the shore is a shingle beach. In the wash 
of the waves, each pebble grinds its neighbour's face, so 
that any plant or creature seeking a home among the stones 
would soon be bruised to death. Such beaches are rare 
in this State, the nearest to Sydney is a shingle beach at 
Kiama. 1 

THE OCEAN SAND BEACH. 

Next in order of importance is the sandy beach facing 
the ocean, which contains a small and highly specialised 
fauna, but no visible flora. Here in New South Wales, as 
elsewhere, the fauna of the mud or of the rocks is far 
richer than that of the sand. 

Sandy beaches occur along the whole of our coast line. 
North of Newcastle they extend with brief interruptions to 
the Queensland border, south they alternate with the rocky 
headlands. The changefulness of the local beach front 
has been well described by Mr. E. O. Andrews. 2 

In all countries and various climates the ocean sand 
beach preserves the same external appearance. If, by 
some cosmic change, the climate of Sydney became warmer, 
then in response a thicket of Rhizophora would spring up 
on the zostereta of Middle Harbour, and reef corals would 
build on the hormosireta of the Heads. But the sandy 
beach though sheltering another series of species, and 
perhaps serving as a turtle incubator, would still remain 
unchanged externally. 

It was proposed by Prof. Davenport to group the inter- 
tidal fauna by companies of sessile, crawling, burrowing, 

1 The shape of pebbles has been studied by H. E. Gregory, Am. Journ. 
Science, xxxix, 1915, p. 300. 

2 Andrews, this Journal, xlvi, 1913, pp. 158-185. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 37 

or swimming animals. Though useful in the area for which 
it was suggested, this classification is not of general appli- 
cation. Progression methods are not as sharply defined 
in the dense water as in the thin air, thus the glide of a 
marine animal may change imperceptibly from crawling to 
swimming. Neither areas nor animals can be definitely 
arranged thus, for the upper rock zone is deficient in bur- 
rowing and swimming species. A Oephalopod might 
appropriately enlist in every company. Finally the sand- 
surf organisms do not strictly belong to any particular 
class, yet all might qualify for each. 

No marine community leads so strenuous a life as does 
the sand beach fauna. In the sand-democracy organisms 
are independent, there are no dominant types like Cynthia, 
Ostrea or Oaleolaria to afford protection to the weaklings. 
Since there are no plants, the animals are necessarily 
carnivorous; since the even surface offers no shelter, the 
only means of refuge is to plunge under the sand. Exist- 
ence in the surf-line can be maintained only by great 
strength, constant activity and watchfulness. An instant's 
weakness, a moment's relaxation may bring destruction 
either from being seized by a prowling fish, or from being 
thrown high and dry upon the shore by the next wave. To 
resist a blow the shells of the sand-dwellers are solid, to 
dive quickly into the sand, they are smooth and tapering. 

Characteristic of the sand beach is the handsome white 
and purple Donax deltoides (fig. 5), which in New South 
Wales is called the " pipi," and in South Queensland is 
known by the local aboriginal name of " ugari." Pipi is a 
Polynesian word which has been adopted from the Maori. 
In New Zealand pipi means Mesodesma australe, and in 
Samoa it signifies Asaphis defiorata. 1 Stacks of shells in 

1 Bulow, Internat. Archiv. Ethnograpjti., xiii, 1900, p. 184. 



38 



C. HEDLEY. 



aboriginal camping grounds show it to have furnished many 
a meal to the extinct black race. Local fishermen use it 
for bait. 




This Donax lives only in the wash of the surf where it 
occurs in companies about low tide level. To adapt itself 
to this existence, to quickly dig itself into the sand=and 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



39 



save itself from hurt, the Donax has assumed a thick shell 
with a wedge shape and a slippery surface. The animal is 
extremely strong and active, when outstretched, the foot 
is as large as, and the siphon longer than, the valve. A few 
drives of the powerful flat pointed foot draws the creature 
under the sand. Here it stands upright, with the extended 
siphons held aloft, their tips alone projecting above the 
ground. The orifice of the inhalent siphon expands in a 
disk beset with minute branched papillae. Of these there 
are six main rays with secondary and tertiary intermediates 
on the margin. Perhaps the papillae grasp small but 
struggling animals. The exhalent siphon has no disk, its 
margin is fringed with papillae. A parasitic crab, perhaps 
an undescribed species of Pinnotheres, infests the Donax. 
The mollusc is caught and eaten by the Red-bill, Koematopus 
longirostris. This bird breaks off the anterior end of the 






h \ 




Fig. 6. Hermit crab of the sand beach, Diogenes custos, magnified. 



40 C. HEDLEY. 

left valve to extract the meat. 1 The sand in which the 
Donax lives is coarse and uneven, I find that the grains are 
usually half a millimetre in diameter, but vary from a 
quarter to a whole millimetre. A similar station is occupied 
in New Zealand by Mesodesma, 2 which from an unlike 
stock has acquired a general superficial resemblance. 

In the summer a hermit crab Diogenes custos (fig. 6) 
makes its appearance in the surf zone of the sand beach. 





,\,\\\\\\ v 






<^ -=" \' 


\V 


..S^-^O" \ N 






#Cv\* 








.-=-■%" ^C ,v\W 




.3%-^C.A'W 




.•ViC; V \\V>^' 


























Fig. 7. The sand-beach worm Onuphis teres. 



1 North, Nest and Eggs Australian Birds, iv, 1913, p. 261. 
2 Bell, The Wilds of Maoriland, 1914, p. 23. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



41 



Probably after the breeding season it retires to deeper 
water. 

One of the most notable inhabitants of the ocean sand 
beach is a gigantic Eunicid worm (fig. 7) well known to 
fishermen as excellent bait. Prof. J. H. Ashworth has 
kindly identified this for me as Onuphis teres. 1 

Bait gatherers sweep a lump of meat across the wet 
sand at low tide. The worm detecting this, neither by 
sight nor smell, but by, as Dr. H. G. Chapman terms it, 2 
a "gustatory stimulus," rises from beneath the sand, darts 
out its head, and grips the meat. Still holding the meat 
in his left hand, the fisherman adroitly whips the worm out 
of the sand with the right. Considerable skill and smart- 
ness are needed to pull the worms out this way. Fisher- 
men say that these worms reach a length of five feet. 

One member of the beach society has forsaken its native 
element for a terrestrial existence. This is Ocypoda cor- 
dimana (fig. 8), a small grey crab with square deep body 




Fig. S. The swift sand-crab, Ocypoda cordimana. 



1 Ehlers, Die Borstenwiirmer, i, 1868, p. 293. 
2 Chapman, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxix, 1915, p. 649. 



42 C. HEDLEY. 

and long slender limbs. 1 Across the beach the swift sand- 
crab races like foam blown before the gale. And when it 
stops, so closely does its colour match that of the sand 
that it can scarcely be detected. This crab breathes 
through a special pore between the third and fourth pair 
of legs, and has become so dependent on the air, that it 
would drown if kept long under water. It digs a deep 
spiral burrow in the dry sand above the wash of the tide, 
and feeds on the carcases which the sea throws up and the 
flies attracted thereto. 

Under masses of decaying sea-weed at the storm drift- 
line swarm the amphipods Talorchestia qaadrimana and 
Ochestia macleayana. 2 

THE MUDDY ESTUARY. 

Between the ocean beach and the flats grassed by 
zostera there is a transition region, passing gradually from 
rough to calm and from sand to mud. As more shelter is 
secured the conditions of life become easier, more stability 
is gained, vegetation appears and the consequent food and 
safety induce an increase in the fauna. Intermediate sand 
flats are apt to be arranged in low bars and shallow pools. 
Here is the Mycteris-Polinices zone. The sand is here a 
little muddy, more loosely packed than on the open beach, 
and is usually ribbed by the retreating tide. 3 Such sand 
ripples are seen through the water in the lower left corner 
of Plate VI. 

These flats are the parade grounds of a small blue crab 
Mycteris longicarpus (fig. 9) which marches in squadrons. 
Their ordinary progress is deliberate, but if pursued they 

1 For this, and the other drawings of crabs, I am indebted to my 
friend Mr. B. Kinghorn. 

2 Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv, 1880, p. 248. 

3 The formation of ripples on a sandy shore has been discussed by Dr. 
A. P. Brown, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, lxii, 1912, p. 536. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



43 



break into the double, and if still harder pressed the whole 
troop burrows into the ground, with a spiral motion and 
vanishes from sight. 1 




Fig. 9. The military crab Mycteris longicarpus, from the estuary mouth. 

Another characteristic form is the subterranean snail 
Polinices plumbeus (fig. 10). Crooked furrows in the sand, 






', '.•";• 




Fig. 10. Subterranean snail Polinices plumbeus, fully extended. 

sometimes a couple of feet in length, show where the 
mollusc has burrowed, an inch or so beneath the surface. 

1 Saville Kent, Naturalist in Australia, 1897, p. 242. 



44 C. HEDLEY. 

In proportion to the shell this animal is capable of enormous 
extension and quite conceals the shell when outstretched. 
If hooked out of its burrow the fore foot doubles on the 
hind as the animal is slowly swallowed by the shell, finally 
the operculum, closing in on the snail, reveals the dull red 
patch of callus by which the species is recognised. When 
extended and in action, a thin spade, like a disk of a 
planarian, cleaves a way through the sand. This fore foot 
is then brought up like a mask before the shell, over its 
edge waver a pair of blind lash-like tentacles. On either 
side the mantle may be puckered to a pipe, an improvised 
inhalent or exhalent siphon. From behind, the elastic 
operculigerous lobe is drawn, like a hood, over the spire of 
the shell, and then forward till it underlies the mask. In 
the rear the hind foot spreads a thin disk like that in front 
for a shell's breadth behind. It seems to prey on the 
bivalve Spisula parva, small specimens of which I have 
found in its grasp. Copulation occurs when submerged 
under the sand. Quantities of this mollusc are consumed 
by sharks and rays as evinced by the undigested opercula 
in their stomachs. 2 

The sand in which Polinices burrow is finer and more 
even than that where Donax live. Both the Polinices 
and the Area figured in this paper were obtained from the 
west side of the sand spit of Middle Harbour. I find that 
a sample from this locality had grains averaging 0*3 mm., 
with 0*5 mm. for especially large grains, and 0*2 for especi- 
ally small ones. The Heart-Urchins, Echinocardium and 
Maretia inhabit a much lower horizon in the sheltered- 
sand-zone. 

The most important biological feature of the estuary is 
the tidal forest, which in the latitude of Sydney (33° 50') is 
restricted to two kinds of mangroves, Avicennia officinalis 

2 Waite, Eec. Aust. Mus., iii, 1899, p. 134. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 45 

nd Mgiceras majus. The latter grows as a bush, with 
sweet-smelling white flowers, on the inland border of the 
mangrove swamp. Though Avicennia has here outstripped 
its tropical associates, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Ceriops and 
Acanthus, yet it is well within its boundaries, for it con- 
tinues south as far as Wilson's Promontory. In New 
Zealand it reaches Tauranga, and in West Australia it 
extends to Bunbury. 1 These limits doubtless correspond to 
isothermal zones. Even near Sydney the foliage is some- 
times touched by an occasional frost. 

The Avicennia is a slow-growing tree whose proper home 
is the soft black mud on the banks of saltwater creeks, but 
which sometimes grows on the sandy border of a zosteretum. 
It requires shelter and ventures on no beach unless land 
locked from the sea. In the distance an Avicennia forest, 
rising in domes about thirty feet high, has a resemblance 
to an olive grove. The short trunk branches into crooked 
boughs, well clothed with grey-green leaves, and casting 
a dense shade. As the wind stirs the foliage their pale 
undersides paint ashy ripples across the forest. At high 
tide the leaves dip in the sea (Plate I, fig. 1), while low 
tide exposes the pneumatophores or "cobbler's pegs" as 
they are called popularly. These project densely from the 
underlying radial roots to about eight inches above ground 
(Plate I, fig. 2). 2 

So safe a perch above the suffocating mud do these 
asparagus-like rootlets afford that they are sometimes 
loaded with oysters or bristle with barnacles, Balanus 
trigonus. The trunks of the trees are not neglected as 
residential sites, and are well plastered with oysters. An 
Avicennia leaf, which though less than three inches long, 

1 Alexander, Nature, June, 1913, p. 399. 

2 For this and other photographs of beach scenery I am indebted to 
the kindness and artistic skill of my friend Mr. A. R. McCulloch, who 
also drew for me the two fish. 



46 



C. HEDLEY. 



held fifty small oysters, was described and figured by 
Saville Kent from West Australia. 1 

The soft black mud of the mangrove formation is only 
suited to a small and special fauna. Whole classes are 
absent, for the mangrove country is shunned by all the 
Echinodermata, the Actinozoa, and the Sponges. This 
territory is occupied by a special group of mollusca, mostly 
air-breathers, usually with solid dull-coloured shells, 
especially by the family Auriculidae. These range from the 
fringe of glass wort, locally called " samphire," Salicomia 
■australis,* along the high-tide mark downwards as far as 
the Avicennia grows. Here too, as described previously, 
sea-snails climb aloft to the greatest height they reach 
above high water. This Avicennia belt is inhabited by 
the following molluscan genera: — Onchidium, Salinator, 
Melaraphe, Zafra, Assemania, Tatea, Potamopyrgus, 
Plectotrema, Rhodostoma, Leuconopsis, Ophicardelus, 
Ostrea, Modiolaria^ and Modiola. In the autumn, schools 
of a marine hemipteron, Halobates whiteleggei, skim over 
the surface of the mangrove creeks. 3 

Seawards of the tidal forest, there usually occurs an area 
of soft mud, here is the Holcecius-Pyrazus zone. Holcecius 
cordiformis (fig. 11) is a small active crab with a purple 
claw. 

Between the falling and the rising tide, it burrows and 
builds with such energy that the whole field is covered with 
little pits and heaps of mud pellets like worm castings on 
a lawn. The celerity with which the crabs dart to their 
holes shows a familarity with danger. At low tide they are 

1 Kent, Eep. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., iii, 1891, p. 554. 
8 An almost pure association of Salicornia, a " Salicornietum," extends 
for several square miles at the south-east corner of Botany Bay. 
3 Skuse, Eec. Austr. Mus., i, 1891, p. 174. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 47 

vigorously hunted by such enemies as gulls, herons, bitterns 
and rats. 




Fig. 11. The mud-flat crab, Holcecius cordiformis. 

Their neighbour the Sydney Whelk, or Hercules Club, 
Pyrazuslierculeus^ is more lethargic. This brown massive 
and knobbed shell, three inches long is strewn about in 
great number (text fig. 12, and Plate VII, fig. 12). Oppo- 
site the aperture the shell is broadened by a varix which 
forms a sole to support it from sinking too deeply. Oysters 
and barnacles sometimes ride on the back of the shell. 



Fig. 12. The Hercules Club shell, Pyrazus herculeus, from 
the open mud flat. 

1 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxx, 1906, p. 529. 



48 C. HEDLEY. 

The solid shell it carries is armour proof against the jaws 
of fish, the beaks of gulls, or the teeth of rats, and the rays 
of the sun. Both crab and snail live on the bare ground. 
Though no food is visible it may be that each tide in a 
layer of silt spreads a table of microscopic provender. 
The zones of Melaraphe and of Donax share this feature 
of exhibiting no apparent vegetation. In the tropics this 
zone carries a larger fauna and includes the amphibious fish 
Periopthalmus, and the brightly coloured calling-crab, 
Ilea, and the gasteropod Telescopium. 

Along the calm and sheltered reaches of Botany Bay, 
Port Jackson, or Broken Bay, there flourish marine meadows 
of Zostera, Posidonia, and like plants with ribbon blades, 
known as grass-wrack or eel grass. The commonest species 
is Zostera nana 1 (fig. 13). These species flower here only 
on very rare occasions ; during the last twenty-five years 
I have found Posidonia in blossom only once and never 
Zostera, Their dense foliage smothers any intruders, so 
that they occur almost as a pure formation. Such an 
association is termed a zosteretum 2 (Plate II, fig. 3). 

Under the microscope, the leaf blades of the Zostera 
develop into a zoological garden, so overgrown are they 
with minute plants and animals. The fauna of the Zostera 
beds near Marseilles was described by Prof. Marion. 3 Dr. 
H. 0. Ostenfeld has produced an exhaustive memoir on the 
Ecology of Zostera in Danish waters. 4 He finds it to sup- 
port an epiphytic flora of small sea- weeds and diatoms and 
a fauna of small gasteropods and bryozoa. There it is the 
principal source of the organic matter of the sea bottom. 

1 This and the Ruppia were kindly identified for me by Mr. J.H. Maiden. 

2 Warming, (Ecology of Plants, 1909, p. 230. 

3 Marion, Ann. Mus. Marseille, i, 1883, p. 71. 

4 On the Ecology and Distribution of the Grass- wrack, Zostera marina, 
in Danish waters. Report Danish Biological Station, xvi, 1908. See also 
Petersen, Reports xx, 1911, and xxi, 1913. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



40 



The zosteretum flourishes on mud banks, where there is a 
considerable admixture of sand. At low spring-tide this 
vegetation is laid bare, thence it continues downwards for 




Fig. 13. Blade-leaves of Zostera nana, principal plant of the zosteretum. 

several feet. Before the advent of civilisation disturbed 
the balance of nature, the dugong (Halicore dugong) would 

D— May 5, 1915. 



50 



C. HEDLEY. 



sometimes browse on the marine pastures of Botany Bay 
and furnish a meal to the blacks. 1 Posidonia leaves are 
sometimes rolled and felted together by the waves into 
compact balls; their fibre has lately been utilised in the 
manufacture of cloth. 2 

Characteristic of 
the local zostereta 
is the Sydney 
Cockle, Area tra- 





^'•'^ ll,l lv''''''n , n" lil ' l ''' !r !!!l"'..'"'»'V''' ,1 '"/'"'" , '''''^ / ' TO ''*' //W//// 



\ : >:;^'^T'-'*'*v <>/ . S"' 



pezia, a massive 
boat-shaped, rib- 
bed,white shell(fig. 
14). The animal, 
which protrudes a 
large foot with a 
distinct sole but no 
byssus, is orange- 
red, it is sluggish in 
its movements and 
usually rests sunk 
in the mud for 
three-quarters of 
its length, often 
bearing a tuft of 
weed to mask the projecting anterior end. The tips of the 
branchiae protrude above as short slender wavering ten- 
tacles. Influence of environment is shown by its features. 
For the purpose of diving quickly into the sand the shell of 
Donax is smooth and wedge-shaped. But Area, being con- 
structed to float on the surface of the mud, is moulded 
posteriorly with a swell like a buoy and girdled with nodul- 



Fig. 14. Mud cockle, Area trapezia, with foot 
extended and branchial tips exserted. The 
anterior end projects above the surface of the 
mud flat, the rest is buried beneath. 



1 Etheridge, Rec. Austr. Mus., vi, 1905, p. 17. 

2 Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxiv, 1909, p. 498; Baker, op. 



cit., xxxv, 1911, p. 804. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 51 

ous keels to prop it up. The more sedentary habits bring 
less development to the foot than in the strenuous Donax. 
Projecting as it does above the mud, no siphon is required 
by Area. Great stacks of shells about the old aboriginal 
camps show how important an article of food it was to the 
blacks. 1 

This species is related to a tropical section of the genus 
and indeed itself reaches the tropics, showing it to be a 
northern constituent in our fauna. Though so common in 
New South Wales, both this and Pyrazus are absent from 
zostereta in the corresponding latitudes of South Australia. 
At Dry Greek near Adelaide, Mr. W. Howchin finds that up 
to a recent geological date Area trapezia was abundant, 
but that it had suddenly and completely vanished, before 
the time of the last deposit. 2 

It is now suggested that its extinction, and that of its 
neighbour Pyrazus, in South Australia are due to refriger- 
ation, and may mark a period in geological climate and 
time subsequent to that of the Maitland raised-beach. The 
last cold phase was reckoned by Prof. David from the 
Kosciusko moraines to be from three to ten thousand years 
past. 3 

The surface of the mud flats inhabited by Area was 
exposed to the full severity of the cold when a frosty night 
coincided with low tide. Such cold would not be fatal to 
other species formerly associated with it in St. Vincents 
Gulf and now surviving there, as Osbrea angasi, because 
they descend to the depth of a few fathoms. On the 
Pacific coast, as the cold maximum approached, the Area 
could escape by retreating as far north as was necessary, 

1 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxix, 1904, p. 203. 

2 Howchin, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A.., xxxvi, 1912, p. 36. 

3 David, Helms, and Pittman, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxvi, 1901, 
p. 64. 



52 



C. HEDLEY. 



and when the cold relaxed, could return to repopulate the 
former situation (fig. 15). But in South Australia, a 

northern retreat was 
cut off by the concave 
coast, so that when 
locally exterminated 
by frost there could be 
no return of' exiles 
when conditions im- 
proved. 

Besides the Area, a 
considerable and varied 
fauna is supported by 
the zosteretum. A 
small carnivorous 

open, on the west it is intercepted by the gasteropod, an active 




Fig. 15. Map of Area retreat during the 
cold phase. While on the east the route is 



concave coast of the Great Australian Bight. 



scavenger, inhabiting 



a shell half an inch long is Arcularia jonasi (fig. 16). With 




Fig. 16. Arcularia jonasi, a common carnivorous snail 
of the zosteretum. It is fully extended, in the act of 
gliding over the mud or weed ; much magnified. 

great energy it glides rapidly over the sand and weed, carry- 
ing its long siphon so strangely resembling an elephant's 
trunk, sometimes erect, sometimes arched over its back. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 53 

The eyes are mounted half way on stalks which finish as 
slender lashes waved incessantly hither and thither. On 
the tail are planted two waving filaments, while the front 
margin of the foot is also provided with a pair of processes. 
A triangular shell about eight inches long, related to the 
mussels is Pinna menkei. Its habit is to sink upright in 
the mud, and to present to a bare footed visitor a thin 
concave blade capable of inflicting a severe wound. Among 
the narrow zostera leaves lies commonly hid the slender 
zostera Pipe-fish Stigmatophora argus (fig. 17). So like is 




Fig. 17. The Pipe-fish of the zosteretum, Stigmatophora argus. 

this to its natural surroundings that, whether straight or 
curled, the eye can scarcely detect it even in full view. 
And if detected and pursued the Pipe-fish escapes from 
every enemy by diving into the dense weed. The males 
carry the incubating eggs in a pouch on the tail. 

Occasionally the zosteretum is invaded by the Bubble- 
weed, Colpomenia sinuosa. 1 This pest spreads over the 
flat, smothering other vegetation and attaching itself to 
the oysters, whelks or cockles. When the gas forms in the 
expanding balloon it lifts the shell and floats it away, so that 
oyster plantations are sometimes seriously denuded by its 
agency. 

A peculiar development of the zosteretum formation is 
the ruppia-lagoon, of which Deewhy Lagoon (Plate VI) a 
few miles north of Sydney may be selected as a typical 
example. Here a sand -bank thrown up by the surf has 
dammed the mouth of a small stream. Behind this barrier 
the water accumulates in a shallow brackish lake, several 

1 Stead, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxvi, 1912, p. 632. 



54 C. HEDLEY. 

acres in extent. At intervals of weeks or months, the lake 
is swollen by rain and breaks through the sand dam, the 
lake is partly drained, the sea enters, the waves restore 
the barrier and the cycle recurs. Such a sheet of water 
has an extreme range from salt to fresh and from warm to 
cool. On a level floor two or three feet deep is a dense 
monotonous carpet of the slender threads of Buppia mar- 
itima. The fauna is a scanty one. In Deewhy Lagoon I 
collected the following mollusca: — Tatea rnfilabris, Pota- 
mopyrgus ruppice, Salinator fragilis, Modiolaria subtorta 
and Erycina helmsi. 

Such a lagoon is a favourite resort of waterfowl. The 
following list of the birds which frequent such a lagoon and 
adjoining beach was kindly drawn up for this article by 
Mr. A. J. North : — Pelecanus conspicillatus, Plotus novce- 
hollandice, Sula serrator, Phalacrocorax carbo, P. melano- 
leucas, P. sulcirostris, Chenopis atrata, Anas superciliosa, 
Biziura lobata, Hcemotopus longirostris, Charadrius 
dominions, Numenius cyanopus, Tringa acuminata, Sterna 
bergii, Gabianus pacificus, Larus novceliollandice, and 
Podiceps novcehollandice. Parasitic cycles alternating 
between sea fowl and marine invertebrates such as have 
been elaborated in Europe/ will probably be discovered 
here also. 

THE OCEAN REEF. 

Rocky ground facing the open sea supports the richest 
flora and fauna. For here the water is most thoroughly 
aerated by the surf; here is the greatest safety from mud, 
so inimical to many marine creatures, and here is the first 
landing place for immigrant spores and larvae, transported 
by winds and currents from abroad. 

Contrasting with these advantages is the constant danger 
of being swept away by the waves. The surf that breaks 

1 Lebour, Parasitology, iv, 1911, pp. 416-456. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 55 

upon this open coast is heavier and more forceful than 
that seen on most European shores. A striking instance 
of its power is recorded by Mr. O. A. Siissmilch, 1 who 
described and illustrated a block of sandstone at Bondi, 20 
feet loDg, 16 feet broad, and 10 feet high, estimated to 
weigh 235 tons, which was capsized, dragged 50 yards and 
lifted 10 feet during a gale. 

Marine organisms which have to endure such fury as 
tossed this block at Bondi, undergo special adaptation. In 
the first place they are skilled at taking cover, appreciating 
to the full the shelter afforded by a tuft of weed, a crack 
or a projecting ledge of rock. Without such shelter exist- 
ence would for most be here impossible. 

Evolution has conducted various inhabitants of the surf- 
zone by epharmonic convergence to the same tent-like shape. 
Just as a similar mode of defence has imposed a superficial 
resemblance on the hedgehog and the Echidna, so resistance 
in the sea has moulded many different stocks to the same 
external form. Though of unlike origin and widely different 
in anatomical features, the gasteropods Emarginula, 
Siphonaria, and Acmaea have now assumed a shell hardly 
to be distinguished on the outside from the real limpet. 
Travelling an even longer road, the barnacle has changed 
from a mobile crustacean to a fixed limpet-like cone. For 
example, Catophragmus polymerus (fig. 18), common in 
the surf zone and distinguished by its whorls of scales, like 
a daisy's petals, shows the last stage of transition from a 
stalked to a sessile barnacle, as if it were a telescoped 
Scapellum. The limpet itself is doubtless the last term of 
a series of trochoidal, multispiral gasteropoda. 

For this low cone or tent shape is that on which rushing 
water takes the least grasp, the stream shearing off from 
its evasive sides. As a further mechanical advantage, the 

1 This Journal, xlvi, 1912, pp. 155 - 158, pis. iv, v, vi. 



56 



C. HEDLEY. 



wall of the cone may be strengthened by radial corruga- 
tions. If a stream be received on one side only, the shell 
develops a long front slope, and steep rear, but where the 

# pressure is endured on various aspects 
the apex is central and the shell 
symmetrical. So in the rapid moun- 
tain streams of the tropics, Navicella 
has for the same purpose evolved from 
Neritina to a limpet like shell. 
By adaptation to surf environment 

Fig. 18. Catophragmus th& llm P et haS tllUS aiTiVed at the 

poiymerus, & sessile bar- best shape for resistance. A group of 
naclefrom the surf zone, limpets Helcioniscus variegatus, 1 is 

Showing descent from a T iT-.ix-rrx.-irv i i 

, , o -,. shown by Plate V, fig. 10, as planted 

pedunculate form modi- ° F 

fied to a limpet shape to on a bare space of rock exposed to 
resist the blows of the the full sweep of the ocean surf at 
waves - Long Reef. Here there is not the 

least cover or protection of weed or rock. Relying on con- 
tour alone for their defence, the naked limpets withstand 
the full force of the waves. 

The shield of the shell is held in position by the limpet's 
foot. This is a muscular disc closely applied to the rock. 
If taken unawares a brisk, though slight, tap removes the 
limpet, but if warned, the limpet can resist a pressure 
which Reaumur measured as thirty pounds weight. The 
exact operation of the mechanism is not ascertained, 2 but 
it is probably concerned with atmospheric pressure, or in 
popular language, suction. 

Other molluscs, whose shells are less perfectly moulded 
for evasion, rely for defence on the strength of some detail 
of construction. Characteristic of rocky surf-swept head- 

i Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxix, 1915, p. 714. 
8 Davis and Fleure, Liverpool Marine Biol. Committee, Memoir x, 
Patella, 1903, p. 4. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



57 



mm 



lands is the genus Thais, in which a large and solid shell is 
fortified by various devices. On the coast of New South 
Wales this genus is represented by a common species, T. 
succincta, which is yellow, ovate and about three inches 
long (fig. 19). In sheltered waters this shell has a com- 
paratively smooth surface, but on 
exposed beaches it develops mas- 
sive rings. So prominent are these 
that Chemnitz, an eighteenth 
century conchologist, proposed, on 
account of the intervening fur- 
rows, to call it the 'Oartrut ' shell. 
Both sudden blows and steady 
pressure can be borne without 
injury by this belted armour. A 
related mollusc, Drupa margin- 
alba, common in the rock pools, 
attains the same end by girdles of 
projecting knobs. 




Fig. ]9. Thais succincta, a 
whelk fortified by armour 
belts to endure the violence 
of the surf. 



The ocean reef is as regularly differentiated into horizons, 
as the estuary. An upper zone between the high water of 
spring and neap tides is inhabited chiefly by transition 
amphibious forms such as the periwinkles already mentioned, 
Tectarius and Melaraphe, also the barnacles Chthamalus 
and Tetraclita. A median zone between high and low 
neap tides is characterised by Galeolaria. In a lower zone 
between low neap and low spring tide Cynthia is a dominant 
and typical form. 

The intertidal vegetation of the ocean reef has for its 
most conspicuous form Hormosira banksii, which is rarely 
absent and which may develop into a dense sward, a pure 
formation, extending for acres (Plate II, fig. 4). It is now 
proposed to call such a field an " hormosiretum" and to regard 
it as comparable in ecological importance to the zosteretum . 



58 



C. HEDLEY. 



The Hormosira 
(fig. 20) grows 
in dense clusters 
about eight 
inches high. It 
is ochraceous in 
colour, and com- 
posed of tuber- 
culate, subcylin- 
drical joints. 

Atalowerlevel 
where the rocks 
do not dry at low 
water, the coral- 
line weed, Coral- 
Fig. 20. Hormosira banlcsii, a characteristic plant Una chilensis, 
of the ocean reef; natural size. f Plate TTT fie* 6) 

forms thick moss-like tufts. It is 
coloured pink to bronze purple and 
grows a couple of inches high. The 
invertebrates seem not to favour it 
as food. When a spray is magnified 
(fig. 21), it appears composed of 
flattened heart-shaped joints some- 
thing like the stem of a prickly 
pear. 





Fig. 21. Corallina chilensis, 
a moss-like plant charac- 
teristic of the lower zone of 
the ocean reef ; magnified. 



Less abundant is the Sea Cab- 
bage, TJlva lactuca (fig. 22), a soft 
thin translucent green sea-weed 
which grows in small tufts, three or 
four inches high (Plate III, fig. 5). This is used as bait for 
fish, and is also readily eaten by mollusca. The TJlva is a 
tender plant, and is often killed and bleached when a hot 
sun coincides with a low tide. Its range is world wide, 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



59 



M*A 



A W. 




jj| 



r 



y 



Fig. 22. The Sea Cabbage TJlva lactuca, 
natural size, from near Mrs. Macquarie's 
Chair. 



locally it occurs at 
intervals from ex- 
posed positions, such 
as the outer North 
Head to sheltered 
water at Mrs. Mac- 
quarie's Chair. 

At the lowest inter- 
tidal horizon com- 
mence the brown 
sea-weeds, Eklonia, 
Sargassum and Cys- 
tophora, which cor- 
respond to the Laminarian 
zone of Europe. The water 
here is too warm for the giant 
kelp, so conspicuous and 
abundant in Tasmania and 
south New Zealand. Its 
place is taken by a dwarf 
kelp, Eklonia radiata var. 
exasperata (fig. 23). For the 
identification of this andother 
algae I am indebted to the 
kindnessof Mr. A. H.S.Lucas. 
The Eklonia is secured to the 
rocks by spreading digitate 
rootlets arising from a long 
rope-like stalk. This stem 
flattens above expanding to a 
blade whence spring large 
thin lobed leaves, whose sur- 
face is closely wrinkled, and 

Fig. 23. Eklonia radiata v&r.exasper- _ . . ... 

*, , o , , , , , , whose margin is beset with 

aia, the dwari kelp, a plant about a ° 

yard high, characteristic of a zone thorn-Shaped processes. This 

below low tide level. 




60 C. HEDLEY. 

plant marks the level of constant submergence; on floating 
pontoons where the range of the tide is artificially abolished, 
the dwarf kelp is attached just below the surface. After a 
gale the dwarf kelp wrenched off the rocks by the storm, is 
stacked in piles on the beaches. The chemical composition 
of Eklonia exasperata was studied by O. J. White. 1 The 
Eklonia is orange-brown in colour, and contrasts with the 
more ye] low Sargassum with which it associates. 

The latter genus is represented on this coast by about 
twenty species, one of which, S. tristichum (fig. 24) from 
Balmoral Beach is here illustrated. 

A regular transition from wealth to poverty of seaweeds 
occurs as an observer travels from temperate to tropical 
beaches. In the latitude of Sydney there is still a consider- 
able development, as is shown by the luxuriance of the 
Hormosira (Plate II, fig. 4) on the flat near Long Reef. 

It was suggested, but the idea was not convincing, that 
the dearth of the sea-weeds in the tropics, was due to the 
heat of the sun scorching the vegetation at low tide. 
Recent bacteriological research offers another explanation. 
A marine bacillus, Pseudomonas calcis, abundant both in 
the mud and surface water of West Indian seas, was dis- 
covered by Drew 2 to have the curious property of abstract- 
ing nitrogen from sea water. It is probable that this or 
similar species have a wide distribution in tropical seas 
and reach Australia. So that starvation by denitrifying 
organisms may cause that poverty in sea weeds of tropical 
beaches on which several observers have remarked. 

The upper zone of the ocean reef is bare of visible vege- 
tation. Climbing higher than its fellows Tectarius (fig. 4) 

1 White, this Journal, xli, 1907, p. 95. 

2 G. H. Drew, Publication No. 182, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
1914, pp. 7-45; Kellerman and Smith, Journ. Washington Academy of 
Sciences, iv, 1914, pp. 400—402. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



61 



fails to reach the lichen patches marking the advance limit 
of the terrestrial world. Between this lowest life of the 




Fig. 24. Sargassum tristichum, a brown sea weed about a foot high, 
associated with Eklonia. 

land and highest of the sea, a fairly wide vacant space here 
intervenes. During neap tides in hot weather the highest 
small rock pools evaporate and their basins are lined with 



62 



C. HEOLEY. 




Fig. 25. Young of M elaraphe 
mauritiana, packed together 
at high tide level on the 
ocean reef. 



crusts of salt. Such pools, when reduced by evaporation 
to strong brine, may yet swarm with mosquito larvae. At 
other times the rock hollows are filled with rain water, 
and when this happens the Melaraphe escape from them 
to dry ground. 

When half, or a quarter grown 
the Melaraphe mauritiana huddle 
together (fig. 25) in companies of 
a score or more, packed as closely 
as possible; as adult, it is either 
solitary or grouped by twos or 
threes. In the lower part of the 
Melaraphe zone appears the bar- 
nacle, Chthamalus anbennatus 
(fig. 26) a small white, solid, 
elevated cone with six walls and half 
an inch in diameter. A little lower 
down this is joined by another bar- 
nacle, Tetraclita purpurascens (fig. 
27), depressed, purple, with thread 
like radiating riblets and with four 
plates to its shell which is about three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter. In 
the English Channel the barnacles 
harbour minute Rhabdocoele worms 1 
not yet detected here. 

The fellowship between periwinkle 
and barnacle on the upper beach zone 
is so intimate, that on the far-away 
coast of Scotland, where Littorina 
sits beside Balanus, it still persists. 2 




Fig: 26. Chthamalus 
antennatus, enlarged, a 
common barnacle from 
high tide level on the 
ocean reef. 




Fig. 27. Tetraclita pur- 
purascens, a common 
barnacle associated with 
Chthamalus. 



1 Gamble, Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, iii, 1893. 
p. 31. 

8 King and Eussel, Proc. Boy. Phys. Soc, 



Edin., xvii, 1909, p. 236. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



63 



A corresponding fauna was described from the "Zone 
emergee" of the Mediterranean by Prof. Marion. 1 By 
independence of the water these barnacles have gone far 
on the way to exchange a marine life for a terrestrial one, 
but further advance is prevented by the sessile habit. 

No carnivora occur among the molluscs of this upper 
zone. Only Tectarius and Melaraphe can endure both 
absence of water, and the full blaze of the sunshine. But 
where constant shade is obtainable, as in a cave or under 
a leaning, or a south facing rock, then some barnacles and 
Acmaea septiformis climb about as high above the sea. 
Indeed the occurrence of barnacles in such a situation has 
been misconstrued as proof of a slight recent elevation of 
the land. 2 

Roaming over the rocks in search of food is a common 
and most active crab, Leptograpsus variegatus (fig. 28), 




Fig. 28. Leptograpsus variegatus, a crab characteristic of the upper zone 
of the ocean reef. 

equally at its ease in or out of the sea. Usually it ranges 
along the edge of the water, following the rising or falling 

1 Marion, Ann. Mus. Marseille, i, 1883, p. 41. 

8 Andrews, Introduction to the Physical Geography of New South 
Wales, 1909, p. 93. 



64 



C. HEDLEY. 



tide. It has a smooth, square, compressed carapace about 
two inches broad and painted with transverse bars of white 
and red. Another commoQ crab of about the same size is 
Plagusia chabrus (fig. 29), which has the limbs and body 
bristling with sharp thorns. 




Fig. 29. Plagusia chabrus, a common crab. 

The shells of those molluscs which are habitually exposed 
are extremely solid. For instance Monodonta which lives 
high on the beach has a far thicker shell than its relation 
Calliostoma which lives entirely submerged. Among naked 
molluscs Onchidium, which leaves the water, has a thicker 
cuticle than the Nudibranchs which never come into the air. 

Below the Melaraphe zone the fauna rapidly increases. 
The limpet, Helcioniscus variegatus, appears accompanied 
by abundant gasteropoda: Nerita melanotragus, Monodonta 
zebra, Drupa marginalba and Bembicium melanastoma; 
Sypharochiton pellisserpentis represents another molluscan 
division, the Polyplacophora. 

Dominant in the mid-tidal zone is the gregarious annelid, 
Galeolaria ccespitosa. 1 The tube of this is small, white, 

1 Bush, Harriman Alaska Expedition, xii, 1904, p. 177. Haswell, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix, 1885, p. 665, pi. 31, fig. 5, pi. 32, fig. 1, 2. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



65 



... , 

Fig. 30. Tube of the reef 
building annelid worm, Galeo 
laria ccespitosa, natural size. 






very solid and keeled, the keel projecting as a spur over 
the orifice (fig. 30). When the tide falls, the animal shrinks 
jg&. w far down and blocks the opening 

by a thick lid, thus enduring long 
exposure to dry air and hot sun. 
But beneath the water, the worms 
are bold and active, under the 
microscope the branchiae project 
as coiled wreaths, 
while to the naked 
eye, the waving 
plumes lend to the 
mass of stone a 
coat of fur (fig. 31). 
There is an odd 
local tradition 
that Galeolaria is 
not indigenous 
here, but was in- 
troduced from 
abroad many 
years ago. Perhaps this refers to some periodic fluctuation 
of rarity and abundance. 

The Galeolaria is intolerant of sand or mud, its limit is 
the range of the neap tides, and it occurs both on the surf- 
swept headlands and on the wharf piles in sheltered water. 
In places a mass of intertwined shells forms a crust upon 
the rocks, six or eight inches thick. So continuous is it 
that the rocks appear from a distance as if painted white. 
Such a crust slightly resembles coral in its flowing contours, 
but rough surface; it deepens and narrows the original 
cracks and pools among the rocks. An example of such 
development selected for illustration is Wyargine Point at 
the south entrance to Middle Harbour. (Plate V, fig. 9). 

E— May 5, 1915. 




Fig, 31. Galeolaria c&s 



extruded from its 



tube with the branchiae unfurled, magnified. 



66 



C. HEDLEY. 



A hillside clothed with timber affords food and shelter to 
numerous animals and plants, especially invertebrata and 
cryptogams, all of which would vanish if the trees were 
cut down. Similarly the Galeolaria reef shelters in its 
nooks and crannies a whole fauna which would disappear 
if the annelids were destroyed. Among the tubes there 
hide a host of feeble folk, such as colonies of Lasaea aus- 
tralis, a bivalve the size of a pea, Acmaea mufria, a tiny 
limpet and Acanthocliitona retrojecta, a small chiton. In 
a borrowed serpulid tube, Prof. Haswell discovered a queer 
little crustacean, Eisothistos vermiformis, accommodated 
to its narrow abode by the assumption of a worm-like 
form. 1 

There are, densely crowded together, a series of larger 
organisms, sessile, crawling and swimming which harbour 
in the pools sheltered by the Galeolaria, From the gutter 
shown in the photograph I drew out these two starfish from 
a dark corner. Asterina calcar (fig. 32), a common species 

about four inches in dia- 



;:,■■■. 
/ \ 



IPIIiHi 




Fig. 32. Asterina calcar, a common 
starfish. 



meter, has a cake-shaped 
body with eight short blunt 
rays. The disc is mottled 
with various shades of 
black, chocolate, orange, 
green and purple. 2 Related 
species which are also 
common in this locality 
are A. exigua with five 
rays, and A. gunni with six. 



Contrasting with the neat and compact Asterina is the 
limp sprawling Coscinasterina calamaria 3 (fig. 33). This 

1 Haswell, Proc. Linn, Soc. N.8. Wales, ix, 1885, p. 676, pi. 36, 37. 

2 Kent, Naturalist in Australia, 1897, p. 243, pi. viii, figs. 1-6. 

3 H. L. Clark, Mem. Austr. Mus., iv, 1909, p. 531. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



67 




Fig. 33. Coscinasterma 
common starfish. 



another 



is irregular in the 
length and number 
of its finger-shaped 
limbs, it is coloured 
with sepia and sage 
green in patches and 
outlined by a margin 
of vivid orange red. 
Local starfish are 
not regarded as a 
pest by oyster culti- 
vators as are those 
of European Seas. 1 



Neighbours of these are a dark-purple urchin with dense, 
short, fluted spines, Toxocidaris erythrogrammus, 2 which 
carves, each for itself, a cup in the stone (Plate VII, fig. 11) 
like that in which the European Strongylocentrotus lividus 
entrenches itself. 3 Sometimes this urchin is concealed 
under scraps of shells or stones held over it like shields by 
the pedicellarise. Several large gasteropods such as Thais 
succinta, Charonia rubicunda, Cymatium spengleri, Turbo 
stamineus and Haliotis naevosa, share such retreats. 

Along the edge of this gutter in the Galeolaria reef and 
exposed at low water is the sea-anemone, Oulactis muscosa* 
(fig. 34) which prefers a crack into which it can withdraw 
when disturbed. It enjoys the fullest exposure to the light 
and expands to a diameter of three inches. Though a fine 
species for this latitude, it is a pigmy compared to the giant 
anemones on the Great Barrier Reef, which have a spread 
of two feet. The trunk of the Oulactis is beset with 

1 Schiemenz, Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, iv, 1896, p. 266. 

2 Mortensen, Danish Ingolf Expedition, iv, pt. 1, 1903, p. 139. 

3 Joubin, Bull. Mtts. Oceanogr. Monaco, 71, 1906, p. 19, fig. 18. 
* Andres, Faun. Flor. Gulf Napl., ix, 1884, p. 291. 



68 



C. HEDLEY. 



MfclAA 



papillae, small and dis- 
tant below; large, 
dense and branched 
above. Fragments of 
stone and shell adher- 
ing to these papillae, 
clothe the column in an 
almost continuous coat. 
The disk is chocolate- 
brown, the tentacles 
articulated black and 
white, or buff and green, 
and the stem dark green. 

There is another common anemone which is opposite to 
the Oulactis in its tastes. It occurs at a higher zone than 
its fellow and choses dark corners or the under sides of 
rocks; the stem is smooth and unclothed. Compared by its 
sponser to a poppy, Paractis papavcr 1 (fig. 35) might have 




Fig. 34. Oulactis muscosa, a sea anemone 
from the ocean reef, in exposed positions, 
natural size. 




Fig. 35. Paractis jpapaver, the sea-waratah, from sheltered positions on 
the ocean reef. 

been more aptly likened to a Waratah. For it is a uniform 
bright crimson except a peripheral row of blue beads. 

1 Dana, U.S. Expl. Exped., vii, 1846, Zoophytes, p. 143, pi. iv, fig. 29. 
Actinia tenebrosa, Farquhar, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxvii, 1898, p. 535, from 
New Zealand, seems identical. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 69 

There are several series of tentacles which when out- 
stretched have a spread of nearly two inches. 

From the side of the pool, blossoms another and very 
attractive annelid, Spirographis australiensis. In expan- 
sion the branchial whorls of this resemble a full head of 
thistle-down, but at the least alarm the shy creature folds 
up and sinks down a large membranous tube. An unex- 
pected tenant of the rock pool is the sea spider, Desis 
marina, which constructs a diving bell of silk to contain a 
sufficient supply of air, and so lives in a rock crevice 
between tide-marks. This is one of the few animals on 
our beach that can be called retrograde, in the sense of 
having migrated from land to sea. 

Underlying the zone of Galeolaria is that of Cynthia, 
another master organism. This association is less extensive 
only in the line of constant foam does it flourish, and where 
the surf ceases to beat upon the shore, there Cynthia dis- 
appears. Downwards it extends into the dwarf-kelp zone, 
and above it contends with Galeolaria for the possession 
of a borderland which each may alternately occupy. 

Probably this giant ascidian, Cynthia prceputialis* (fig. 
36), is an element in our fauna of southern origin. Indeed 
it seems to be a generalisation of some magnitude, that the 
organisms of the surf are chiefly Peronian while those of 
the estuary have a Solanderian tone. 2 The individual tuni- 
cates form columns about six inches high and two broad, 
their thick tough husks are grey in colour, and usually are 
hidden by a growth of algae. On the cupped summit is a 
double cone of the inhalent and exhalent orifices, which, 
opening under water, form a crimson cross, and from which 
above water little jets squirt. Sometimes individuals grow 
apart, but ordinarily they are so densely packed together 

1 Herdman, Descrip. Cat. Tunicata, Austr. Mus., 1899, p. 27. 
8 Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxviii, 1903 (1904), p. 880. 



70 



C. HEDLEY. 



as to overspread the rocks with a cushion which may 
extend for yards without a gap. (Plate IV, fig. 7.) 




Fig. 36. A mass of cunjevoi, Cynthia prceputialis, from low water on 
the ocean reef. 

Fishermen scoop the viscera from the leathery envelope 
for bait, but the colonies so stript from the rocks are soon 
renewed. The- fisherman's name for it, "cunjevoi," prob- 
ably represents one of the few words of the local aboriginal 
language which still survives. 

Cynthia is a patrician of beach society, whose strength 
and organisation protect a company of weaker plebian 
dependents. Between the stout firm trunks are many dark 
safe crevices which make pleasant homes for worms, 
Crustacea, mollusca and such like crytozoic fauna. 

In this zone there occurs, though rarely, small patches 
of reef-coral, Plesiastrea urvillei, which appears like green 
moss when seen alive at the bottom of a pool. It is inter- 
esting as being the furthest outlier of tropical reef corals. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 71 

The Basking Blenny, Lepidoblennius haplodactylus (fig. 
37), about four inches long, hops actively over the weed 




Fig. 37. Lepidoblennius haplodactylus, the Basking Blenny from the 
coralline zone of the ocean reef. 

and rocks as the tide falls, and especially delights to bask 
in the warm sun. It remains out of water for a long time 
without inconvenience, clinging to the weed by curious 
finger-like processes into which the lower portion of the 
fins have developed. So correctly does the Blenny render 
both the colour and the pattern of the Coralline that scale, 
limb and trunk vanish against the harmonious background 
directly the fish squats down. 

At low spring tides a confused tangle of dwarf kelp, 
Eklonia (fig. 23), is just exposed. This pliant mass of fronds 
so break and deaden the force of the waves as to provide 
shelter in a zone otherwise uninhabitable. The effect of 
the giant kelp in softening the force of great ocean waves 
has often been remarked. 1 

As tall unbranched saplings struggle upwards in the 
forest, so Boltenia australis (fig. 38) rises on a slender, 
wrinkled stalk among the dwarf kelp. And when a winter 
gale tears the weed from the rocks and flings it ashore the 
Boltenia shares its fate. The red and orange head and 
long stalk of this ascidian recalls a budding tulip of some 
earthly garden. A small bivalve, Modiola, burrows in the 
test, and a large orange- coloured Nemertine worm also 

1 Carmichael, Trans. Linn. Soc, xii, 1817, p. 494. 



72 



C. HEDLEY. 




infests it, while the exterior is encrusted 
with a sponge, perhaps a species of Halis- 
arca. 

The Eklonia zone is most difficult to 
explore and its fauna is therefore yet 
imperfectly known. Besides the species 
that adhere to the ground there is a con- 
siderable fauna living on the stems or 
leaves of the plants themselves. A 
handsome, nacreous shell, Cantharidus 
eximius, is called the Kelp-shell, because 
of its exclusive resort. In contour it 
differs from its relations that live on the 
stones, for it is moulded in easy curves 
that the water cannot grip, and so it sits 
ever afloat on the swaying bands of kelp. 
An olive-green isopod, Amphoroidea aus- 
traliensis, never swims, though structur- 
ally well fitted for that exercise, but clings 
tenaciously to the stalks of Phyllospora 
comosa. Another isopod which crawls 
about on the weed is Idotea peronii with a long body like 
a millepede. 1 This epiphytic fauna is considerable and 
would be a profitable field for study. It might be expected 
that this fauna would travel far on drifted weed, but I 
have no evidence that it does so. 

Mr. T. Whitelegge, who carefully examined the Eklonia 
zone at Maroubra, has kindly given me the following notes. 
Two sponges of industrial possibilities, Euspongia illawarra, 
and E. zimmocea, occur alive under rock ledges at low tide. 
Attached to the roots of sea- weeds or to ascidians are the 
bryozoa, Amathia tortuosa,Ascopodaria fruticosa, Crypto, 
zoon wilsoni, and C. contretum. Among the Alcyonaria 



Fig. 38. Boltenia 
australis, natural 
size. The sea-tulip 
from the Eklonia 
zone of the ocean 
reef. 



1 Whitelegge, Eec. Austr. Mus., iii, 1899. p. 156. 



PKESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 73 

there is Comularia australis, a pretty little species with 

creeping rhizome and obconical polyps about half an inch 

« 
long. The rare Acanthoisis flabellum was obtained alive 

at Maroubra. 

A notable zoophyte is Ceratella fusca, long known from 
the dried skeleton only, and which was found under rock 
ledges at the south end of Marouba Bay, in association 
with Clathrozoon wilsoni. 1 In similar situation occurred 
Thuiaria sinuosa, Aglaoplienia sinuosa and A. macrocarpa. 

There is a small fish, Iso rhothophilus, which is only 
seen in the boil of the surf. For this reason, a related 
species is poetically known to the Japanese as the "Flower 
of the Wave." 2 

Following the rocks inwards from the surf to the shelter 
of the harbour, a gradual transition is seen in the compo- 
sition of the fauna. Though Monodonta and Bembicium 
persist as far as the rocks go, Helcioniscus, Nerita and 
other forms vanish. This is partly due to decrease of 
salinity but chiefly to the presence of mud. The most 
salient feature is the rise of Ostrea from sporadic occur- 
rence to the rank of a dominant organism. 

The rock oyster, Ostrea cucullata, is ubiquitous, ranging 
horizontally from the surf-swept extremity of the ocean 
reef to the inmost recesses of the mangrove forest; verti- 
cally from mean tide level to a depth of several fathoms, 
and in station from rocks and mangrove roots to mud banks 
and zostera flats. No other constituent of the beach fauna 
exhibits such plasticity of form, such adaptability to differ- 
ent positions, such endurance of extremes of temperature 
or of salinity and from shelter to exposure. In the surf 
the shell is small, very solid, much crumpled, dentate, and 

1 Spencer, Trans. Boy. Soc. Vict., ii, 1891, p. 123 ; 1892, p. 8, pi. 23. 
8 Waite, Rec. Austr. Mus., v, 1904, p. 234, pi. 25, fig. 2. 



74 C. HEDLEY. 

uniform purple, but in shelter it becomes thinner, larger, 
smoother, feebly denticulate and coloured with radial stripes 
of purple-black and buff. Since it extends north to Japan, 
but fails to reach Tasmania, it is evidently of tropical origin. 

In the surf it is scattered and single, but in the estuary it 
packs together in a continuous reef. (Plate IV, fig. 8). 
Saville Kent has illustrated the far greater masses, four or 
five feet thick, built by this species in Moreton Bay and 
Port Curtis. x He draws attention to the fact that the zone 
of most luxuriant development coincides with half tide 
mark. Probably it spawns most freely in the saltest water, 
but grows quicker and larger in water of less salinity. 
Since the fresh water, that reduces the salinity, carries 
with it abundance of food material from the land, it may 
be thus not preferable in itself, but endured for the sake of 
the accompanying advantages. 

Those oysters that lie on the mud, are apt to suffer from 
the invasion of a small worm, Leucodore ciliatus. To pro- 
tect itself from this commensal, the mollusc excludes the 
worm by a partition wall, a process which, if repeated, 
brings exhaustion and destruction. 2 

In the vicinity of Sydney the oyster zone is followed on 
the lower side by a dense growth of mussels, Brachyodontes 
hirsutus, matted together in a felt of epidermis and byssus. 
Indeed on the estuarine rocks, Ostrea and Brachyodontes 
hold positions corresponding to that of Galeolaria and 
Cynthia on the ocean beach. 

Mussel beds never form so important a feature in our 
beach scenery as they sometimes do abroad, as for instance 
on the coast of Normandy. 3 But on the Tasmanian beaches 

1 Kent, Great Barrier Eeef, 1893, p. 254, pis. 39, 40; Naturalist in 
Australia, 1897, p. 249, pi. 42. 

2 Whitelegge, Rec. Austr. Mus., i, 1890, p. 41. 

3 Guerin, Bull. Mus. Oceanograph, Monaco 67, 1906, p. 14, pi. 1. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 75 

the rocks may be, sometimes, blackened by a thick crust 
of the small mussel, Modiola pulex. 

In concluding this account of the Ecology of Sydney 
beaches, let me express a hope, that brief, disconnected, 
and superficial though it be, yet may it serve as an invita- 
tion to the pursuit of this fascinating study. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate I, Fig. 1. 

A Mangrove forest in Upper Lane Cove, seen from without at 
high spring tide. The lower branches of the Avicennia are here 
dipped deep in the water. 

Plate I, Fig. 2. 

Another mangrove forest, at Sugar-loaf Creek, Middle Harbour r 
seen from withimat low spring tide. Here the water has retreated 
out of sight. A gleam of sunshine penetrates the dense shade and 
illuminates a thick crop of pneumatophores in the foreground. 
The Avicennia trunk in the middle of the picture is about two 
feet in diameter. 

Plate II, Fig. 3. 

General view of the zosteretum at Roseville Reserve near the 
head of Middle Harbour, seen at low spring tide, In the fore- 
ground, the leaves of Zostera nana are awash, beyond, they are 
exposed dry over an area of several acres. Towards the house- 
boat in the distance is an expanse of bare mud, on which some 
Avicennia seedlings have grown knee high. Here is a Pyrazus- 
Holoecius zone. On the opposite shore along the water's edge are 
more mangroves. 

Plate II, Fig. 4. 

A field of Hormosira banksii, Decaisne, seen at low spring tide 
from Long Reef, looking north towards Collaroy Beach. In the 
foreground the individual plants of the hormosiretum may be 
easily distinguished. 



i C. HEDLEY. 

Plate III, Fig. 5. 
A rock shelf at low spring tide near Port Hacking Point. In 
the foreground tufts of Sea Cabbage, Viva lactuca, Linn., inter- 
spersed with small pools. In the distance a breaking ocean roller. 

Plate III, Fig. 6. 

An ocean reef beach at the entrance of Long Bay at low spring 
tide, showing the coralline weed, Corallina chilensis, Decaisne, 
exposed in the foreground. The rocks at the back, which are 
covered at high tide, are over-grown by limpets and barnacles. 

Plate IV, Fig. 7. 

Another ocean-reef beach scene at low spring tide, from Port 
Hacking Point. In the foreground, a colony of Cynthia prcepu- 
tialis, Heller, a dominant form in the surf horizon. On the left, 
a few stragglers grow apart, but on the right, the ascidians are 
compacted into a continuous mass. The rock above is thickly 
studded with barnacles, conspicuous among which are Balanus 
nigresens, Tetraclita rosea, Catophragmus polymerus, and the 
mollusc Siphonaria virgulata. The whole range of the tide is 
here exposed. 

Plate IV, Fig. 8. 

From Sugar Loaf Bay, Middle Harbour, the tide is here about 
a quarter flood. A streak of oysters (0. cucullata, Born.) a 
dominant form on estuarine rocks, plasters the rock -wall extending 
at a uniform level from the foreground to beyond the boat. They 
cluster, not only on the rock but on each other; in the immediate 
foreground, the uppermost tier have lost their lid or upper valve, 
and the empty lower valve is left adherent to the wall. Below the 
oysters, the usual underlining of mussels, Brachyodontes hirsutus, is 
concealed under water. 

Plate V, Fig. 9. 
A rock reef at Wyargine Point, Middle Harbour, within reach 
of the ocean waves, seen at low neap tide. No stone is visible, 
though pools and fissures shadow the main features of the rocks 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 77 

that underlie a continuous crust of Galeolaria ccespitosa, Lamk. 
This is a dominant form in the mid-tidal horizon of the ocean 
rock beach. Masses of the annelid tubes have built a cornice over- 
hanging the pool, and in rolls, knobs, and pillows it chokes the 
fissure in the foreground. In fluent outline this growth recalls 
that of a coral reef in the surf. A few patches of stunted Hormosira 
occur on the left. 

Plate V, Fig. 10. 

A colony of limpets, Helcioniscus variegatus, perched on a smooth 
bare sheet of rock, exposed to heavy surf at Long Reef, near mean 
tide level. These have neither weed nor rock to shelter them, but 
depend for safety on resistant form. 

Plate VI. 

The beach bank of Dee why Lagoon seen at low water; on the 
horizon is Long Reef. The outflow in the middle distance is now 
closed by a sand-beach built across by the ocean surf. Through 
this a stream in flood time will break a channel. The main body 
of the lagoon extends to the left for a considerable distance. 

Photographed by Mr. J. Degotardi and published by the kind 
permission of the Director General of Public Works. 

Plate VII, Fig. 11. 

Toxocidaris erythrogrammus, the commonest rock urchin near 
Sydney, sunk in self-dug pits in sandstone. On the right is a 
vacant room. 

Plate VII, Fig. 12. 

A company of the Sydney Whelk, Pyrazus herculeus, Martyn, 
crawling on the bare mud-flat. This place is situated in the 
middle distance of Plate II, fig. 3. 



78 



M. 8. BENJAMIN. 



A 'NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF UREASE IN 
LEGUME NODULES AND OTHER PLANT PARTS. 

By Maurice S. Benjamin, d.i.c., 

Assistant Chemist, Hawkesbury Agricultural College. 

(Communicated by Mr. F. B. Guthrie.) 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, June 2, 1915.] 



A series of tests undertaken with the view of seeing 
whether the occurrence of an urea splitting enzyme in 
legume nodules was universal or not, has resulted in the 
detection of its presence in nodules of the following plants: 
Trifoliurn minus, Relhan. Trifolium agrarium, L. 

Pisum arvense, L. (Field Pea)] Vicia sativa, L. 
Glycine clandestma, Wendl. Acacia falcata, Willd. (a Wattle) 

Acacia suaveolens, Lindl. (a Acacia lunata, Sieb. (a Wattle) 

Sydney Wattle). Acacia juniper ina, Willd. 

Acacia decurr ens, Willd. (a Wattle) Aotus villosa, Sm. 
Vicia desciacarpus. Daviesia genisti folia, A. Cunn. 

Lathyrus latifolius, L. Acacia pumila, Maiden. (a Wattle) 

Cytisus proliferus, L. fil. Acacia linearis, Sims, (a Wattle) 

(Tree Lucerne) 

I was unable to detect the enzyme in nodules of the 
following plants: 

Medicago sativa, L. Medicago denticulata, Willd. 

(Lucerne) (Clover Burr) 

Medicago maculata, Willd. Trifolium repens, L. 

(Spotted Medick) (White Clover) 

The inquiry was then extended to seeds and other parts 
of plants. Among a number of seeds examined, seeds of 
the following plants gave a reaction for the presence of 
the enzyme. 



OCCURRENCE OF UREASE IN LEGUME NODULES. 79 

Cucumis melo, L. Cucurbita moschata, Duchesne 

(Rock Melon) (Cattle Pumpkin) 

Abrus precatorius, L., very 
active. (Crab's Eye) 

Other plant parts which were found to give a reaction 
for urease were: — 

Ovules and pollen of a Hippeastrum. 

The tubercles, rootlets and bulb of Macrozamia 
spiralis, Miq. 

Dried immature leaves of a Wistaria. A measure- 
ment made of the activity of these showed that 
1 gram of the dried leaf was capable of decom- 
posing '3 grams of urea in 16 hours. 

Crushed dried remains of the following also reacted for 
the presence of the enzyme, the reaction obtained with 
the lichens being particularly pronounced and rapid. 

A red Alga (saprophytic) from old fence. 
A green Alga „ „ 

Ramulina yemensis, a gray lichen. 
Xanthoria parietina, a golden lichen. 
Usnea barbata, a lichen. 

Although no conclusions as to the part which this enzyme 
actually plays in the economy of the plant can be drawn 
from the above observations, the fact that it has been 
detected in parts in which symbiosis occurs and in other 
parts in which active metabolic changes are doubtless in 
progress, as in pollen, ovules, young leaves, etc., seems to 
suggest that some correlation may exist between its 
presence and those processes of elaboration and interchange 
of nutritive material which must be constantly occurring 
in the living plant. 



80 M. S. BENJAMIN. 

I have to thank Mr. O. T. Musson who kindly helped me 
to collect the nodules and other plant parts, which have 
been examined, and who has been good enough to name 
the various plants, and to make suggestions for carrying 
on the work. 

References. 

Armstrong and Horton, Proc. Roy. Soc, Ser. B, 85, 1912, p. 109. 

Armstrong, Benjamin and Horton, Proc. Roy. Soc, Ser. B, 86, 
1913, p. 328. 

G. Zemplen, Hoppe-Seyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Chem. 79, 1912, No. 
3, pp. 229 - 234. 

K. G. Falk, Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 35, 1913, No. 3, pp. 292 

-294. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 81 



AOAOIA SEEDLINGS, Part I. 
By R. H. Oambage, f.l.s. 

With Plates VIII to XII. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 7, 1915.] 



SYNOPSIS: 
Sequence in the Development op Leaves. 
Seeds. 
Hypocotyl. 
Cotyledons. 
Primary Leaves. 
Bipinnate Leaves. 
Phyllodes. 

Development of Uninerves and Plurinerves. 
Twin Stems. 

Transport of Seeds by Water. 
Descriptions of Seedlings. 

In order to study the development of the genus Acacia in 
Australia, numbers of seedlings of many species are being 
raised by me, and from an investigation of their characters 
it is thought that some information will be obtained which 
will assist in making the past history of this important 
genus better understood. 

Australia is the home of that curious form of Wattle, 
which, as an adaptation to environment, has dispensed 
with its ancestral type of pinnate leaves, and developed a 
flattened or cylindrical leaf-stalk or phyllode to carry on the 
functions of leaves, and the seedlings show the phases of 
this transition occurring at the present day. A few species 
of phyllodineous Acacias are also found in New Caledonia, 

F— July 7, 1915. 



82 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

the Indian Archipelago, and the Pacific Islands, and these 
closely resemble some of the species of tropical Australia. 1 

Sequence in the Development of Leaves. 

As already pointed out, the usual sequence in the develop- 
ment of the leaves is that the cotyledons are succeeded by 
one simply-pinnate leaf, and this is followed by a varying 
number of alternate abruptly bipinnate leaves, the common 
petioles being mere stalks on the lower leaves, but gradu- 
ally becoming more dilated on the upper ones, until at last 
they develop without any bipinnate leaves on their tips, 
and carry on the functions of ordinary leaves. 2 

From an examination of about 400 seedlings of about 60 
species, the above sequence is found to be maintained in 
the great majority of cases, in fact only four species have 
been noticed so far, which show a constant divergence. 
The point of difference lies in the number of simply-pinnate 
leaves. Seedlings of the majority of species so far examined 
have only one pinnate leaf, immediately following the 
cotyledons, but in four species, about 70 examples have 
been found to produce an opposite pair of pinnate leaves. 
One seedling of A. aneura had an opposite pair of pinnate 
leaves, though this species appears to commonly have only 
one. In every case this pair has been succeeded by a 
bipinnate leaf, and except for the pinnate leaves appearing 
singly or in pairs, the sequence is the same in each case. 
In no instance has an example been found with the cotyle- 
dons immediately succeeded by a bipinnate leaf, although 
Lubbock records Acacia Burkittii as such a case. 

1 B. Fl., Vol. ii, p. 301. 

8 "A Contribution to our Knowledge of Seedlings," by Sir John Lubbock, 
Vol. i, p. 339, (1892). 

" Dimorphic Foliage of Acacia rubida&nd Frutification during Bipinnate 
Stage/' by E. H. Cambage, this Journal, xlviii, p. 136, (1914). 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



83 



Amongst those species which have only one pinnate leaf 



are the following: — 

Acacia triptera, Benth. 

,, lanigera, A. Ounn. 

,, juniper ina, Willd. 

(with few exceptions) 

„ armata, R.Br. 

,, hispidula, Willd. 

,, unduli folia, A. Cunn. 

,, verniciflua, A. Ounn. 

,, leprosa, Sieb. 

,, stricta, Willd. 

„ falcata, Willd. 

,, penninervis, Sieb. 

„ neriifolia, A. Ounn. 

,, accola, Maiden and 
Betche 

„ pycnantha, Benth. 

,, obtusata, Sieb. 

„ rubida, A. Ounn. 

„ amoena, Wendl. 

,, suaveolens, Willd. 

,, linifolia, Willd. 

,, fimbriata, A. Cunn. 

,, prominens, A. Ounn. 

,, buxifolia, A. Ounn. 

,, podalyricefolia,A.G. 



Acacia vestita, Ker. 

,, pravissima, F.v.M. 
,, elongata, Sieb. 
„ Daivsoni, R.T.Baker 
,, pendula, A. Cunn. 
,, stenophylla, A. Ounn. 
(with an exception) 
,, melanoxylon, R. Br. 
,, implexa, Benth. 
,, binervata, DO. 
,, alpina, F.v.M. 
,, longifolia, Willd. 
,, floribunda, Willd. 
„ phlebophylla, F.v.M. 
,, linearis, Sims. 
„ Maideni, F.v.M. 
„ pityoides, F.v.M. 
,, aneura, F.v.M. (with 

an exception) 
,, torulosa, Benth. 
,, glaucescens, Willd. 
„ Cunninghamii, Hook. 
,, aidacocarpa, A. Cunn. 
(with some exceptions) 
,, holosericea, A. Ounn. 



Bipinnat^: — A. elata, A. Ounn., A. pruinosa, A. Cunn., 
A, spectabilis, A. Cunn., A. discolor, Willd., A. decurrens, 
Willd., A. Baileyana, F.v.M., A. dealbata, Link., A. lepto- 
clada, A. Ounn., A. pubescens, R.Br., A. Bidivilli, Benth., 
(only one examined). 

Lubbock records five species with only one pinnate leaf, 
viz. : — A. verticillata, Sieb., A. dodonecefolia, Willd., A. 



84 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

lophantha, Willd., (regarded as an Albizzia by Bentham), 
A. aeantliocarpa, Willd., and A. dealbata. 

The four species so far noticed which constantly have an 
opposite pair of simply-pinnate leaves are:— Uninerves — 
Racemosse: A. leiophylla, Benth., A. salicina, Lindl., var, 
varians, and var. Wayce, Maiden, A. my Hi folia, Willd . 

Bipinnat^e — Gummiferse: A. Farnesiana, Willd. 

This feature was first noticed on seedlings of A. Farnesi- 
ana and next on those of A. myrtifolia. As the former is 
the only Acacia known to occur in Africa, Asia and 
America as well as Australia, and the latter is one of the 
most widely spread in Australia, it was considered that 
possibly these are among the older forms and that the more 
recent species have lost one pinnate leaf. Prompted by 
the assumption that the widely spread species are the 
oldest, which of course is by no means a certainty, and that 
those with a pair of simply-pinnate leaves are in some way 
connected with such a group, an effort was made to procure 
seeds of A. salicina, another widely spread species recorded 
from all the States of the mainland of Australia. Seeds of 
the type were not obtainable, but some of the variety 
Wayce, grown at the Sydney Botanic Gardens, were 
obtained from Mr. J. H. Maiden, and later those of the 
variety varians were forwarded by Mr. H. O. Oullen from 
near Barcaldine in Queensland. Both of these varieties 
produced seedlings with the opposite pair of pinnate leaves, 
and subsequently the feature has been noticed on seedlings 
of A. leiophylla, a West Australian species, with a more 
restricted range. Probably other examples may be found 
later. 

If those species with only one pinnate leaf have been 
developed from an older type with two pinnate leaves, then 
it seems reasonable to expect that the newer form will 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



85 



sometimes revert to the original or ancestral type. Possibly 
the above quoted example of A. aneura is such an instance. 

The point is certainly an interesting one, and as the 
present work of examining seedlings proceeds, information 
may be obtained which will admit of a more definite con- 
clusion being arrived at in regard to the relative ages of 
those species with one, and those with a pair of simply- 
pinnate leaves. It has already been noticed in the case of 
A. leiophylla that although the pair of pinnate leaves 
appear at the same time, they are of unequal size, as though 
in some way one has an ascendancy over the other, but in 
the course of a week or two they become almost equal. In 
the other three species mentioned the pinnate leaves of 
each pair are equal in size from the time they first appear. 

Seeds. 

Acacia seeds vary in shape, size and colour. In shape 
they may be compressed-globular, orbicular, ovate, obovate, 
ovoid, ovate-oblong, obovate-oblong, oval-oblong, oblong, 
and flat. In size they range at least from 3 mm. long by 
nearly 2 mm. broad, as in the case of A. holosericea, and 
up to a diameter of 1*1 cm. in the case of the flat seed of 
A. Bid willi. 

The method adopted in raising seedlings has been to 
place the seeds in a cup which is then filled with boiling 
water and left for about two hours. The seeds are then 
placed in pots and covered with about half an inch of light 
soil. 

The oldest seeds used so far were eight years old, being 
those of A. leprosa, but it is well known that Acacia seeds 
will germinate after fifty years, and Professor Ewart of 
Melbourne records having in two instances, germinated 
Acacia seeds sixty-seven and sixty-eight years old. 1 In 

1 "On the Longevity of Seeds/' by Prof. Alfred J. Ewart, d.sc, ph.d., 
f.l.s., Proc. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, xxi, (N.S.) pt. 1, 1908. 



86 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

my own garden, seedlings of Acacia falcata appear every 
year, and these are from seeds which have been in the soil 
for twenty-six years and upwards. 

Hypocotyl. 

The hypocotyl varies in colour, thickness and length. So 
far as observed, it is usually glabrous in this genus, but in 
some species the upper portion may in time become 
sprinkled with a few hairs, and it tapers from base to apex, 
generally evenly, but in some cases becoming suddenly con- 
stricted just above the soil. Its colour ranges from very 
pale or almost colourless, to pale green and pale pink, 
brown or red. Its thickness at the base is from about 1 mm. 
to 2 mm., and at the apex from about '5 mm. to 1*5 mm. 
According to present observations its length ranges from 
about 1 cm. to 5*5 cm., but the total length or extent above 
the soil, does not appear to be constant for any species, 
and is largely regulated by the presence or absence of 
shelter, those growing in the open often being shorter than 
others which are sheltered, and which attain the greater 
length in their upward search for the light. The first por- 
tion of the plant to appear above the soil is the curved 
upper part of the hypocotyl and the base of the cotyledons. 

Cotyledons. 
The majority of Acacia cotyledons are oblong with the 
apex rounded, and with the outer side at first more or less 
convex, and the inner surface flat. Some are ovate while 
others are orbicular. All, so far examined, have entire 
margins but may be sagittate or auricled at the base, and 
are glabrous. The majority are sessile though a few are 
distinctly petiolate. As the curved upper portion of the 
hypocotyl straightens out it gradually pulls the cotyledons 
from the soil and out of the testa, the apex being the last 
to appear. If the seeds are not sufficiently covered with 
soil, they sometimes appear before the cotyledons have 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 87 

emerged, and if the latter are unable to free themselves, 
the seedling may perhaps perish. 

The majority of Acacia cotyledons first assume a vertical 
position, but within about a week, or less in some cases, 
become horizontal, and may remain on the plants from two 
to eight weeks or even longer. Those which remain vertical 
usually fall off in about eight or ten days during the summer 
months, but may remain longer in the winter, notably those 
of A. neriifolia, leiophylla, salicina, and myrtifolia. A 
feature of thin cotyledons is that within a day or two they 
become revolute, and later, often cylindrical, after which 
they soon fall. In some species such as, amongst others, 
A. juniper ina, armata, suaveolens, aneura and Dawsoni, 
the cotyledons may remain on the plant until after the 
advent of the phyllodes. 

The cotyledons of A. stenophylla, Bidwilli, and Far- 
nesiana are fairly fleshy while those of A. pendula and 
aneura are slightly less so. The significance of the geo- 
graphical distribution of the fleshy cotyledons will be 
discussed in a later paper after more evidence becomes 
available, but this form appears to be one which is able to 
exist in areas where the climate is subarid, or where the 
rainfall is confined mainly to one season of the year. 
Primary Leaves. 

In about 400 seedlings raised, the first leaf to appear has 
always been simply-pinnate. In a few cases, already 
referred to, there have appeared an opposite pair of such 
leaves. These leaves are petiolate, with stalks averaging 
from 3 to 5 mm. long, and which emerge from the stem at 
right angles to the cotyledons and very slightly above them, 
the first internode often measuring scarcely *5 mm., con- 
sequently the first leaf and the cotyledons often appear to 
be at the same level. In the cases of A. hispidula, lelo- 
phylla and stenophylla, the stalks are sometimes over 1 cm. 
long. 



88 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

In many species the primary leaf is quite glabrous, but 
in others the stalk, or in fewer cases the rachis, may be 
pilose, and the margins of the leaflets ciliate. Leaflets 
commonly number from two to five pairs, but the number 
is not constant for any species and sometimes only one 
pair may appear on a species which usually has two. A. 
accola may have up to eight, and A. Bidivilli nine pairs. 

The leaflets are generally very shortly petiolate, the 
petioluie varying from about '2 mm. to 1 mm. long, and they 
are usually opposite, but some are alternate. The terminal 
pair are generally opposite, and the rachis excurrent. A 
common shape of the leaflets is oblong-acuminate, some- 
times mucronate and oblique, though they may be even 
cuneate. 

There is considerable similarity in the venation of the 
leaflets of most species. First there is the midrib extend- 
ing somewhat obliquely along the length of the leaflet and 
nearer to the upper than the lower margin. Next between 
the lower margin and the midrib there is, in many species, 
a second longitudinal vein, radiating from the base of the 
leaflet, and extending, in part, almost parallel to the mid- 
rib until it reaches near the lower margin about or above 
the centre. There is also a system of reticulating veins, 
but owing to the thickness of the epidermis this is often 
indistinct. (Fig. 1.) 

The disposition of the two longitudinal veins, in many 
species, is suggestive of the possibility that the present 
form is a modification of a leaflet which was formerly 
triplinerved. This suggestion is supported by the tripli- 
nerved venation of the cotyledons of such species as A. 
suaveolens and A. aneura, but requires to be further 
investigated. 

Out of about 400 seedlings taken from about 60 species, 
only two cases so far have been noticed where the third 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



89 



leaf is simply-pinnate, viz., those of A. juniperina, (Plate 
VIII, No. 1), though a few others have appeared so, owing 
to one of the pinnae not having developed or having fallen 

off. In all these cases the first leaf 
has been simply-pinnate, so that 
the generally-accepted view that 
the ancestors of the present 
Acacias had simply-pinnate leaves 
seems correct. This being so, it 
is perhaps not remarkable that 
the simply-pinnate leaf should 
sometimes reappear among the 
seedling foliage, and with ex- 
tended search, many more exam- 
Fig, l. Acacia suaveoiem. pies among various species will 

Cotyledons and primary leaf. x2. probably be found. 




Bipiimate Leaves. 
Next after the pinnate leaf, or in some cases the opposite 
pair of pinnate leaves, come the bipinnate leaves, arranged 
alternately; the common petioles usually becoming longer 
for each succeeding leaf. The leaflets much resemble those 
of the pinnate leaf. In some instances one of the pinnae 
may be broken off, or may not properly develop, and unless 
care be exercised in the observations, the leaf may perhaps 
be regarded as simply-pinnate. Often, however, some 
slight portion of the absent pinna or the excurrent point 
of the common petiole remains as evidence of the previous 
state of the leaf. In certain species, however, including 
A, aidacocarpa, the second and third leaves may commonly 
develop with only one pinna, but with the excurrent point 
of the petiole quite distinct, and no definite evidence of 
even the rudiments of the second pinna. These appear to 
be examples of a transition stage which will be referred to 
when more data are available, and should rather be 



90 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

regarded as abnormal bipinnate than pinnate leaves. In a 
few species the pinnae increase on some of the succeeding 
leaves to several pairs, and on many species each succeed- 
ing bipinnate leaf often produces an increased number of 
leaflets. 

A well known feature in connection with many species 
of phyllodineous Acacias is that should the trees be cut 
back or wounded, bipinnate leaves will often appear, while 
in a few species, particularly A. rubida and melanoxylon, 
the older portions of a sound branch may be covered with 
phyllodes, while without any apparent cause, the terminal 
leaves of the same branch may be bipinnate, both of the 
above characters thereby showing a reversion to some form 
of ancestral foliage. The feature is perhaps more common 
on suckers than on plants which have grown from seedlings; 
though so far as observed, an Acacia sucker does not appear 
to ever produce a simply-pinnate leaf, but the point requires 
further investigation. Mr. A. A. Hamilton has recorded an 
instance of a tree fifteen feet high of A. melanoxylon pro- 
ducing bipinnate leaves on the tips of the phyllodes. 1 At 
the last monthly meeting of this Society Mr. E. Oheel 
exhibited a flowering specimen of A. suaveolens showing 
bipinnate foliage above the fruiting or pod-bearing twigs. 

Phyllodes. 

It is well known that the phyllodes are the cylindrical, 
dilated or vertically flattened petioles of the bipinnate 
leaves, and this curious development has apparently taken 
place in response to environment. For some reason, prob- 
ably climatic, the plants evolved this form of structure as 
being more suitable under the existing circumstances for 
carrying on the functions of leaves than were the original 
leaves. A study of the seedlings shows that the transition 
from leaves to phyllodes takes place at different periods of 

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxix, 1914, p. 254. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 91 

growth in different species, and also even in the same 
species. As already pointed out in a previous paper in 
this Journal (1914, p. 136), Acacia rubida may reach a 
height of ten feet, and bear flowers aud fruit before any 
phyllodes appear, though it is the only species of phyllo- 
dineous Acacia so far recorded as doing so, while others, 
such as A. Dawsoni and aneura, may show considerable 
transition from petiole to phyllode on the second bipinnate 
leaf, the succeeding leaf being wholly phyllodineous, and 
this before the plants are more than two inches high. 
Others again, such as A. salicina var. varians may show 
the phyllode almost complete on more than a dozen bipin- 
nate leaves, before the phyllode appears without any 
leaflets. 

Development of Uninerves and Flurinerves. 

In studying the transition from linear to dilated petioles 
and phyllodes, it becomes apparent that in many species of 
both uninerves and plurinerves one of the first indications 
of the change is manifested by a thickening of the nerve, 
partially or wholly, along or near the lower margin of the 
petiole, with the upper margin sometimes channelled. Next 
comes a vertical flattening or flange-like extension of the 
upper margin, with perhaps no dilation for some time on 
the lower margin, as though the effect of sunlight may be 
in some way responsible for this curious upward develop- 
ment. During this development the strong lower marginal 
nerve may be seen to retain the place of the original petiole, 
and is continuous from the plant stem to the base of the 
pinnae. If the phyllode ultimately becomes a uninerve, 
then succeeding petioles show an increased amount of flange 
below as well as above the nerve, until at last the phyllodes 
appear with the nerve in about the centre of the blade, 
which shows obscurely a system of reticulating veins. 
(Fig. 3.) 



92 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

The development of the plurinerved phyllode is some- 
what more complex. The first indication of its advent is 
also a strong straight nerve along or near the lower margin 
of the petiole. On a succeeding petiole a convex flange- 
like extension is developed on the upper margin, and in 
this lamina a fine vein may appear approximately parallel 
to the lower nerve and often confluent with it at both ends. x 
A subsequent petiole may show the lamina becoming much 
broader on the upper side of the strong nerve, with an 
increased interval between the two nerves, while a lateral 
extension of the lamina has commenced on the lower side. 
If the phyllode is finally two-nerved, as in A. vernicifiua 
and biriervata, the lower nerve is usually the more 
prominent, and the remainder of the blade may be pinnately 
veined with fine lateral veins on either side of both nerves. 
(Fig. 2.) 

When the phyllode is triplinerved, or quintuplinerved, 
the early development is the same as in the two-nerved 
types, but succeeding petioles show a lateral extension 
below the more prominent nerve which now appears to 
become the central vein, and the lower margin becomes 
nerve-like, or an intramarginal vein may develop on the 
lower side. 

With a continued expansion of the blade in subsequent 
petioles or early phyllodes, the nerve-like margins of one 
phyllode sometimes seem to be represented by intramarginal 
veins on subsequent ones. Where the phyllodes are 
multinerved, the interspaces are usually finely striate 
with parallel veins. 

Until more species are examined no conclusive opinion 
can be expressed as to the relative ages of the uninerves 

1 "The Development and Distribution of the Natural Order Legu- 
minosav" by E. C. Andrews, b.a., f.g.s., this Journal, Vol. xlviii, p. 396, 
(1914). 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 93 

and plurinerves, but the evidence to hand points to the 
uninerves as being the earlier form. 
Twin Stems. 
A curious feature noticed in connection with seedlings of 
A. juniperina raised from seed obtained near Professor 
David's residence at Woodford, is that in two separate 
cases one seed produced a divided hypocotyl, each portion 
becoming a separate stem having its pair of cotyledons, its 
one pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. (See 
Plate VIII, Nos. 3 and 4). In the case of Number 3 the 
bifurcation occurs just below the cotyledons, one of which 
is slightly higher than the other, but in Number 4, although 
the division first appeared at about the same position, it 
gradually worked down as the plant grew, until it reached 
the base of the hypocotyl. This appears to be the first 
record of twinning in the genus Acacia. 

Mr. E. O. Andrews has recently found an example of 
twinning in a seedling near Botany Bay, apparently A. 
juniperina, and extended investigation will probably show 
that the feature occurs in many species. 

Transport of Seeds by Water. 
In connection with plant distribution over isolated areas, 
and the possibility of certain species being indigenous to a 
particular country or not, the question of transport of seeds 
by water has been much discussed by various writers. 
Where a species is found in two or more continents or on 
widely separated islands, theories are propounded to 
account for its distribution over these areas. Two of the 
commonest theories in regard to such dispersal are that the 
distribution is due either to a former land connection having 
existed between the two countries in question, or that 
seeds may have been transported by water. In certain 
cases the question of dispersal by wind and birds has to be 
carefully considered. The only Australian species of 



94 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Acacia which occurs also in America, Asia, Africa, and 
intervening islands, is A. Famesiana, and as it seemed 
doubtful that its existence antedated the final separation 
of the great tropical lands, an experiment was made to see 
whether seeds of this species would retain their vitality in 
sea- water long enough for it to be possible for them to 
survive an ocean journey between these continents and 
islands. A pod with seeds of Acacia Famesiana from 
Boomarra, north of Oloncurry, in tropical Queensland, was 
placed in a bottle of sea- water, and it sank in a few days 
or after the water entered the pod. Free fertile seeds of 
this species will sink immediately. At the end of three 
months the seeds were taken out, and found to be in a 
perfectly sound condition, and after being placed in boiling 
water, four were planted. In about two weeks one of the 
seeds germinated, producing a healthy plant. At the end 
of three months one of the remaining seeds was taken out 
of the ground, placed in boiling water and replanted. In 
two weeks this germinated, and produced the plant shown 
in Plate XII. 

Seeds of the same species, collected by Sir William Oullen 
near Barcaldine in Central Queensland, were perfectly 
sound after having been left in sea-water for five months. 
After 146 days, two of the seeds were taken out and planted 
after having been placed in boiling water, and both ger- 
minated readily. At the end of 190 days another seed was 
taken out, and was so hard and sound that when dropped 
into a cup from a height of nine inches it bounced out of 
the cup. This seed was at once planted, after having been 
placed in boiling water, and germinated readily. 

These experiments demonstrate that seeds of A. 
Famesiana will retain their vitality in sea-water long 
enough to be transported by an ocean current for thousands 
of miles. It would probably be necessary however that 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 95 

they should be conveyed on pieces of driftwood or pumice, 
for the very long distances, but anyone familiar with the 
sea shore well knows that every flooded river carries vast 
quantities of debris into the ocean, and some of this is 
transported by currents far from its original home. 

Charles Darwin visited Oocos Keeling Islands in 1836, 
and collected specimens of about twenty species of plants, 
the whole of which he considered " must have been trans- 
ported by the waves of the sea." The collection included 
a specimen doubtfully identified as Acacia Farnesiana, 
which species has since been definitely recorded for the 
Islands. 1 Darwin also quotes from Holman's Travels to 
the effect that amongst other things found washed up on 
the Islands were "immense trees, of red and white cedar, 
and the blue gum-wood of New Holland." 2 He subsequently 
carried out a series of experiments to test how' long 
various kinds of seeds would bear immersion in sea- water 
without losing their vitality. 3 

In an exhaustive work on various Insular Floras of 
the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern Oceans, W. Botting 
Hemsley, f.r.s., discusses oceanic dispersal of plants and 
quotes Professor Oh. Martins, of Montpellier, as having 
germinated a seed of Acacia julibrissin, (Albizzia juli- 
brissin according to Index Kewensis), and also of eight other 
species of plants, after having immersed the seeds in sea- 
water for ninety-three days. 4 He also quotes Alphonse 
De Oandolle, and Gustave Thuret as considering that 
oceanic currents, though effective in certain cases, exercise 
extremely little influence in the diffusion of plants. 

1 Journal of Eesearches into the Geology and Natural History of the 
Various Countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, p. 541. 

2 Holman's Travels, Vol. iv, p. 378. 

3 Gardener's Chronicle, 1855, and Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., i, p. 130. 

4 Report of the Scientific Eesults of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, 
Botany, Vol. i, p. 283. 



96 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

The problem has been carefully investigated over a very 
large area by Dr. Guppy. In speaking of the limited results 
obtained by testing the buoyancy in sea- water of a collec- 
tion of seeds, he says that such results are sufficient, how- 
ever, to illustrate the character of the sorting-process by 
which in the course of ages the plants with buoyant seeds 
or seed-vessels have been gathered at the coast. This is 
indicated, he writes : — 

(1) "By the far greater proportion of species with buoyant 
seeds and seed vessels amongst the shore plants than among the 
inland plants. 

(2) By the circumstance that almost all the seeds or fruits that 
float unharmed for long periods belong to shore plants. 

(3) By the fact that when a genus has both inland and littoral 
species, the seeds or fruits of the coast species as a rule float for a 
long time, whilst those of the inland species either sink at once 
or float only for a short period." 1 

In regard to Acacia Farnesiana Dr. Guppy points out 
(p. 559) that it was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by 
Europeans, and that pods of this species are now washed 
up on the beaches of the west coast of Oahu, one of the 
islands, and the seeds are to be seen germinating in num- 
bers on the beach, the seedlings striking into the sand. 

He also writes : — "The pods float unharmed in sea- water 
for four or five weeks, but the seeds, when freed, sink." 

Dr. F. Wood-Jones mentions that many hard seeds and 
seed-pods are washed ashore on Oocos-Keeling Islands. 2 He 
also has seen a tree come ashore from some far off land, 
carrying quite a wheelbarrow-load of fine earth in its 
buttressed trunk (p. 290). He adds: — " It is certain that 
such a tree would have many tenants when it started on 

1 Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific between 1S96 and 1899, 
by H. 13. Guppy, m.b., f.r.s.e., Vol. n, Plant-Dispersal, p. 22, (1906). 

2 Coral and Atolls by F. Wood-Jones, b.sc, f.z.s., p. 171. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 97 

its voyage, and it is not unlikely that some would have the 
good fortune to survive the passage.'' 

Dr. Wood-Jones tested the ocean currents at Cocos- 
Keeliog Islands by sending adrift several sealed bottles 
each containing a note asking the finder to return it. After 
a little more than six months, a bottle was found just north 
of the equator, at Brava on the east coast of Africa, and 
the author writes : — "My little note came back again none 
the worse for its sea travel of over 3,000 miles." (p. 294). 

The question of the original home of Acacia Farnesiana 
has been discussed by different writers 1 and must remain 
difficult of final solution, but from inspection of a chart 
showing the world's great ocean currents, it would seem 
possible that the species may have originated in America, 
from where it could have been transported by westerly 
currents to Australia, Asia, Africa, and intervening islands. 
This transportation may have been going on for many 
thousands of years, and great quantities of seeds perished 
in transit, and of those cast ashore only a small proportion 
may have been subsequently removed to a position suitable 
for growth. The period however, has been so vast during 
which this dispersal may have been in progress, that only 
the very smallest fraction of the numbers of transported 
seeds need have germinated in a new country for the species 
to have eventually become established therein. 

Descriptions of Seedlings. 

Pungentes — Uninerves. 

Acacia juniperina, Willd., " Prickly Wattle." Seeds from 
Woodford, Cheltenham, and Ulladulla. (Plate VIII, 
Numbers 1 to 5.) 

Seeds dull -black, oval-oblong, 4 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, 
2 mm. thick. 

1 B. Fl. Vol. it, p. 420. 
G— July 7, 1915. 



98 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Hypoeotyl erect, terete, at first pale, later becoming 
brown, sometimes tinged with red, from 1 to 2 cm. long, 1 
to 1*7 mm. thick at base, *5 to 1 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons two, sometimes three, and in the case of twin 
stems there are four, sessile, sagittate, oblong to ovate- 
oblong, at first erect but becoming horizontal in a few days, 
sometimes becoming revolute, 4 to 5 mm. long, 2 to 3 mm. 
broad, underside pale and stippled with brown towards apex 
or sometimes wholly brownish-red to dark red, usually with 
a raised line along centre, upperside green, glabrous. 

Stem terete, pubescent, brown: first internode '5 mm. 
long; second 1 mm. to 1 cm.; third 3 to 9 mm.; fourth 2 mm. 
to 1*2 cm.; fifth 1*5 to 6 mm.; differing in length in different 
individuals. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 5 to 7 mm. 
long, glabrous ; leaflets one to two pairs, obo vat e- oblong, 
acuminate, mucronate, 5 to 7 mm. long. 1 to 3 mm. broad, 
upperside green, underside paler, midrib fairly distinct 
especially in dried specimens, second nerve seen under lens, 
glabrous; rachis excurrent; stipules 1 to 2 mm. long, taper- 
ing to a fine point. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 7 mm. to 1*2 cm. long, 
slightly channelled above, glabrous, excurrent ; leaflets two 
pairs similar to those of the pinnate leaf but often smaller, 
glabrous; rachis 4 to 5 mm. long, glabrous, excurrent; 
stipules 2 mm. long. In one natural seedling from near 
Botany Bay, the second leaf was simply-pinnate. 

No. 3. Usually abruptly bipinnate, but in two specimens, 
pinnate, petiole 8 mm. to 1*1 cm. long, glabrous, excurrent; 
leaflets two pairs, sometimes obovate ; in two cases the 
leaflets were wanting and in their places were two spines; 
stipules spinescent, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. broad at base, some- 
times sprinkled with white hairs. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 99 

Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7, may be abruptly bipinnate, with one 
or two pairs of leaflets or they may be leafless pungent 
pointed phyllodes. In some cases numbers 5 and 6 may be 
phyllodes and No. 7 bipinnate. 

No. 8 and upwards. Pungent pointed phyllodes. 

Uninerves — Armatse. 

Acacia armata, R. Br., "Kangaroo Thorn." Seeds from 
Mount Ainslie, Canberra. (Plate VIII, Numbers 6 to 8.) 
Seeds black, oblong, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, 1*5 mm. 
thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale green, about 1*5 cm. long, 
1 mm. thick at base, about '8 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, sagittate, oblong, apex rounded, at 
first erect, but becoming horizontal in a few days, 5 mm. 
long, 2 mm. broad ; outer or underside yellowish to pale 
green, with one or two parallel ridges along central por- 
tion ; inner or upperside dark green, glabrous; usually 
remaining until after phyllodes appear. 

Stem terete, pilose to pubescent, green ; first internode 
*5 mm. long; second 2 to 3 mm.; third 5 mm. to 1 cm.; 
fourth 5 to 7 mm.; differing in length in different individuals. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 4 mm. long, 
green, glabrous; leaflets three to four pairs, ovate acumin- 
ate, often mucronate, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, pale green 
on both sides, oblique midrib sometimes seen without lens, 
second vein showing under lens; rachis 4 to 6 mm. long, 
glabrous, excurrent, stipules slender 1 to 2 mm. long. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 8 to 9 mm. long, pilose, 
excurrent ; leaflets two to three pairs, not strictly opposite, 
margins sometimes brownish-red, and with scattered hairs; 
rachis faintly pilose, excurrent; stipules straight, slender 
1 to 2 mm. long. 



100 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole often vertically 
flattened, 1 cm. long, and up to 1 mm. broad, pilose; leaflets 
two to three pairs, with scattered hairs which are more 
numerous towards margins, midrib fairly distinct; rachis 
pilose, excurrent ; stipules straight, slender 2 to 3 mm. long. 

No. 5. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole more dilated than in 
Nos. 3 and 4, and with a strong nerve extending just below 
the centre, from base to apex, pilose to hispid; leaflets up 
to four pairs. 

Nos. 6, 7 and 8. Usually reduced to obliquely pungent- 
pointed phyllodes, lanceolate, tapering towards the base, 
pilose, with a fairly prominent oblique midrib, and often 
with a second shorter and finer vein above, the two being 
confluent at the base, the margins hairy; stipules slender 
but becoming spinescent, 4 mm. long. 

Uninerves — Brevifolise. 

Acacia undulifolia, A. Ounn. Seeds from Yerranderie. 
(Plate VIII, Numbers 9 to 12.) 

Seeds black, oval-oblong, 5 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, 1 mm. 
thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale red, about 2 cm. long, 1*5 
to 2 mm. thick at base, 1 mm. at apex, swelling largely 
into the root, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, sagittate, oblong, apex rounded, at 
first erect, but soon becoming horizontal, re volute and 
cylindrical, falling early, 5 to 6 mm. long, 2 to 3 mm. broad; 
outer or underside light brownish-red, having 1 to 3 ridges 
along central portion; upperside pale, becoming green, 
glabrous; margins nerve-like, reddish. 

Stem terete, pubescent; first internode *5 mm.; second 
1 to 2 mm.; third and fourth 2 to 4 mm.; fifth 3 to 4 mm.; 
sixth 4 to 5 mm.; seventh 5 to 6 mm. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 101 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 2 to 3 mm. 
pale green, becoming dark green, glabrous or slightly pilose; 
leaflets four to five pairs, oblong, acuminate, 3 to 4 mm. long, 
1*5 to 2 mm. broad, at first reddish, becoming green, mid- 
rib showing under lens; rachis 5 to 6 mm. long, glabrous, 
excurrent; stipules almost reduced to scales, about 1 mm. 
long, glabrous. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole about 8 mm. long, 
hispid; leaflets four pairs, a little broader than those of the 
iirst leaf, margins ciliate; rachis 8 to 9 mm., pilose, excur- 
rent; scales indistinct. 

No. 3. Bipinnate, petiole 1 to 1*4 cm., hispid to pubescent, 
excurrent ; leaflets four to five pairs, margins ciliate, the 
pinna sometimes unequally pinnate; rachis pilose, excur- 
rent; scales pubescent. 

Nos. 4 and 5. Bipinnate, petiole about 1*5 cm. long, 
becoming channelled above or vertically flattened, in the 
latter case with a strong nerve along the lower margin, 
pubescent; leaflets five to eight pairs, pilose, margins ciliate, 
the pinna sometimes unequally pinnate; rachis hispid, 
excurrent: scales pubescent. 

No. 6. Bipinnate, petiole pubescent, vertically flattened 
and showing a prominent nerve either along the centre, or 
in the earlier stages near the lower margin of the young 
phyllode, fairly straight, and connecting with the base of 
the pinnae, the upper margin convex; rachis hispid to 
pubescent, excurrent ; scales pubescent. 

No. 7. Bipinnate or sometimes reduced to an obovate 
phyllode, 1*7 to 2 cm. long, 7 mm. broad, with distinct 
central nerve, and nerve-like margins, and indistinct lateral 
veins, mucronate, hispid to pubescent. 

Nos. 8 and upwards. Usually phyllodes. 



102 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Uninerves — Angustifolise. 
Acacia verniciflua, A. Ounn. Seeds from Yerranderie. 
Growing on Permo-Oarboniferous sandstone and shale. 
(Plate IX, Numbers 1 to 4.) 

Seeds black, oblong, 3*5 to 4 mm. long, about 1*8 to 2 mm. 
broad, 1 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale green, about 1*3 to 2*5 cm. 
long, 1 to 1*5 mm. thick at base, about '7 to *9 mm. at 
apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, sagittate, oblong, apex rounded, about 
5 mm. long, 1*5 to 2*2 mm. broad, at first erect but becom- 
ing horizontal within two or three days, outer or underside 
at first greenish yellow, becoming green in about a week, 
with one or two raised nerves from base along central 
portion, inner or upperside yellowish-green, becoming dark 
green in one week, glabrous; sometimes remaining until 
the phyllodes are present. 

Stem terete, green, glabrous, or with a few scattered 
hairs; first internode *5 mm.; second 2 to 3 mm.; third 3 to 
7 mm.; fourth 5 mm. to 1 cm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole about 4 mm. r 
green, glabrous; leaflets two to three pairs, oblong, 
acuminate, 3 to 5 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. broad, green 
above, underside paler, oblique midrib showing under lens; 
rachis 3 to 4 mm. long, green, glabrous, excurrent; stipules 
minute. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 6 to 9 mm. long, some- 
times with a strong nerve along the lower edge, green, 
glabrous or with a few scattered hairs, excurrent; leaflets 
two to three pairs, the terminal pairs opposite, the 
remainder sometimes alternate; rachis 3 to 6 mm. long, 
glabrous, excurrent; stipules reduced to scales 1 mm. long. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole about 1 cm. long, with 
a few scattered hairs, usually slightly flattened vertically^ 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



103 



with a strong nerve along the lower edge and sometimes 
decurrent on the stem ; leaflets three to four pairs ; 
stipules as in No. 2. 

No. 4. Sometimes reduced to a phyllode, or abruptly 
bipinnate with petiole from 1*5 to 
2 cm. long, 2 mm. broad, with 
strong central nerve running 
to the base of the pinnae, and a 
finer almost parallel nerve above, 
confluent with the lower one at 
the base ; leaflets four to five pairs, 
oblong to obovate-oblong. 

No. 5. Phyllodes from 2*5 to 
3*5 cm. long and up to 1 cm. broad, 
lanceolate-elliptical, two-nerved, 
the lower one being the more 
prominent, and each having a 
system of lateral anastomosing 
veins, glabrous, not viscid, as in 
the succeeding forms. 




Fig-. 2. Acacia verniciflua. 
Showing- strong- nerve on 
petiole of bipinnate leaf. 
Nat. size. 



Unlnerves — Angustifoliae. 

Acacia leprosa, Sieb. Seeds from Healesville, Victoria. 
(Plate IX, Numbers 5 to 7.) 

Seeds black, oblong, 3*5 to 4 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, 
1*3 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, reddish-green, 1 to 1*6 cm. long, 
1*3 mm. thick at base, 1 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, sagittate, oblong, apex rounded, 5 
mm. long, 2 mm. broad, at first erect but becoming hori- 
zontal in a few days and later revolute, outer or underside 
pale green, later becoming brown, with one or two raised 
lines along central portion, margins reddish-brown to peuce, 
inner or upperside dark green, glabrous; usually remaining 
until the phyllodes are present. 



104 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Stem terete or very slightly angular, pilose to pubescent; 
first internode *5 mm.; second 1 mm.; third 4 mm. to 1 cm.; 
fourth 1*3 to 1*5 cm., varying in length in different indi- 
viduals. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 5 to 6 mm. loug, 
reddish-green, becoming green, excurrent, glabrous; 
leaflets two to three pairs, oblong, ovate-oblong or obovate- 
oblong, 5 to 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, upperside green, 
underside paler, margins sometimes reddish, oblique midrib 
fairly distinct, second vein showing under pocket lens, 
glabrous; rachis 3 to 7 mm. long, glabrous, excurrent. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 8 mm. to 1*3 cm. long, 
pilose, excurrent; leaflets three to four pairs, usually 
obovate, margins red with a few scattered hairs; rachis 
6 to 9 mm. long, faintly pilose, excurrent; stipules reduced 
to scales. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 1*7 to 2*2 cm. long, 
pilose, usually slightly flattened vertically, sometimes with 
nerve showing between the lower margin and the centre, 
excurrent; leaflets four to five pairs, with scattered hairs 
on underside, and around the margins; rachis pilose, 
excurrent; stipules reduced to scales and soon disappearing. 

No. 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 2 to 2*3 cm. long, 
pilose to hirsute, vertically flattened, and showing a distinct 
nerve which is on the lower edge of the narrowed petioles, 
and along the centre of the broader or older ones, and some- 
times decurrent on the stem ; leaflets usually five pairs, 
sprinkled with hairs on the underside and along the margins, 
excurrent; rachis pilose, excurrent. 

No. 5. Phyllode with central nerve and reticulating veins, 
tomentose when first appearing, and finally sprinkled with 
short hairs which are denser towards the base. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 105 

Uninerves — Racemose. 

Acacia suaveolens, Willd. "Sweet-scented Wattle." 
Seeds from Ulladulla, growing on Permo-Oarboniferous 
sandstone. (Plate IX, Numbers 8 to 10.) 

Seeds black, oblong, 6 to 7 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, 2 mm. 
thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale pink, about 1 to 4 cm. 
long, 1*3 or rarely 2 mm. thick at base, 1 mm. at apex, 
glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, oblong, apex rounded, sagittate, 7 to 
8 mm. long, 3 to 3*5 mm. broad, at first erect, but becoming 
horizontal in a few days, and usually remaining until the 
phyllodes are present, outer or underside deep red, and 
showing distinctly, especially when dry, a raised central 
nerve, and a shorter almost parallel vein on each side 
thereof, the cotyledon being triplinerved and also having 
numerous reticulating and anastomosing veins, inner or 
upperside at first greenish-brown, becoming reddish-green 
and finally green, glabrous. (Fig. 1.) 

Stem terete in the lower portion, angular above owing 
to the presence of decurrent leaf-stalks, brownish-green, 
or sometimes glaucous. First internode *5 mm.; second 
*5 mm.; third 1 mm.; fourth 1 mm.; fifth 2 to 3 mm., vary- 
ing in length in different individuals. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 4 to 8 mm. long, 
glabrous ; leaflets three to four pairs, oblong to obovate- 
oblong, shortly acuminate, often mucronate, 5 to 7 mm. 
long, 2 to 3*5 mm. broad, the basal pair usually smaller, 
underside red or reddish-green, becoming pale green, central 
nerve distinct, second nerve and reticulating veins show- 
ing under lens, upperside reddish-green, becoming light 
green; rachis 8 mm. to 1*2 cm. long, glabrous, excurrent; 
stipules reduced to scales and soon falling. 



106 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, pinna lyrate, petiole 1 to 
1*6 cm. long, glabrous, excurrent; leaflets three to four 
pairs, pale green ; rachis 1 to 1*3 cm. long, glabrous, excur- 
rent; stipules reduced to scales. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, pinna usually lyrate, petiole 
2 to 2*7 cm. long, glabrous, excurrent; leaflets four pairs, 
obovate, two- veined; stipules reduced to scales. 

No. 4. Abruptly bipianate, pinna usually lyrate, petiole 
2*7 to 3*1 cm. long; leaflets four to five pairs; stipules 
reduced to scales 1*5 mm. long. 

No. 5. Abruptly bipinnate, pinna lyrate, petiole 3 to 4 cm. 

long, slightly flattened vertically, with nerve along lower 

margin; leaflets six pairs, the terminal pair sometimes each 

1 cm. long, and 7 mm. broad. 

No. 6. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole vertically flattened, 

3 to 4 cm. long, and 
up to 2 mm. broad, 
with a prominent 
nerve partially or 
wholly along the 
lower margin from 
the stem to the base 
of the pinnae, and 
decurrent on the 
stem, the upper 
margin nerve-like; 
leaflets six to seven 
pairs, the basal pair 
very small; stipules 
reduced to scales 
1*5 mm. long. 

No. 7. Usually a 
phyllode, linear 
lanceolate, 5 to 7 
cm. long with a dis- 
tinct midrib and 

Fig. 3. Acacia suaveolens, showing develop- 
ment of nerve in pbyllodes. Nat. size. nerve-like margins. 




ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



107 



Uninerves — Racemosse. 

Acacia prominens, A. Ounn. Seeds from Gosford — (J. H. 
Maiden). Growing on sandy soil. (Plate X, Numbers 
1 to 4.) 
Seeds black, obovate, 4*5 to 5 mm. long, 3*5 mm. broad, 
2*5 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale brown to reddish-brown, 
1*7 to 2 cm. long, 1*3 to 1*5 mm. thick at base, about 1 mm. 
at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, obovate, slightly sagittate, 5 mm. 
long, 3 mm. broad, at first erect, becoming horizontal and 
revolute in a few days, and later cylindrical, falling off in 
a few weeks; outer or underside reddish-brown with one 
or two raised longitudinal lines ; upperside dark green, 
glabrous. 

Stem terete, at first reddish-brown with a few scattered 
hairs, later pubescent ; first internode *5 mm., second 2 to 
5 mm.; third 2 to 4 mm.; fourth and fifth 4 to 5 mm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, and showing before 
the cotyledons are two days old, petiole about 5 mm. long, 
reddish-brown, with a few scattered hairs; leaflets four to 
six pairs, oblong acuminate, sometimes mucronate, 5 to 
8 mm. long, 1 to 2 mm. broad, upperside green, underside 
at first red, becoming pale green; rachis 7 mm. to 1*5 cm. 
long, brownish-green, usually glabrous or with a few 
scattered hairs. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole about 1 cm. long, at 
first pilose, often becoming pubescent, excurrent; leaflets 
four to six pairs, upperside green, paler underneath. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 1 to 1*4 cm. long, at 
first pilose, becoming pubescent, slightly channelled above, 
usually with a prominent gland near the middle of the 
upper edge ; leaflets six to nine pairs, upperside green, 



108 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

underside reddish-green, becoming pale green ; stipules 
green, oblong, acuminate, 1*5 mm. long, *5 mm. broad at 
base. 

Nos. 4 and 5. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole similar to that 
of No. 2, and with prominent gland ; leaflets six to eleven 
and rarely thirteen pairs. 

Nos. 6, 7 and 8. Either abruptly bipinnate, with petiole 
vertically flattened to scarcely 1 mm. broad, and with a 
prominent central nerve ; or reduced to a phyllode, elliptical, 
mucronate, with central nerve, sometimes running obliquely 
to the apex with the lower margin nerve-like for about half 
its length, or with central nerve merging into the lower 
margin at about half the distance to the apex, the phyllode 
pilose. 

Uninerves — Racemosse. 

Acacia vestita, Ker. Seeds from Mudgee — (L.F. Harper). 
(Plate X, Numbers 5 to 8.) 

Seeds black, obovate-oblong to oval-oblong, 5 to 6 mm. 
long, 3*5 to 4 mm. broad, 1*5 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, reddish to reddish-green, 1*7 to 
3 cm. long, 2 mm. thick at base, 1 mm. at apex, glabrous, 
or the upper portion may become sprinkled with a few hairs. 

Cotyledons sessile, very slightly auricled, overlapping 
the hypocotyl about 1 mm., obovate, 5 to 6 mm. long, 4 mm. 
broad, at first erect but becoming horizontal and revolute 
in a few days, cylindrical within a week, and falling in two 
or three weeks, outer or underside purple, usually with 
raised portion longitudinally along centre, upperside 
greyish-green, becoming green, glabrous. 

Stem terete, or angular where leaf-stalks are decurrent 
on the stem, pubescent. First internode '5 mm.; second 
1 to 8 mm.; third 1 mm. to 1*4 cm.; fourth about 3 mm.; 
fifth up to 5 mm.; sixth up to 7 mm., varying in different 
individuals. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



109 



Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 2 to 5 mm. long, 
hispid; leaflets three to four pairs, oblong-acuminate, 
usually mucronate, about 5 to 7 mm. long, and nearly 2 to 
2*5 mm. broad, underside reddish-green, becoming pale 
green, upperside light green, midrib fairly distinct, second 
vein showing under pocket lens ; rachis 7 to 8 mm. long, 
pilose, excurrent; stipules small. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 3 to 5 mm. long, hispid, 
excurrent; leaflets four to six pairs, margins sometimes 
ciliate ; rachis pilose, excurrent ; stipules 1 mm. long. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole about 6 mm. 
long, hispid to pubescent, excurrent ; leaflets and rachis 
similar to those of No. 2; stipules small. 

No. 5. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole slightly flattened 
vertically, about 6 to 7 mm. long, pubescent; leaflets six 
to seven pairs, margins sometimes ciliate, rachis hispid, 
excurrent ; stipules small. 

No. 6. Reduced to a phyllode or abruptly bipinnate, with 
dilated, hispid, falcate petiole, the tapering, hispid, excur- 
rent point being sometimes 3 mm. long, prominent central 
nerve running to the base of the pinnae on upper margin of 
flattened petiole ; leaflets about seven pairs, rachis hispid, 
excurrent. 

No. 7. Usually a phyllode obliquely-elliptical 6 to 8 mm. 
long, 4 mm. broad, hispid, upper margin almost semicircular 
lower margin straighter and somewhat nerve-like, central 
nerve curving and prominent, mucronate; lateral veins 
numerous but indistinct. 

Plurinerves — Oligoneurse. 

Acacia Dawsoni, R. T. Baker. Seeds from Queanbeyan. 
(Plate X, Numbers 9 to 11.) 
Seeds black, oblong, 3*5 to 4*5 mm. long, nearly 2 mm. 
broad, 1 mm. thick. 



110 



R. H. CAMBAGE, 



Hypocotyl erect, terete, light-brown, 1 to 1*5 cm. long, 
1 mm. thick at base, *5 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, oblong, apex rounded, slightly sagit- 
tate, 4 mm. long, 1*5 to 1*7 mm. broad, underside pale green 
stippled with brown to reddish-brown, upperside at first 
pale green becoming dark green, glabrous. 

Stem terete, glabrous. First internode *5 mm.; second 
*5 mm.; third 2 mm.; fourth 5 mm.; fifth 1 cm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 3 mm. long, 
glabrous ; leaflets two pairs, oblong, acuminate, or obovate, 
3 to 4 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. broad; upperside green, 
underside paler, midrib and second vein showing under lens; 
rachis about 2 mm. long, glabrous, excurrent. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 3 to 5 mm. long, usually 
slightly dilated, glabrous, excurrent; leaflets two pairs ; 
rachis excurrent. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 1*4 to 2 cm. long, 
vertically flattened and narrowed towards the base, show- 
ing two distinct veins confluent at both ends, the lower 
one the more prominent, glabrous; 
leaflets two pairs, oblique midrib fairly 
distinct, secondary and reticulating 
veins showing under pocket lens, 
often mucronate, green, glabrous. 

No. 4. A phyllode, about 3*5 cm. 
long, 6 mm. broad, oblong-lanceolate, 
narrowed at the base, glabrous with 
two distinct nerves confluent at both 
ends, the lower nerve the more promi- 
nent and direct, the lateral veins much 
finer and almost parallel with the 
main nerves, the loopings at the ends 
of the lateral veins forming in places 
a sort of intramarginal vein. 




Fig. 4. Acacia Dawsoni. 
About one and a half 
times natural size. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. Ill 

Plurinerves — Juliflorse — Stenophyllse. 

Acacia aneura, F.v.M., "Mulga." Seeds from Bourke, 
(J. H. Maiden). (Plate XI, Numbers 1 to 3.) 

Seeds shiny dark brown, ovate, flat, about 5 mm. long, 
nearly 4 mm. broad, 1*5 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale green, about 3 cm. long, 
1"5 mm. thick at base, 1 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons two, rarely three, sessile, obovate-oblong, 
apex rounded, sagittate, 6 to 7 mm. long, 4 to 4*7 mm. 
broad, obscurely triplinerved and with reticulate venation 
seen best in dried specimens, at first erect but becoming 
horizontal in a few days and usually remaining on the plant 
until the phyllodes appear; outer or underside pale green, 
sometimes with raised central nerve fairly distinct, upper- 
side dark green. On a plant with three cotyledons, one 
was of normal size and the other two were on the opposite 
side and smaller, being 5 to 6 mm. long, 2*5 to 3 mm. broad, 
each sagittate. 

Stem terete or slightly angular where affected by decur- 
rent leafstalks, green, thinly sprinkled with fine hairs. First 
internode '5 mm.; second 1 mm.; third 4 to 5 mm.; fourth 
about 1 cm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, usually very slow in 
developing, petiole 5 to 7 mm. long, pale green, glabrous ; 
leaflets two pairs, the petiolule sometimes 1 mm. long, 
obovate-oblong, often mucronate, with sometimes a few 
hairs on margin, 6 to 9 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, upperside 
green, underside paler, midrib distinct, especially in dried 
specimens, secondary nerve and lateral venation more 
obscured; rachis about 6 mm. long, pale green, glabrous, 
excurrent; stipules reduced to small scales. One seedling 
had an opposite pair of pinnate leaves, each with two pairs 
of leaflets. 



112 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

No. 2. Bipinnate, petiole in some cases slightly dilated, 
about 1 cm. long, pilose, excurrent; leaflets two to three 
pairs, in some cases not strictly opposite, light green. 

No. 3. Bipinnate, petiole sometimes vertically flattened, 
up to about 3 cm. long, with two distinct nerves, the more 
prominent one being close to the lower margin, and extend- 
ing directly to the base of the pinnae, sprinkled with fine 
hairs; leaflets three pairs, mucronate, margins often 
obscurely ciliate ; rachis pilose or almost glabrous, 
excurrent. 

No. 4. May be a narrow linear phyllode about 4*5 cm. 
long, 3 mm. broad, with an oblique or recurved hispid point, 
fioely striate, but with two nerves, and especially the 
lower, more conspicuous than the rest, sometimes minutely 
hoary, and more distinctly so when first appearing. 

Plurinerves — Juli florae — Falcatse. 

Acacia glaucescens, Willd., " Coast Myall.*' Seeds from 
banks of Nepean River, Mulgoa. (Plate XI, Numbers 
4 to 6.) 

Seeds black, oblong, about 4*5 to 5 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. 
broad, 1*5 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, red, from about 1*3 to 2 cm. 
long, 1 mm. thick at base, *5 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, sagittate, oblong, apex rounded, 5 to 
6 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, underside red, upperside green, 
glabrous. 

Stem terete, or slightly angular where affected by the 
decurrent leaf stalks, pubescent; first internode *5 mm.; 
second *5 mm.; third *5 to 1 mm.; fourth 1 to 2 mm.; fifth 
3 to 5 mm.; sixth about 1 cm.; varying in different indi- 
viduals. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 2 to 3 mm. long, 
pilose or almost glabrous; leaflets two pairs, oblong, 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 1 1 3 

acuminate, 4 to 5 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. broad, upperside 
green, underside red, midrib fairly distinct, secondary vein 
showing under lens, glabrous with finely ciliate margins; 
rachis 2 to 3 mm. long, slightly pilose, excurrent; stipules 
reduced to scales. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole slightly dilated in 
some cases, from about 5 mm. to 1 cm. long, pilose to hoary, 
excurrent; leaflets two pairs, upperside green, underside 
red, margins reddish with a few scattered hairs; rachis 
pilose, excurrent. 

No. 3. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole usually dilated, with 
a nerve along lower margin, pilose to hoary, excurrent ; 
leaflets two to three pairs. 

No. 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole vertically flattened, 
1*5 to 2 cm. long, 2 mm. broad, with prominent nerve along 
lower margin and three or four finer veins above, pilose to 
hoary, excurrent; leaflets three to four pairs, upperside 
green, underside at first pale red, becoming green, margins 
slightly ciliate; rachis pilose, excurrent. 

No. 5. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole vertically flattened, 
with prominent nerve along lower margin, and 8 or 9 finer 
ones above, some not extending the whole way. 

No. 6. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole vertically flattened, 
hoary, 3*5 cm. long, 6 mm. broad, narrowed at both ends, 
with a prominent nerve about 2 mm. from the lower margin, 
and a second a little less prominent about 2 mm. above, 
thus dividing the petiole into three equal sections, each of 
which is finely striate with parallel nerves; leaflets four 
to five pairs ; stiplues reduced to hoary scales, about 1*5 mm. 
long, *5 mm. broad at base, tapering to a point. 

Nos. 7, 8 and 9. Phyllodes with the two prominent nerves 
as in No. 6, and a third though slightly finer one about 
equidistant below them, the interspaces being finely striate, 

H— July 7, 1915. 



114 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

while both margins are nerve-like. There appears to be 
some relationship between this central prominent nerve and 
the strong lower-marginal nerve which appears on the 
earliest dilated petioles. These nerves do not become con- 
fluent with the lower margin towards the base as in the 
case of A. Cunninghamii. 

Plurinerves — Juliflorse — Falcatse. 

Acacia Cunninghamii, Hook. Locally called Ourracabark. 

Seeds from Barber's Pinnacle, Boggabri. (Plate XI, 

Numbers 7 to 9.) 
Seeds black, oblong, about 4*5 to 5 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. 
broad, 1*5 mm. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale red, 1*5 to 3*6 cm. long, 1 
to 1*4 mm. thick at base, *6 to 1 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, oblong, sagittate, 6 mm. long, 2 mm. 
broad, underside red, upperside green, glabrous. 

Stem terete, or slightly angular where affected by the 
decurrent leaf-stalks, pilose to hirsute. First internode 
*5 mm.; second *5 to 3 mm.; third, fourth and fifth about 
2 to 4 mm.; sixth about 1 cm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 2 to 5 mm. 
long, green, sprinkled with a few hairs; leaflets two pairs, 
oblong, acuminate, 4 to 9 mm. long, 2 to 3 mm. broad, 
upperside green, underside red, in some cases becoming 
reddish-green, midrib distinct, secondary vein showing 
under lens, margins sometimes red with a few scattered 
hairs ; rachis 2 to 4 mm. long, glabrous, excurrent ; stipules 
reddish, 1 mm. long. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 6 mm. to 1 cm. long, 
green, pilose, sometimes becoming hoary, excurrent; leaf- 
lets two pairs, upperside green, underside red, often 
becoming pale green, margins often red, with a few 
scattered hairs; rachis pale green, pilose, excurrent. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 115 

Nos. 3 and 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole usually slightly 
dilated, with distinct nerve along lower margin, pilose to 
hoary, excurrent; leaflets three pairs on No. 3, four pairs 
on No. 4; rachis green, pilose, excurrent; stipules reduced 
to scales. 

Nos. 5 and 6. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole vertically 
flattened from 1"2 to 2*5 cm. long, with a prominent nerve 
following the base of the lower margin for about one fourth 
the length of petiole, and beyond this point being slightly 
removed from the margin, the remainder of the petiole 
being finely striate with parallel veins; pilose to hirsute; 
leaflets four pairs. 

Nos. 7 and 8. Phyllodes, oblong-falcate, narrowed at both 
ends, with two distinct nerves, the lower one the more 
prominent, and becoming confluent towards the base of the 
lower margin with another distinct nerve which follows 
the lower margin from the base for a short distance beyond 
the point of contact with the prominent nerve. 

Plurinerves— Juliflorse — Dimidiatse. 

Acacia holosericea, A. Ounn. Seeds from Oroydon, North 
Queensland. (Plate XII, Numbers 1 to 4.) 

Seeds black, oblong, 3 mm. long, nearly 2 mm. broad, 
1*2 m-m. thick. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale coloured, becoming 
brownish -green, from about 1'6 to 2'2 cm. long, *8 mm. to 
1*4 mm. thick at base, about *5 to *7 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons sessile, oblong, sagittate, apex rounded, 
about 4*5 mm. long, 2 to 2*5 mm. broad, at first erect but 
becoming horizontal in a few days, and finally revolute, 
outer or underside pale green, with one or two raised lines 
along or near the centre, upperside green, glabrous. % 

Stem terete in the lower portion, but angular when 
affected by the decurrent nerves of the flattened petioles 



116 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

and phyllodes, at first green and pilose, becoming hoary; 
first internode *5 mm.; second 2 to 3 mm.; third 3 mm. to 
1 cm.; fourth 5 mm. to 1 cm. 

Leaves — No. 1. Abruptly pinnate, petiole 2 to 3 mm. 
long, at first green, becoming reddish-green, glabrous ; 
leaflets three pairs, oblong, acuminate, often mucronate, 
3 to 5 mm. long, 2 to 3 mm. broad, margins often red, mid- 
rib usually distinct, second vein showing under lens, under- 
side pale green, faintly hoary, upperside green, glabrous; 
rachis 4 to 5 mm. long, glabrous, excurrent; stipules minute. 

No. 2. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 6 mm. to 1 cm. long, 
at first green and glabrous, becoming pilose to hoary, 
excurrent; leaflets two to three pairs, the basal pair some- 
times little more than rudimentary, oblong to obovate, 
underside pale green, very faintly hoary, margins often red, 
with a few scattered hairs; rachis glabrous, excurrent. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Abruptly bipinnate, petioles up to 1 cm. 
long ; leaflets four to five pairs. 

No. 5. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole about 1 cm. long, 
slightly dilated, or channelled above, leaflets seven pairs; 
rachis 1*7 cm. long; stipules reduced to scales. 

No. 6. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 2*5 cm. long, vertically 
flattened, 2 mm. broad, narrowed at both ends, pilose", with 
a prominent nerve along the lower margin, decurrent on 
the stem, and connected with the base of the pinnae, also 
having a fine, though distinct vein along the centre of the 
petiole, and confluent at both ends with the lower marginal 
nerve; leaflets eight pairs. 

No. 7. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole 3 cm. long, vertically 
flattened, 6 mm. broad, narrowed at both ends, owing to 
tho* flange like broadening of the dilated petiole the 
prominent nerve in its central portion is slightly removed 
from the lower margin, but coincides with it for a short 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 



117 



K 



Fig. 5. Acacia holosericea. 

Adult leaf showing 
convergence of three 
prominent veins towards 
lower margin. About 
two-thirds natural size. 



distance at both ends, and extends 
from the base of the pinnae to the 
stem where it becomes decurrent. 
There is also a fine nerve along the 
lower margin. This fine vein and 
the prominent nerve appear to cor- 
respond with the more prominent 
lower marginal nerve in No. 6. The 
finer though distinct central vein is 
scarcely confluent with the prominent 
nerve at either end ; leaflets eight to 
ten pairs. 

No. 8. A phyllode with two dis- 
tinct nerves, equally prominent, 
confluent at the apex and also at 
the lower margin near the base, while 
a third slightly less distinct nerve 
follows on the lower margin, the 
whole being thinly sprinkled with 
short fine hairs, but very much less 
dense and conspicuous than the 
beautiful silky pubescence which 
appears on the usually triplinerved 
adult foliage. 

Bipinnat^ — Gummiferse. 

Acacia Parnesiana, Willd. Locally 
called Mimosa. Seeds from Boo- 
marra, Oloncurry, North Queens- 
land. (Miss K. Hillcoat.) (Plate 
XII, Numbers 5 and 6.) 

Seeds brown, obliquely obovate, 
slightly concave on one side, 8 mm. 
long, 5 mm. broad, 4 mm. thick. 



118 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale coloured, 2*2 to 3*6 cm. 
long, 2 mm. thick at base, 1*5 mm. at apex, glabrous. 

Cotyledons ovate, petiolate, auricled, at first erect, 
becoming horizontal in a few days and often remaining on 
plant for two to three months, up to 1*2 cm. long, 7 mm. 
to 1 cm. broad, fleshy, outer or underside at first pale yellow, 
becoming yellowish-green, upperside light green, glabrous; 
petiole 2 to 2*5 mm. long. 

Stem terete, green, glabrous. First internode 1 to 5 mm.; 
second 8 mm. to 1*8 cm.; third 6 mm. to 1*4 cm.; fourth 
7 mm. to 1*8 cm. 

Leaves — Nos. 1 and 2. Abruptly pinnate, forming an 
opposite pair, petiole slender, from about 6 mm. to 1 cm. 
long, yellowish-green, glabrous; leaflets five pairs, narrow- 
oblong to obovate-oblong, shortly acuminate or obtuse, 3 
to 7 mm. long, 1*5 to 2 mm. broad, oblique midrib fairly 
distinct, upperside light green, underside paler; rachis up 
to 2 cm. long, slender, glabrous ; stipules 1*5 mm. long. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Abruptly bipinnate, petiole slender, 
from about 6 mm. to 1*5 cm. long, pale green, often chan- 
nelled above, glabrous, excurrent: leaflets five to seven 
pairs, similar to those of Nos. 1 and 2 ; rachis slender, up 
to 2*5 cm. long, excurrent; stipules converted into tender 
spines up to 4 mm. long. 



In all the above descriptions the measurements quoted 
of the various parts of the seedlings are either the average 
lengths or the extremes so far met with, but in some cases 
the variation is so considerable that it seems likely further 
investigation may show that the greatest extremes of 
length have not yet been recorded. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 119 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate VIII. 

Acacia juniperina, Willd. 

1. Cotyledons, first and third leaves pinnate, second and fourth 
bipinnate, stipules. Ulladulla. 

2. Three cotyledons and pinnate leaf. Cheltenham. 

3. Twin stems from one seed, each stem with two cotyledons and 

one pinnate leaf, hypocotyl bifurcated just beneath cotyledons. 
Woodford, 

4. Twin stems from one seed, cotyledons (four) dropped, hypo. 

cotyl bifurcated at base. Woodford. 

5. Pod and seeds. Ulladulla. 

Acacia armata, R. Br, 

6. Cotyledons, pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves, phyllodes, stipules^ 
and root nodules. Mount Ainslie, Canberra. 

7. Cotyledons, pinnate and bipinnate leaves. 

8. Pod and seeds. 

Acacia unduli/olia, A. Cunn. 

9. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. Yerranderie,, 

Burragorang. 
19. Revolute cotyledons and pinnate leaf. 

11. Cotyledons, with pinnate leaf just showing. 

12. Part of pod and seeds. 

Plate IX. 

Acacia vewiiciflua, A. Cunn. 

1. Cotyledons. Yerranderie. 

2. Cotyledons and pinnate leaf. 

3. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. 

4. Pod and seeds. 

Acacia leprosa, Sieb. 

5. Cotyledons, pinnate and young bipinnate leaves. Healesville, 
Victoria. 

6. Cotyledons, pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes 

7. Pod and seeds. 



120 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Acacia suaveolens, Willd. 

8. Cotyledons and pinnate leaf. Ulladulla. 

9. One cotyledon, pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. 
10. Pod and seeds. 

Plate X. 

Acacia prominens, A. Cunn. 

1. Cotyledons with pinnate leaf showing. Gosford, (J. H. Maiden). 

2. Re volute cotyledons and pinnate leaf. 

3. Bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. Pinnate leaf dropped Gland 

showing on some of upper phyllodes. 

4. Pod and seeds. 

Acacia vestita, Ker. 

5. Cotyledons. Mudgee, (L. F. Harper). 

6. Cylindrical cotyledons and pinnate leaf. 

7. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. Nodules on 

roots. 

8. Part of pod and seeds. 

AGacia Dawsoni, H. T. Baker. 

9. Cotyledons, pinnate and bipinnate leaves. Queanbeyan. 

10. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. 

11. Pod and seeds. 

Plate XI. 
Acacia aneura, F.v.M. 

1 . Cotyledons (three), pinnate leaf and young bipinnate leaves. 

Bourke, (J. H. Maiden). 

2. Cotyledons, pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. 

3. Seeds. 

Acacia glaucescens, Willd. 

4. Cotyledons, pinnate leaf, and two bipinnate leaves. Mulgoa. 

5. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves (with one pinna broken off No. 

3), and phyllodes. 

6. Pod and seeds. 



ACACIA SEEDLINGS. 121 

Acacia Cunninghamii, Hook. 

7. Cotyledons and pinnate leaf. Boggabri. 

8. Bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. Pinnate leaf dropped. 
9 Half length of pod and seeds. 

Plate XII. 
Acacia holosericea, A. Cunn. 

1. Cotyledons with tip of pinnate leaf showing. Croydon, 

North Queensland. 

2. Cotyledons and pinnate leaf. 

3. Pinnate leaf, bipinnate leaves and phyllodes. Nodule on root. 

4. Spirally twisted pod and seeds. 

Acacia Famesia7ia, Willd. 

5. Cotyledons, opposite pair of pinnate leaves, bipinnate leaves 

and stipules. Boomarra, Cloncurry, North Queensland, (Miss 
K. Hillcoat). The seed from which this plant grew, was left 
in sea-water for three months, then placed in boiling water 
and planted. After three months it was taken up, placed in 
boiling water and again planted, when it at once germinated. 

6. Pod and seeds. 



122 W. WALTER WATTS. 



SOME NOTES ON Blechnum capense, (L.) Schlecht. 
(with description of var. Gregsoni, var. nov.) 

By Rev. W. Walter Watts. 



(Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 7, 1915.] 



Special interest attaches to the fern known as Blechnum 
capense, a species having a wide tropical and subtropical 
range, being found in South Africa, South America, and in 
"the mountains of all countries and islands of the South 
Seas and the Malayan area" (teste Dr. Christ). It is well- 
known and widely spread in Australasia, especially on the 
Blue Mountains of New South Wales, in the southern dis- 
tricts of Australia generally, and in Tasmania and New 
Zealand. 

Many botanists, in the nineteenth century, following 
Wiildenow (1809), divided the ferns now included in Blech- 
num into the two genera, Lomaria and Blechnum. Lomaria 
was made to consist of blechnoid ferns having dimorphic 
leaves, the fruiting fronds, or their segments, being of linear 
form, with a marginal sorus covered by an involucre (indu- 
sium) formed of the modified and incurved margin of the 
leaf; Blechnum consisted of similar ferns in which, how- 
ever, the leaves were of uniform shape, the sorus parallel 
with, and adnate to, the midrib, and the involucre indepen- 
dent of, and at a distance from, the margin. In some 
systems the two genera were even placed in separate 
tribes. 

Under this classification, Blechnum capense appeared as 
Lomaria capensis, Willd., or Lomaria procera, (Forst.) 
Spreng. 



NOTES ON BLECBNUM CAPENSE. 123 

This generic separation of Lomaria from Blechnum has 
been discontinued by most modern pteridologists, all the 
blechnoid ferns being now comprised in the genus Blechnum; 
but the divergent characters of the two forms have been 
recognised in the subgenera, Lomaria and Eublechnum. 

Blechnum capense is invariably placed within the sub- 
genus Lomaria, because its normal form shews linear fertile 
pinnae, with a marginal or submarginal sorus and indusium. 
Dr. Christ (Farnkraiitr. p. 178) describes the fertile leaf of 
Lomaria procera(i.e. capensis) as being narrower than the 
sterile, and the fertile pinna as being "4 mm. breit," which 
accurately enough describes the normal form. In describ- 
ing the genus, Lomaria, however, he does not recognise 
the indusium as consisting of the modified margin of the 
leaf: it "appears almost marginal." Hooker and Baker 
(Synops. p. 179) describe the indusium of Lomaria procera 
as "sometimes slightly intramarginal," although, in their 
definition of the genus, Lomaria, the "involucre" is said 
to be "formed of the re volute edge of the frond." They 
thus recognise the divergence of this species from the 
usual lomarioid type. 

Dr. F. O. Bower published, last year, 1 the results of a 
careful phylogenetic study of "Blechnum and Allied 
Genera." In this paper, Dr. Bower contends for the view 
that Lomaria and Eublechnum are phylogenetically insepar- 
able. The former, with its dimorphic leaves, its marginal 
sori, and its indusium consisting of the modified leaf-margin, 
he takes to be the primitive form. Eublechnum, in Dr. 
Bower's view, shows an exactly similar formation, the 
intramarginal indusium being the original leaf-margin, — 
what he calls the "phyletic margin," — and the expanded 
part of the leaf, i.e., the part lying between the indusium 
and the ostensible margin, consisting of a "flange," which 

1 Annals of Botany, xxviii, No. cxi, July, 1914. 



124 W. WALTER WATTS. 

is a continuation of the lateral growth of the original fer- 
tile leaf; the indusium is said to have made a "phyletic 
slide" in the process of development. 

The bearing of Dr. Bower's investigations upon Blechnum 
capense lies in this: that this fern is of such variable form 
that it exhibits the characters, now of Lomaria, and now 
of Eublechnum. Generally, the variabilty takes such 
partial forms as the following: a pinna may show the 
normal sterile spread in its lower half, and, in its upper 
half, the narrow linear fructification; or, vice versa, the 
upper part of the pinna may have the normal sterile spread, 
and the lower part the narrow lomarioid fructification; or, 
again, the pinnae on one side of a frond may be of the usual 
sterile form, and those on the opposite side may show the 
narrowed fertile character. But Dr. Bower, with a wide 
range of specimens before him, goes further, and says that 
"types are sometimes found in which the pinna appears as 
in B. brasiliense, with the linear sori close right and left of 
the midrib, and the flange, which is usually small in this 
species, widened out into a broad expansion with an exten- 
sive venation of its own" (p. 381 k>c. cit.). 

So far as our Australian specimens are concerned, the 
great majority of them show the normal lomarioid fruiting 
form, i.e., exhibit typical dimorphic characters; but, in the 
Sydney Herbarium, there are specimens that show an 
undoubted eublechnoid tendency. This tendency, for the 
most part, appears in the irregular forms indicated by Dr. 
Bower, — forms in which the lomarioid fructification shares 
a frond with the eublechnoid sterile formation; but, now 
and again, specimens are found that exhibit the eublechnoid 
character, more or less, throughout, though, where this 
occurs, the fertile frond is usually much narrower 
than the sterile: thus preserving the typical dimorphic 
character. 



NOTES ON BLECHNUM CAPENSE. 125 

In one specimen alone, in my experience, does the full 
eublechnoid character appear. It was collected, near 
Mount Wilson (N.S.W.) by Mr. Jesse Gregson, who, for 
many years, has taken a deep interest in the botany of 
that mountain, and has sent many good specimens to the 
Sydney Herbarium. Mr. Gregson's Blechnum was collected 
in 1902; and, recently, under that gentleman's direction, 
it was found in good quantity and in excellent condition, 
by Mr. J. L. Boorman, of the National Herbarium, Sydney. 
It is, apparently, to be found at one spot alone, where it 
grows on a wet ledge in the face of a perpendicular cliff 
overlooking a permanent creek in a gully at the base of 
Green Mountain, a little on the Bell side of Mount Wilson. 

This fern, being entirely, or almost entirely, eublechnoid 
in character, I regarded, at first, as a new species: an 
opinion that was strengthened when I found specimens 
from Mr. Gregson's original collection put away, by the 
late Mr. Betche, as Blechnum serrulatum. Later, how- 
ever, I found other specimens from Mr. Gregson's collection 
in the Blechnum capense box, together with a note stating 
that this fern had been submitted to Dr. Christ, and deter- 
mined by him as an abnormal form of 18. capense. In 
support of this view, two pinnae were mounted, in which 
the fertile leaf -spread was contracted, in one or two places, 
to the lomarioid form. These pinnae are matched in some 
of Mr. Boorman's specimens, and due importance must be 
attached to them, though they appear to me to be possibly 
due to some damage by insects or bruising. But fully 
allowing for these occasional pinna-breaks as hints of 
lomarioid origin, the Green Mountain specimens appear to 
be quite unique in their eublechnoid character. With the 
exception of the slight occasional breaks referred to, all 
the fronds are entirely eublechnoid: the fertile pinnae have 
a form scarcely, if at all, distinguishable from the sterile* 



126 W. WALTER WATTS. 

while the sori are consistently juxta-costai throughout. 
The scales at the base of the stipes, and on the rhizome, 
are shorter and wider than the normal scales of B. capense, 
but this, perhaps, is not a character of large importance 
in a fern that exhibits such strange variability. Mr. 
Gregson's fern, however, being so markedly divergent from 
the typical B. capense, and representing, as it does, an 
extreme eublechnoid development, appears to me to demand 
a position as a distinct variety, which I take the liberty of 
dedicating to its discoverer as 

Blechnum capense, (L.) Schlecht, var. Gregsoni, var. nov. 

Frondes fertiles frondibus sterilibus simillimse, vel cum 
illis uniform es; fructiflcatio prope vel omnino eublechnoidea; 
basis stipitis paleis perlatis et brevibus praedita. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 127 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 
By Dr. V. F. Brotherus and the Rev. W. Walter Watts. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, July 7, 1915.~] 



Foreword by Rev. W. W. Watts. 
Many years ago, Dr. V. F. Brotherus suggested to me 
that I should try to get some of my Missionary friends in 
the New Hebrides to collect specimens of the Moss flora 
of the islands. At the time I did not realise how little was 
known of this flora, or my efforts would have been more 
serious than they were. However, in response to my 
request, Dr. Annand, who was then in charge of the Train- 
ing Institute at Tangoa, on the Island of Santo, (a position 
from which he recently retired, after nearly fifty years of 
valued service), sent me, in 1903-4, two or three small but 
intensely interesting parcels. In 1906, his colleague and 
successor, the Rev. F. G. Bowie, m.a., sent a small collec- 
tion to my friend, Mr. J. R. Murdoch, of Melbourne, 
while, in 1909, he kindly sent to me, direct, a fine collection 
of rarities. About the same time, the Rev. T. E. Riddle, 
of Epi, (now in India), began to collect the mosses of that 
island, with most interesting results. A little later, I was 
fortunate enough to interest Dr. William Gunn, of Aneityum 
and Futuna, in the mosses of his district, and he has sent 
me several beautiful collections, exceptionally rich in new 
species. His first material was divided, half of it being 
sent to the Rev. David Lillie, of Caithness; but all the 
mosses dealt with in this paper, including those sent to Mr. 
Lillie, have been examined by Dr. Brotherus, of Helsiogfors, 
who unites with me in expressing our great obligations to 
the Missionaries who have so kindly sent specimens, and 
our sincere hope that both Dr. Gunn and Mr. Bowie will 
continue their good services; and that other missionaries 



128 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

on the islands will also interest themselves in a field of 
natural science that is bound to yield many new species, 
and, may be, some new genera. 

It is interesting to know that Dr. Gunn has been suc- 
cessful in getting some of the natives to collect material. 
The result has been that specimens have been received 
from different sides of Aneityum, and from parts of Futuna 
difficult of access. 

An interesting feature of this contribution to the know- 
ledge of the moss flora of the New Hebrides is the evidence 
it affords of a close connection with the flora of the Dutch 
Archipelago and Papua, as well as with that of Fiji and 
Samoa. 

Group ACROCARPI. 

DIORANAOE^]. 

Dicranoloma Ren. 

D. brachysteleum (CM.) 

"New Hebrides": teste Broth., "Bryales," p. 322. 

D. Braunii (O. M.) 

Aneityum: Dr. Gunn, March, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 242, 250), 
Aug. 1912 (276), May-June, 1913 (347, 432: S.W. side). Previous 
range: Java, Sumatra, Papua. 

Leucoloma Brid. 

L. (Subvittata) subtenui folium Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, pallide 
viridibus vel lutescentibus, nitidiusculis ; caulis usque ad 6 cm. 
longus, nigrescens, densiuscule foliosus, simplex vel dichotome 
ramosus; folia faciliter decidua, patula, superiora subsecunda, 
comalia adpressa, caudam brevem saepe falcatulam efformantia, 
canal iculato-concava, e basi lanceolata longe et anguste subulata, 
usque ad 8 mm. longa, marginibus erectis, in parte superiore 
subulae minute serrulatis, limbata, limbo hyalino, basi c. 4 seriato, 
dein sensim angustiore, infra summum apicem subulae evanido, 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 129 

nervo tenui, continuo, cellulis laminalibus minutissimis, quadratis, 
minutissime papulosis, subulam totam in parte lanceolata spatium 
tantum juxta nervum occupantibus, cellulis basilaribus ut etiam 
superioribus externis valde incrassatis, lumine anguste lineari, 
levissimis, alaribus laxis, numerosis, fuscis vel hyalinis. Oaetera 
ignota. 

Futuna: Gunn, March-April, 1910 (Hb. Lillie, 523); Aneityum: 
Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Lillie, 544, 694), Aug. 1912 (Hb. Watts, 271, 
Hb. Lillie, 728), Feb. 1913 (Hb. Watts, 344), May-June, 1913 
(Hb. Watts, 407, 421). 

Species L. tenuifolio Mitt, valde affinis, sed foliorum limbo 
multo angustiore dignoscenda. 

Campylopus Brid. 

C. introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. 

Aneityum: Gunn, March and Oct.; 1911 (Hb. Watts, 190, 224). 
Previous range: Southern States of North America, South Brazil, 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand. 

C. species ? 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb. 1913 (Hb. Watts, 355). 

Dicranodontium Br. Eur. 

D. species? 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1912 (Hb. Watts, 297). 

Pilopogon Brid. 

P. Blumii (Doz. et Molk.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Oct., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 191, 194). Previous 
range: Malesia. 

DICNEMONAOEJE. 

Synodontia Duby. 

S. aneitensis Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Gracilescens, csespitosa, csespitibus densis, rigidis, lutescentibus, 
nitidis ; caulis elongatus, repens, densissime ramosus, ramis erectis, 
vix ultra 1 cm. longis, dense foliosis, simplicibus, obtusis; folia 

I— July 7, 1915. 



130 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

ramea erecto-patentia, sicca erectiora, concava, e basi elliptica 
sensim lanceolato-acuminata, acuta, c. 2 mm. vel paulum ultra 
longa et c. 0*45 mm. lata, marginibus apice subconniventibuS; 
integerrimis, enervia, cellulis elongatis, valde incrassatis, lumine 
angustissimo, alaribus numerosis, subquadratis, fuscis; bracteae 
perichaetii internae convolutaceae, breviter acuminatae, fere ad 
apicem setae productae; seta 1*5 cm. vel paulum ultra alta, crassa, 
rubra; theca erecta, asymmetrica, subcylindracea, strumulosa, 
sicca sub ore valde contracta, f usca, aetate atrofusca ; operculum 
e basi conica, oblique rostratum. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Lillie, 701), Feb. 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 375, 377a). Species a congeneribus adhuc cognitis longe 
diversa. 

LEUOOBRYAOE^E. 

Leucobryum Hampe. 

L. Gunnii Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, mollibus, 
albescenti-glaucoviridibus, opacis; caulis erectus vel adscendens, 
usque ad 2 cm. longus, dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus; folia 
sicca et humida horride patentia, canaliculato-concava, e basi 
anguste ovali lineari-lanceolata, obtusiuscula, mucronata, c.3'5mm. 
longa et usque ad 0'5 mm. lata, dorso scaberrima, bistratosa, 
cellulis alarum pauciseriatis. Caetera ignota. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1912 (Hb. Watts, 303); Aneityum: Gunn, 
1913 (Hb. Watts 357c, 454a). 

Species mollitie, foliisque horride patentibus, angustis, dorso 
scaberrimis dignoscenda. 

L. aneitense Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, casspitosum, csespitibus densis, mollibus, 
albescentibus, opacis ; caulis erectus vel adscendens, usque ad 3 cm. 
longus, dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus; folia patentia, sicca 
flexuosula, humida stricta, canaliculato-concava, e basi ovali 
anguste lanceolata, sensim acuminata, acuta, usque ad 5 cm. longa 
et 0*8 mm. lata, dorso scaberula, bistratosa, cellulis alarum pluri- 
seriatis. Caetera ignota. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 131 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 241, 230 ex p.), 1912 (Hb. 
Lillie, 736). 1913 (Hb. Watts, 357a). 

Species L. Gunnii affinis, sed foliis longioribus, siccis flexuosulis, 
dorso minus scabris, cellulis alarum pluriseriatis dignoscenda. 

L. candidum (Brid.) Jaeg. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1910 and 1912 (Hb. Watts, 203, 325); 
Aneityum: Gunn (Hb. Watts, several numbers); Epi, 2,000 feet; 
Riddle, Jan. 1911 (139). 

L. conocladum Besch.; L. uncinatulum Broth, olim. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911-1913 (Hb. Watts, several numbers). 

L. neo-caledonicum Besch. 

Futuna: Gunn (Hb. Watts, 327); Aneityum: Gunn (Hb. Watts, 
several numbers). 

L. sanctum Hampe. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 41, 78 ex p.). Previous range: 
from Nepal to Malesia. 

L. stenophyllum Besch. 

Aneityum (S.W. side): Gunn, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 418). 

Leucophanes Brid. 
L. glaueulum CM. 

Tangoa, Santo: Dr. Annand, Dec, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 15a). 
Previous range: Malesia. 

L. octoblepharoides Brid. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 4, 13. 15); Bowie, 
1909 (77); Epi: Riddle, Aug. 1911, above 1,000 feet (Hb. Watts, 
158); Paama: Gunn and Frater, June, 1912 (Hb. Watts, 257). 
Range: from Nepal to the Pacific Islands. 

Octoblepharum Hedw. 

O. albidum (L.) Hedw. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 42). 



132 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

Arthrocormus Doz. et Molk. 

A. Schitnperi D. et M. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 61, comm. J. R. 
Murdoch). Previous record: The Sunda Islands. 

Exodictyon Card. 

E. dentatum (Mitt.) Oard. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 74, comm. J. R. 
Murdoch), 1909 (76, 79, 80); Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1912 (288). 
Previous record : Samoa. 

E. subscabrum (Broth.) Oard. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 43). Previous record: Papua. 

FISSIDENTACEyE. 

Fissidens Hedw. 

F. (Semilimbidium) subscabrisetus Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicus; gracilis, csespitosus, cgespitibus densiusculis, viridis- 
simis, opacis; caulis usque ad 5 mm. longus, infima basi fusco- 
radiculosus, dense foliosus, simplex; folia usque ad 15-juga, erecto- 
patentia, infima minuta, dein multo majora, oblongo-lingulata, 
breviter acuminata, acuta, usque ad 1:5 mm. longa et 0*4 mm. lata, 
integerrima, lamina vera ad medium folii producta, inferne indis- 
tincte limbata, lamina dorsali ad basin nervi enata ibidemque 
rotundata, nervo flexuosulo, infra summum apicem folii evanido, 
cellulis minutissimis, rotundato-hexagonis, valde chlorophyllosis, 
papillosis; seta c. 1*5 mm. alta, tenuis, lutescens, scaberula; theca 
suberecta, minuta, ovalis, sicca deoperculata sub ore constricta, 
pallida. Caetera ignota. 

Paama: Gunn and Frater, June 1912 (Hb. Watts, 255). 

Species F. scabriseto Mitt, affinis, sed inflorescentia foliorum 
forma et lamina vera indistincte limbata dignoscenda. 

OALYMPERAOE^]. 

Syrrhopodon Schwgr. 

S. albo-vaginatus Schw. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 500 ex p.). 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 



133 



S. (Cavifolia) Lilliei Broth., n.sp. 

Dioicus; gracilis, caespitosus, csespitibus densis, late extensis, 
glauco-viridibus, opacis; caulis erectus, vix ultra 1 cm longus, 
inferne tomentosus, dense foliosus, simplex; folia sicca incurva, 
humida e basi brevi erecta, superne paulum latiore ibidemque 
serrata in laminam erecto-patentem, linearem, c. 2 mm longam, 
obtusam, saepe brevissime mucronatam sensim attenuata, margin- 
ibus integris, angustissime hyalino-limbatis, nervo sat tenui, sub- 
continuo, levi, cellulis laminalibus et basilaribus supremis minutis, 
subquadratis, papilla elevata, uncinata instructis, cellulis partis 
vaginantis marginalibus angustissimis, limbum hyalinum c. 6 
seriatum efFormantibus, internis laxis, teneris, quadratis vel 
breviter rectangularibus, inanibus. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1912 (Hb. Lillie, 740), Feb. 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 350). 

Species S. gracili Mitt, valde affinis, sed foliis obtusioribus, 
muticis vel brevissime mucronatis dignoscenda. 

S. Muelleri (Doz. et M. as Calymperidium) Lac. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 70a). Aneityum: Gunn, Feb. 
1913 (Hb. Watts, 352), May-June, on north side of Island (Hb. 
Watts, 412). 

S. (Orthotheca) perarmatus Broth., n.sp. 

Dioicus; robustiusculus, csespitosus, csespitibus densis, virid- 
ibus, inferne pallidis, opacis; caulis erectus, usque ad 7 cm. longus, 
parce radiculosus, dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus; folia e basi 
erecta, elongate oblonga, superne ciliato-serrata sensim in laminam 
patentem, usque ad 5 mm. vel paulum ultra longam, anguste 
linearem, obtusiusculam vel acutam attenuata, marginibus partis 
laminalis incrassatis. argute geminatim serratis, nervo crasso, sub- 
continuo, parte inferiore vaginali excepta ubique grosse aculeato, 
cellulis laminalibus minutis, incrassatis, lumine subquadrato, 
pellucidis, levibus, cellulis partis vaginalis marginalibus in seriebus 
paucis eisdem laminalibus similibus, internis laxis, ovali-hexagonis, 
inanibus ; seta erecta, c. 5 mm. alta, tenuissima, rubra ; theca erecta, 
minuta, ovalis, rufa. Caetera ignota. 



134 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 89); Aneityum: Gunn, Oct., 
1911 (Hb. Watts; 193, Hb. Lillie, 697), May-June, 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 410); Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1912 (Hb. Watts, 292). 

S. (Orthotheca) diversiretis Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicus; robustiusculus, csespitosus, csespitibus densis, virid- 
ibus, aetate lutescenti-viridibus, opacis; caulis erectus, usque ad 
5 cm. longus, fusco-tomentosus, dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus 
vel simplex; folia e basi erecta, oblonga, superne serrata sensim 
in laminam erecto-patentem, usque ad 5 mm. longam, linearem, 
acuminatam, obtusiusculam vel acutam attenuata, marginibus 
partis laminalis incrassatis, superne geminatim serratis, nervo 
crasso, continuo vel excedente, levi, cellulis laminalibus minutis, 
subquadratis, pellucidis levibus, cellulis partis vaginalis superior- 
ibus eisdem laminalibus similibus, marginalibus in seriebus paucis 
anguste rectangularibus, internis breviter et late rectangularibus. 
Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 (Hb. Watts, 352a); S.W. side, 
May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 434). 

Species a S. perarmato habitu subsimili foliorum structura longe 
diversa. 

S. (Orthotheca) aneitensis Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicus; robustiusculus, caespitosus, csespitibus laxis, lutescenti- 
viridibus, opacis; caulis erectus, vix ultra 2 cm. longus, fusco- 
tomentosus, dense foliosus, simplex vel f urcatus; folia e basi erecta, 
oblonga, superne serrata sensim in laminam erecto-patentem, usque 
ad 6 mm. longam, linearem, breviter acuminatam, obtusiusculam 
attenuata, marginibus partis laminalis incrassatis, superne gemin- 
atim serratis, nervo crasso, basi c. 0*10 mm. lato, subcontinuo, levi, 
cellulis laminalibus minutis, subquadratis, pellucidis, levibus, 
cellulis partis vaginalis superioribus eisdem laminalibus similibus, 
marginalibus in seriebus paucis anguste rectangularibus, internis 
breviter et late rectangularis. Caetera ignota. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 135 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Lillie, 688). 

Species S. diversireti valde affinis, sed nervo subcontinuo, 
nunquam excedente, lamina apice latiore, ut videtur diversa. 

S. (Orthotheca) tenainervis Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicus; robustiusculus, csespitosus, csespitibus densis, laete 
viridibus, opacis; caulis erectus, vix ultra 1 cm. longus, fusco- 
tomentosus, dense foliosus, simplex; folia e basi erecta, oblonga, 
superne serrata sensim in laminam erecto-patentem, usque ad 6 mm. 
longam, linearem, obtusam, marginibus laminae incrassatis, superne 
geminatim serratis, nervo basi vix ultra 0*05 mm. la to, subcon- 
tinuo, levi, cellulis laminalibus rninutis, subquadratis, levibus, 
cellulis partis vaginantis superioribus eisdem laminalibus similibus, 
marginalibus in seriebus paucis, anguste rectangularibus, internis 
breviter et late rectangularibus. Caetera ignota. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 318). 

Species S. aneitensi valde affinis, sed foliis latioribus, nervo 
multo tenuiore dignoscenda. 

S. constrictus Sull. (S. tubulosus Lac.) 

Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 16); Bowie, 1909 (39, 92, 
93, 94, 95, 96). Previous range: Great Natunas, Sumatra, Borneo, 
Louisiades, Sandwich Islands, Samoa, Tahiti. 

S. fasciculatus Hook, et Grev. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 40, 97); Epi, 2,000 ft.: Riddle, 
Jan. 1911 (Hb. Watts, 143); Aneityum: Gunn, Oct. 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 342, 446). Widespread in the Pacific, but not previously 
recorded for the New Hebrides. 

S. tristichus Nees. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 75, comm. Murdoch); 
Aneityum: Gunn (Hb. Watts, several numbers). Previous range: 
Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Amboina. 

Calymperidium (See Syrrhopodon Muelleri). 



136 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

Calymperes Sw. 

C. Angstroemii Besch. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, Dec, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 9, 16b, 26, 
27). Previous record : Tahiti. 

C. lori folium Mitt. 

Aneityum, north side: Gunn, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 
413). 

C. serratum A. Br. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 70, mixed with Syrrhopodon 
Muelleri); Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (475). Previous record : Java. 

POTTIACE^E. 
Hyophila Brid. 

H. microphylla Broth, et Watts, n.sp.; Ancectangium 
lingucefolium Olim. 
Dioica; tenella, csespitosa, cgespitibus densis, late extensis, 
viridibus, intus fuscescentibus, opacis; caulis erectus, vix ultra 
3 mm. longus, inferne dense fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, 
simplex vel furcatus; folia sicca spiraliter contorta, humida erecto- 
patentia, lanceolato-ligulata, rotundato-obtusa, usque ad 1*2 mm. 
longa, inferne usque ad 035 mm. lata, marginibus inferne recurvis, 
superne erectis, integerrimis, nervo crassiusculo, infra summum 
apicem folii evanido vel continuo, dorso superne scabro, cellulis 
minutis, quadratis, verrucosis, obscuris, basilaribus majoribus, 
breviter rectangularibus, pellucidis, levibus. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Oct., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 192, Hb. Lillie, 699); 
1912 (Hb. Lillie, 741); Feb. 1913 (Hb. Watts, 353). 

Species minutie foliorumque forma facillime dignoscenda. 

Barbula Hedw. 

B, (Hydrogonium) aneitensis Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioica; gracilescens, csespitosa, csespitibus densis, glauco- 
viridibus, subopacis; caulis erectus vel adscendens, usque ad 5 cm. 
longus, inferne fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, dichotome 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 137 

ramosus; folia sicca crispatula, humida patentia, concava, lanceo- 
lato-ligulata, obtusiuscula vel obtusa, c. 2 mm longa, marginibus 
erectis, integris vel summo apice denticulis paucis instructis, nervo 
crassiusculo, subcontinuo, dorso superne scabriusculo, cellulis 
laxiusculis, superioribus quadratis, c. 0*010 mm. pellucidis, minu- 
tissime papillosis, basin versus sensim longioribus, basilaribus 
multo majoribus, breviter rectangularibus. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 416). 

Species B. pseudo-Ehrenbergii Fleisch. habitu similis, sed foliis 
angustioribus jam dignoscenda. 

ORTHOTRIOHAOEJE. 

Macromitrium Brid. 
M. orthostichum Nees. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 328). 

M. Reinivardtii Schwgr. 

Aneityum; Gunn, March, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 237). Previous 
range: Sunda Islands, Tahiti, Tasmania. 

M. subtile Schwgr. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 29, 65, 91); Futuna: Gunn, 
1910 and 1912 (Hb. Watts, 207, 287, 317). Previous range: 
Tahiti and Eimio. 

BRYAOE^]. 

Brachymenium Schwgr. 

B. indicum (D. et M.) Br. Jav. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1912 and 1913 (Hb. Watts 270, 439). Pre- 
vious range : Java and Amboina. 

RHIZOGONIAOEJE. 
RMzogonium Brid. 
R. medium Besch. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb. 1913 (Hb. Watts, 351). 



138 V. F, BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

R. setosum (Mitt.) Mitt. 

Futuna: Gunn, 1910 (Hb. Watts, 205); Aneityum: id., 1911 
(Hb. Watts, 189, 233, 220, 275, etc.), 1913, north side of island 
(Hb. Watts, 403); Epi: Riddle, 1911, above 2,000 feet (Hb. 
Watts, 141). Previous range: Samoa, Tahiti, Aneityuni. 

R, spiniforme (L.) Bruch. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 60, comm. Murdoch); 
1909 (Hb. Watts, 44,45,46,48, 71); Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 
(Hb. Watts, 232, 238), July-Aug., 1913 (481); Futuna, Oct., 1912 
(309). 

BARTRAMIACELE. 
Philonotis Brid. 

P. laxissima (O.M.) Br. jav. 

Aneityum, south-west side : Gunn, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 
426). 

P. obtusifolia Mitt. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 67, comm. Murdoch). 
Previous record : Fiji. 

POLYTRIOHAOE.E. 
Pogonatum P. Beauv. 
P. circinatum Bescli. 

Aneityum, south-west side : Gunn, May- June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 
437). Previous record: New Caledonia. 

Group PLEUROCARPI. 
OYRPTOPODACEJE. 
Bescherellea Dub. 
B. elegantissima Bescli. 

Aneityum: Gunn, March, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 246), Aug., 1912 
(273), south-west side, 1913 (415). Evidently wide-spread on the 
island. Previous record : New Caledonia. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 139 

SPIRIDENTAOE^E. 

Spiridens Nees. 

S. flagellosus Schimp. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909-10; Epi : Riddle, Feb., 1911; Futuna and 
Aneityum: Gunn, 191 1-13 (Plentiful, but all the specimens sterile). 
Previous record : Fiji. 

S. Reinwardtii Nees. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 35, 180); Aneityum: Gunn, 
1911 (188 c.fr.). Previous range: Java, Celebes, Timor, Philip- 
pines, Papua. 

MYURIACE^. 
Myurium Schimp. ((Edicladiiim Mitt.) 
M. purpuratum (Mitt.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911-13 (Hb. Watts, 146, 218, 346, 476, etc.) 
Previous record: Aneityum. 

NEOKERAOE.E. 

Pterobryella (C. M.) O. M. 

P. vagapensis O. M. 

Aneityum : Gunn, July-Aug., 1913 (Hb. Watts, 467). Previous 
record : New Caledonia. 

Endotrichella O. M. 
E, Campbelliana Hpe. 

Locality and collector doubtful (Hb. Watts, 265); Aneityum : 
Gunn, 1913 (501). 

Euptychium Schimp. 

E. Gunnii Broth et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; robustiusculum, luescens, nitidum ; caules secundarii 
usque ad 11 cm. longi, flexuosi, superne saepe curvati, dense foliosi, 
simplices vel parce ramosi ; folia patula, plicata, concaviuscula, 
ovato-oblonga, in acumen breviter subulatum attenuata, marginibus 
erectis, apice minutissime serrulatis, cellulis elongatis, angustis, 



140 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

incrassatis, luraine angustissimo, flexuosulo, basilaribus brevioribus 
et laxioribus, omnibus levissimis ; bracteae perichaetii internae 
alte convolutae, subsensim in acumen longissimum, loriformi-subu- 
latum, minutissime serrulatum attenuatae; seta brevissima; theca 
erecta, breviter oblonga, fusca; peristomium normale. Caetera 
ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 145, 225, c. fr.j Hb. Lillie, 
536); Feb. 1913 (Hb. Watts, 358, 366), May-June, 1913 (422, 424, 
435, 462). 

Species foliis patulis, dorso levibus dignoscenda. 

E. assimile Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Species prsecedenti habitu persimilis, sed statura minore foli- 
isque apice argutius serratis, cellulis superioribus brevioribus, 
lumine latiore dignoscenda. 

Futuna: Gunn, 1910 (Hb. Watts, 208, Hb. Lillie, 530); 
Aneityum: G^inn, 1611 (Hb. Watts, 181). 

Symphysodon Doz. et Mk. 

S. Gunnii Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicus; gracilis, lutescenti-viridis, nitidus ; caules secundarii 
remotiusculi, usque ad 22 cm. longi, inferne simplices, foliis 
squamseforniibus remotis, plerumque destructis, dein dense foliosi, 
laxe pinnatim ramosi, ramis erecto-patentibus, usque ad 5 cm. 
longis, superne decrescentibus, dense foliosis, singulis longioribus, 
parce ramulosis; folia patentia, concava, e basi subcordata oblonga, 
subito loriformi-subulata, marginibus superne subconniventibus, 
integris, subula tantum minutissime serrulatis, nervis binis, bre- 
vissmris vel nullis, cellulis linearibus, flexuosulis, haud incrassatis, 
inter se porosis, alaribus paucis, parenchymaticis, minutis, fuscis ; 
brachteae perichaetii internae alte convolutaceae, in subulam 
elongatam,loriformem,integram sensim attenuate; seta brevissima, 
lutea; theca erecta, immersa, oblonga, pachydermis, demum fusca; 
exostomii dentes geminati, lutei, leves; spori ovales, c. 0*35 mm. 
longi; operculum e basi conica breviter rostratum; calyptra 
minuta mitraeformis, operculo brevior nuda. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 141 

Futuna: Gunn, 1910 (Hb. Watts, 202), Oct. 1912 (296, forma 
viridis); Aneityum, 1911, Gunn (221); Epi: Riddle, Jan., 1911 
(Hb. Watts, 131, c. fr, and 142). 

Species pulcherrima, S. vitiano affinis, sed statura ^graciliore, 
caule elongato oculo nudo jam dignoscenda. 

S. Micholitzii Broth. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 87 ex p., mixed with S. viti- 
anns). Previous range: New Ireland and Papua. 

S. vitianus (Still.) Broth. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 18), Bowie, 1906 
(comm. Murdoch), 1909 (Hb. Watts, 51, 51a); Aneityum: Gunn, 
1911 (184, 226-5, assimile olim), 1913 (406, 468); Epi: Riddle, 
Aug, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 155). Previous range: Fiji and Samoa. 

Symphysodontella Fleisch. 

S. cylindracea (Mont.) Fl. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 (Hb. Watts, 369). Previous 
range: Sumatra, Java, Tahiti, Samoa, Raro tonga, Cooks Island. 

Papillaria (O. M.) O. M. 

P. helictophylla (Mont.) Broth. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 331). Previous range: 
Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. 

P. (Eupapillaria) pellucida Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioica; gracillima, viridis, aetate ferruginea, opaca ; caulis 
pendulus, usque ad 20 cm. longus, dense foliosus, laxe pinnatim 
ramosus, ramis patentissimis, usque ad 1 cm. longis, singulis longi- 
oribus, attenuatis ; folia sicca imbricata, humida erecto-patentia, 
concaviuscula, haud plicata, e basi breviter decurrente auriculata, 
ovato-lanceolata, anguste acuminata, marginibus integerrimis, ad 
alas, saepe inflexas crenulatis, nervo infra apicem folii evanido, 
cellulis laminalibus ellipticis, lumine angusto, papillosis obscuris, 
marginalibus ultra medium folii pellucidis, levibus, basilaribus 
lumine longiore, pellucidis, levissimis. Caetera ignota. 



142 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

Futuna: Gunn, Dec, 1910 (Hb. Watts, 212, 236, 239); 1911 
(295); Aneityum: Gunn, March, 1911 (240). 

Species P. filipendulae (Hook. f. W.) Jaeg. habitu simillima, 
sed cellulis marginalibus ultra medium folii pellucidis, levibus 
dignoscenda. 

Meteorium D. et M. 

M, mlquelianum (C. M.) Fleisch. 

Epi: Riddle, Jan., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 125); Futuna: Gunn, 

1912 (293, 294, 306); Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (376, 465). Var. 
Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1910 (Hb. Watts, 211). Previous range: 
Papua, East Indian Archipelago, Japan, Ceylon, etc. 

Aerobryopsis Fleisch. 

A. longissima (D. et M.) Fl. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 113, comm. Murdoch) 
1909 (115); Epi: Riddle, 1911 (137 e. p.); Aneityum: Gunn, 

1913 (Hb. Watts, 361, 436b, 463). Previous range: Ceylon, 
Malacca, Indian Archipelago to Papua, Samoa and Sandwich 
Islands. 

A. striatula (Mitt) Broth. 

Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, Jan., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 136); Aneityum 
^nd Futuna: Gunn, 1911-13 (Hb. Watts, 186, 251, 321, 323-4, 
419, 436). Range: South Sea Islands. 

A. vitiana (Sull.) Fleisch. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie. 1906 (Hab. Watts, 119, comm. Murdoch) 
Previous range : New Caledonia, Fiji, Tahiti. 

Floribundaria C. M. 

F. fioribunda (D. et M.) Fleisch. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 25). Range wide- 
spread, including Polynesia, Papua, Japan, Ceylon, the Himalayas, 
Madagascar, South Africa. 

F. pseudo-floribunda, Fl. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909; Futuna and Aneityum: Gunn, 1910-13 
{Hb. Watts, 286, 290, 299, 363, 464, etc.); Paama: Gunn and 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 143 

Frater, 1912; Epi : Riddle, 1911. Previous range: Papua and 
Java. Var. tenuiramea var. nov. Futuna : Gunn, 1911 (Hb. 
Lillie). 

Orthorrhynchium Reichdt. 

O. eylindraceum (Lindb.) Broth. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 16a) Previous 
range : Tahiti, Fiji, Samoa-Marquesas-Sandwich Islands. 

Calyptothecium Mitt. 

C Urvilleanum (0. M.) Broth, (including C. prcelongum 
Mitt.) 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 31). Range: Carolines, 
New Caledonia, Tahiti, Fiji, Samoa. 

Neckeropsis Reichdt., emend. Fleisch. 

N. Lepineana (Mont.) El. 

Futuna and Aneityum: Gunn, 1910-13 (Hb. Watts, 210, 364, 
411, 420); Epi 2,000 feet: Riddle, Jan., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 128); 
Paama : Gunn and Frater, 1912 (252, c. fr.). Range widespread 
among the East Indies and the Pacific Islands. 

Himantocladium (Mitt.) Fleisch. 
H. loriforme (Br. jav.) PI. 

Epi, above 1,000 feet: Riddle, Aug. 1911 (Hb. Watts, 165). 
Range : Celebes, Ceram, Java, Borneo, Fiji, Samoa. 

Homaliodendron Fleisch. 
If. dendroides (Hook.) Fl. 

Futuna and Aneityum : Gunn, 1910-13 (Hb. Watts, 149, 182, 
204, 223, 305, 308, 479). Range: Pacific Islands, including Fiji, 
New Caledonia, Hawaii. 

Thamnium Br. Eur. 
T. aneltense Mitt. 

Aneityum : teste Broth., Bryales, p. 863. 



144 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

LEMBOPHYLLACE^E. 

Camptochaete Reichdt. 

C Leichhardtii (Hpe.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 483; Hb. Lillie, 703). 
Range : East Australia and New Hebrides. 

C. (Eucamptochaete) prolongates Broth et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioica; gracilis, csespitosa, csespitibus laxis, rigidis, pallide 
lutescenti-viridibus, nitidis; caulis, primarius elongatus ; caules 
secundarii remoti, usque ad 8 cm. longi, breviter stipitati, arbus- 
culose ramosi, ramis elongatis, laxiuscule et complanate foliosis, 
plerumque in flagellam elongatam attenuatis, laxe et irregulariter 
ramulosis, raniulis patentibus, vix ultra 1 cm. longis, singulis 
longioribus, plerumque attenuatis; folia ramea erecto patentia, 
cochleariformi-concava, breviter ovato-oblonga, breviter acuminata, 
acuta, marginibus erectis, superne incurvis ibidemque minutissime 
serrulatis, nervis binis, brevibus, cellulis linearibus, incrassatis, 
lumine angustissimo, flexuosulo, apice papillose exstante, alaribus 
paucis, minutis. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1912 (Hb. Lillie, 749). 

Species C. poro^Wc/ioicfo' (Besch.)valdeaffinis, sed ramis elongatis, 
laxiuscule foliosis, plerumque in flagellam elongatam attenuatis 
ut videtur di versa. 

C. porotrichoides (Besch.) Broth. 

Aneityum (north side): Gunn, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 
405). 

ENTODONTACUELE. 

Clastobryum D. et M. 

C(?). hebridense Broth, n.sp. 

Dioicum, tenellum, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, pallide 
viridibus, hie illic rufescentibus, nitidiusculis ; caulis repens, 
densissime ramosus, ramis vix ultra 5 mm. longis, suberectis, dense 
foliosis, apice saepe propagulis numerosis, filiformibus, articulatis, 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XL IX., 7915. Plate I 




Fig. 1. 




A, R. McCulloeb, photo. 



Fig. 2. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S.W., Vol. XL IX., 1915. Plate II 




Fig. 3. 




A, R. McCulloch, photo. 



Fig. 4 



Journal Royal Society of N.8. W.,Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate III. 




Fig. 5. 




A, R. McCulloch, photo. 



Fig. 6. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W. y Vol. XL1X> 1915. Plate 1 V. 




00 







Journal Hoy al Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. 



Plate V. 





;i»- ;...%=;;■ 



- •• , 



H 




Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XL IX, 1915, 



Plate VI. 




Journal Royal Society ofN.S. TV., Vol XL1X, 1915. 



Plate VIL 




/7v s ;p"V^-V.r' ? ' 



#§■ 




be 







Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W.Jol. XLIX., 1915. Plate Fill. 




; pL, 



a; 
tf\„ 







Acacia juniperina (1 to 5); A. armata (6 to 8); A. undulifolia (9 to 12). 

Nat. size. 



Journal Royal Socisty o/N.S. W., Vol. XL1X, 1915. 



Plate IX. 







Acacia verniciflua (1 to i); A. leprosa (5 to 7); A. suaveolens (8 to 10). 

Nat. size. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XLIX , 1915. 



Plate X. 




//■*- 



Acacia prominens (1 to 4); A. vestita (5 to 8); A. Dawsoni, (9 to 11). 

Nat. size. 



Journal Boyal Society of N.S. TV., Vol. XL1X., 1915. 



Plate XI. 




Acacia aneura (1 to 3); A. glaucescens (4 to 6); A. Cunning hamii (7 to 9). 

Nat. size. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. IF., Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate XII. 




Acacia holosericea (1 to 4); A. Farnesiana (5 and 6). 
Slightly under Nat. size. 






CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Art. I. — Presidential Address. By Charles Hedley. [With 

Plates I- VII. .] ... 1 

Art. II. — A note on the occurrence of Urease in Legume Nodules 

and other Plant Parts. By Maurice S. Benjamin, d.i.c. 

(Communicated by Mr. F. B. Guthrie) 78 

Art. III. — Acacia Seedlings, Part I. By R. H. Cambage, f.l.s. 

[With Plates VIII -XII. ] 81 

Art. IV. — Some notes on Blechnum eapense, (L.) Schlecht, with 

description of var. Greysoni var. nov. By Rev. W. W. Watts 122 
Art. V.— The Mosses of the New Hebrides. By Dr. V. F. Bro- 

therus and Rev. W. Walter Watts 127 







ISSUED NOVEMBER 15th, 1915. 



Vol. XLIX. Part II 

JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCI 



NEW SOUTH WA 



FOR 



1915. 



PART II., (pp. 145-257). 
Containing Papers read in 

AUGUST to OCTOBER. 

WITH FOURTEEN PLATES. 
(Plates xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxvi.) 





SYDNEY : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH STREET NOBTH, SYDNEY, 

LONDON AGENTS : 

GEORGE ROBERTSON & Co., PROPRIETARY LIMITED, 

17 Warwick Square, Paternoster Bow, London, E.C. 

1P15. 



r. WHITE Typ.. 344 Kent Street Sydney. 



( JUN 26 1916 

THE MOSSES OF THE NEW TTrettRTT)TTfr» ^ ^L *fT 

fuscis instructis ; folia ramea sicca suberecta, humida patentia, 
concava, oblongo-lanceolata, subulato-acuininata, acumine plerum- 
que semitorto, marginibus erectis, inferne minute, superne argute 
serratis, enervia, cellulis anguste linearibus, apice . papilla alta 
instructis, alaribus c. 4, magnis, oblongo-vesciculseformibus, fuscis. 
Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 (Hb. Watts, 387). 

Species curiosissima, foliorum structura a congeneribus omnibus 
diversissima, forsan typus novi generis. 

Entodon O. M. 

E. pallidus Mitt. 

Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, Jan. 1911 (Hb. Watts, 126, 130); 
Futuna: Gunn, Oct. 1912 (304). Range: East Australia, New 
Ireland, New Hebrides, Lord Howe Island, Tahiti. 

HOOKERIAOE^. 

Distichophyllum D. et M. 

D. Mittenii Br. jav. 

Aneityum, south-west side : Gunn, May- June, 1913 (Hb. Watts 
429). Range: Ceylon, Java, New Caledonia. 

D. vitianum (Sull.) Besch. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 334). Range: New 
Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa. 

Callicostella (O. M.) Jaeg. 

C. Campbelliana (Hpe) Jaeg. 

New Hebrides: teste Broth., Bryales, p. 938. 

C. Frateri Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoica; tenella, csespitosa, csespitibus densis, mollibus, 
depressis, laete viridibus, opacis; caulis repens, per totam longi- 
tudinem fusco-radiculosus, dense et complanate foliosus, subpin- 
natim ramosus, ramis patentibus, vix ultra 5 mm. longis, singulis 
longioribus, cum foliis usque ad 2 mm. latis, simplicibus, obtusis; 
folia sicca contracta, subcrispula, humida planiuscula, lateralia 

J— July 7, 1915. 



146 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

patentia, late ovato-ligulata, breviter et late acuminata, apiculo 
acuto terminata, marginibus apice minute serrulatis, nervis binis, 
tenuibus, infra apicem f olii evanidis, superne dorso serratis, cellulis 
haud incrassatis, laxiusculis, pellucidis, ovali-hexagonis, papilla 
media alta instructis, basilaribus longioribus et laxioribus; seta 
vix ultra 5 mm. alta, tenuissima, rubra, superne scaberrima, inferne 
levis; theca horizontalis, minuta, atrofusca; operculum sporangio 
brevius; calyptra apice scaberrima. 

Paama: Gunn et Frater, 1912 (Hb. Watts, 259). 

Species C. papillatae (Mont.) Mitt, affinis, sed seta superne 
scaberrima jam dignoscenda. 

C. oblongifolia (Sull.) Jaeg. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 2). Previous range: 
Samoa, Fiji. 

Chaetomitrium D. et M. 

0. aneitense Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracile, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, laete viridibus 
sericeo-nitidis; caulis elongatus, repens, dense ramosus, ramis 
usque ad 2 cm. longis, dense foliosis, dense ramulosis, ramulis 
adscendentibus, bvevibus ; folia ramea sursum vergentia, lanceolata, 
acuta, marginibus recurvis, inferne minute, superne argute serratis, 
nervis binis, brevissimis, cellulis anguste linearibus, apice papillose 
exstante. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 474). 

Species Ch. nematoso Broth, affinis, sed fills caulinis deficientibus 
necnon foliis dorso minutius papillosis dignoscenda. 

C. Geheebii Broth. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 110b, and 177, comm. 
Murdoch). Previous range: Queensland and Papua. 

HYPOPTERYGIAOEJB. 

Cyathophorella (Broth.) Fleisch. 

C. spinosa (0. M.) Fleisch. 

Santo : Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 68). 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 147 

•C. tahitensis (Besch.) 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 337). 

Hypopteryghim Br id. 

H. (Tamariscina) Boiviei Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; robustiusculum, pallide viride, opacum; caulis pri- 
marius repens, fusco-tomentosus ; caules secundarii e stipite nudo 
usque ad 2 cm. longo, foliis squamaeformibus remotis, squarroso- 
patulis instructo in frondem semicircularem producti, ramis dense 
pinnatim ramulosis ; folia ovato-ovalia, apiculata, limbata, limbo 
hyalino, biseriato, superne serrato, nervo paullum ultra medium 
folii evanido, cellulis ovali-hexagonis ; amphigastria ovata vel 
ovalia, raptim in cuspidem robustum attenuata, anguste limbata, 
minutissime serrulata, nervo tenuissimo, medio folii evanido vel 
obsoleto; perigonia numerosa secus ramos. Planta feminea ignota. 

Santo: Bowie (Hb. Watts, 73, comm. Murdoch). 

Species H. tahitensi Aongstr. affinis, sed ramis pinnatim ramu- 
losis dignoscenda. 

JET, (Lopidium) javense (Hamp.) Jaeg. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb./ 1913 (Hb. Watts, 381). 

JT. Micliolitzii Par. 

Santo: Bowie, 1908 (Hb. Watts, 72). Previous range: Luzon 
and Papua, 

H. (Tamariscina) neo-caledonicum Besch. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 330); Aneityum: id., 
1913 (427 south-west side, 455, 480). 

HHAOOPILAOEJB. 

Rhacopilum Palis. 

R. cuspidiferum (Schwgr.) Mitt. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, Aug., 1903 (Hb. Watts, 7, 12, 22). 
Range: Sandwich Islands and Norfolk Island. 

It, pacificum Besch. 

Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 314, 332). 



148 



V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 



R. spectahile Reinw. et Hsch. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 121); Futuna : Gunn, Oct., 

1912 (312, 316 e. p.); Aneityum, north side, May-June, 1913 
(409). Previous range : Java, Sumatra, Mindanao, Papua, New 
Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa. 

LESKBAOB^]. 

Herpetineuron (0. M.) Oard. 

H. toccoce (Sull. et Lesq., as Anomodon) Oard. 

Epi, above 1,000 feet : Riddle, Aug., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 162); 
2,000 feet, Jan. 1911 (264). A very widespread species, but not 
previously recorded for the New Hebrides. 

Pelekium Mitt. 

P. velatum Mitt. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 1 e. p., 5, 14c.fr.); 
Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, Jan. 1911 (124). Previous range: Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Papua, Bismarck Archipelago, 
Solomons, Admiralties, Samoan Islands. 

Thuidium Br. Eur. 

T. Campbelliana (Hpe.) Jaeg. 

New Hebrides: teste Broth., Bryales, p. 1017 ("eine mir unbe- 
kannte Art": Broth.). 

T. cymbifolium (D. et M.) Br. jav. 

Santo : Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 35 and 36); Aneityum : Gunn, 

1913 (386 e. p.). Previous range: India, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, 
Tonkin, China, Japan, found also recently on Lord Howe Island. 

T. glaucinoides Broth. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 178, comm. Murdoch), 
1909 (81-86). Previous range: Birma, Karen Hills, Natunas, 
Sunda Islands, Tonkin, Formosa, etc. 

T. glacinum (Mitt.) Broth. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 34, 38); Epi: Riddle, Aug., 
1911, 1,000-2,000 feet (129, 153); Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 
386 e. p.). Previous range; India, Ceylon, Assam, Japan. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 149 

T. plumulosum (D. et M.) Br. jav. 

Tangoa, Santo : Annand, Nov., 1903 (Hb. Watts, 3, 19). 
Previous range : Ceylon, Sunda Islands, Philippines, Papua, New 
Hanover, Admiralties, Fiji. 

T. ramentosum Mitt. 

Epi: Riddle, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 268), 2,000 feet (129, 157); 
Aneityum : Gunn, Aug., 1912 (274), May-June, 1913, north side 
(400, 408), south-west side (430). Previous range: East Australia, 
Norfolk Island, Fiji, Samoa. 

HYPNAOE^]. 

Stereodontece. 
Ectropothecium Mitt. 

E. aneitense Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; robustiusculum, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, 
molliculis, lutescenti-viridibus, nitidis; caulis elongatus, repens, 
dense foliosus, dense et regulariter pinnatim ramosus, ramis patulis, 
brevibus, vix ultra 5 mm. longis; folia caulina concaviuscula, 
falcata, ovato-lanceolata, filiformiter acuminata, marginibus erectis 
superne serratis, nervis binis, brevissimis vel indistinctis, cellulis 
anguste linearibus, levibus, basi alaribus infimis abbreviatis, alar- 
ibus paucis, magnis, hyalinis; folia ramea argutius serrata. 
Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1912 (Hb. Lillie, 760, 761), Feb., 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 379, 382b). 

Species mollitie foliisque, prsesertim rameis superne argute 
serratis dignoscenda. 

E. Bowiei Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, rigidum, viride, aetate fuscescenti-viride, 
nitidum; caulis elongatus, repens, dense foliosus, dense et regu- 
lariter pinnatim ramosus, ramis patentibus, usque ad 1 cm. longis; 
folia concaviuscula, falcata, ovato-lanceolata, breviter subulato- 
acuminata, marginibus erectis, minute serrulatis, nervis binis, 
brevissimis vel indistinctis, cellulis breviter linearibus, scaberulis, 



150 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

basilaribus infimis laxis, hyalinis; bracteae perichaetii e basi 
vaginante raptim breviter subulatae, acumine reflexo, serrulato; 
seta c. 2-5 cm. tenuis, fuscescenti-rubra; theca minuta, nutans, 
ovalis, fusca; operculum, e basi convexa breviter rostratum. 
Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 53, 106). 

Species E. intorquato (Dz. et M.) affinis, sed statura graciliore, 
foliis scaberulis, setaque multo breviore jam dignoscenda. 

E. Gunnii Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Species prsecedenti simillima, sed foliis subintegris, cellulis 
multo angustioribus, levibus dignoscenda. 

Aneityura: Gunn (Hb. Watts, 383, 393, 404, 459). 

E. brachyphyllum Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, csespitosum, caaspitibus densis, depressis, 
viridibus, nitidis ; caulis elongatus, repens, complanatus, densi- 
uscule foliosus, laxe pinnatim ramosus, ramis patentibus, vix ultra 
1 cm. longis; folia disticha, falcatula, concaviuscula, ovalia vel 
ovata, breviter et late acuminata, marginibus erectis, superne 
serrulatis, nervis binis, brevissimis vel obsoletis, cellulis breviter 
linearibus, sublevibus, basilaribus infimis abbreviatis, alaribus 
conformibus. Oaetera ignota. 

Aneityum : Gunn, May- June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 425, 458). 

Species E. percomplanato Broth, affinis, sed foliis breviter et 
late acuminatis, cellulis sublevibus dignoscenda. 

E. Micholitzii Broth. 

Epi, above 1,000 feet: Riddle, Aug, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 266); 
Futuna, Oct., 1912: Gunn (298). Previous record: Papua. 

E. paeificum Mitt. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 150, 175), 1913 (441). 
Previous record: Samoan Islands. 

E. percomplanatum Broth. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 100, 109), Vars. 52, 103-4, 

108; Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, Jan., 1911 (132). Previous record r 
Papua. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 151 

E. sodale (Sull.) Mitt. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 101, 110, 122). Range: 
Pacific Islands generally. 

Trismegistia (O. M.) Broth. 

T. complanatula (O. M.) O. M. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 32); Aneityum: Gunn, 1912-3 
(Hb. Watts, 173, 281, 283, 284, 394). Previous range: Fiji, 
Samoa, Papua. 

T. pedunculata (Mitt.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Mch., 1911-1913 (Hb. Watts, 219, 222, 
362). Previous record: Aneityum. 

Plagiotheciece. 
Isopterygium Mitt. 

I. Gunnii Broth et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoicum; gracile, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, mollibus, 
lutescentibus, nitidis; caulis elongatus, repens, fusco-radiculosus, 
dense ramosus, ramis erectis, vix ultra 5 mm. longis, dense et 
complanate foliosis, simplicibus, obtusis; folia ramea patentia, 
concaviuscula, ovato-lanceolata, in acumen filiforme attenuata, 
marginibus erectis, integris vel superne minutissime serrulatis, 
enervia, cellulis anguste linearibus, basilaribus infimis laxis, abbre- 
viatis, hyalinis; bracteae perichaetii internae e basi lata, superne 
argute inciso-serrata in acumen patulum longe et anguste subu- 
latum, serrulatum raptim attenuatae; seta c. 1*5 cm, alta, tenu- 
issima, rubra; theca horizontalis, minuta, asymmetrica, obovata, 
fusca; operculum e basi conica obtuse apiculatum. 

Futuna: Gunn, Dec, 1910 (Hb. Watts, 209, Hb. Lillie, 519)^ 

Species pulchella, mollitie, foliis filiformiter attenuatis bracte- 
isque internis superne argute inciso-serratis dignoscenda. 

I. taxirameum (Mitt.) Jaeg. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 118); Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, 
1911 (133, 263); Futuna: Gunn, 1912 (316, 335, 310, 291, 322). 
Previous range: Himalaya, Khasia, Ceylon, Sumatra, Formosa, 
Assam, Japan. 



152 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

Taxlthelium Spruce. 

T. (Polystigma, Aptera) Annandii Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoicum; gracile, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, depressis, 
laete viridibus opacis; caulis repens, per totam longitudinem hie 
illic fusco-radiculosus, dense et complanate foliosus, subpinnatim 
ramosus, ramis patentibus, brevibus, valde complanatis, obtusis; 
folia disticha, concava, lateralia erecto-patentia, ovato-vel elliptico- 
lanceolata, breviter subulato-acuminata, marginibus erectis, sub. 
integris, cellulis elongatis, augustis, seriatim papillosis, basilaribus 
infiuiis laxis, hyalinis, levissimis; bracteae perichaetii internae e 
basi vaginante raptim longissime subulatae, acumine recurvo, 
minute serrulato; seta vix ultra 5 mm. alta, tenuissima, rubra, 
levissima; theca suberecta vel subnutans, minutissima, ovalis, sicca 
deoperculata sub ore paulum constricta, fusca; operculum breviter 
rostratum. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, Dec, 1903 (Hb. Watts, 10, 17, 21 e. p.) 

Species T. nitidulo Broth, et Par. valde affinis, sed theca minu- 
tissima, ovali jam dignoscenda. 

T. papillatum (Harv.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 471, 473, 477, 484, 486, 
490-3, 498). Previous range: Nepal, Malacca and Siam, the 
Sunda Islands, Papua, Fiji and Samoan Islands. 

T. substigmosum (C. M.) Broth. 

Tangoa, Santo: Bowie, 1906 (Hb. Watts, 59, comm. Murdoch). 
Previous record : Papua. 

Vesicularia (O. M.) C. M. 

V. infiectens (Brid.) O. M. 

Epi, 2,000 feet: Riddle, Aug., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 127, 166, 169 
c. fr.) Range: Hongkong and the Pacific Islands. 

Plagiotheciopsis Broth. 

P. oblonga (Broth.) Broth.; Ectropothecium oblongum 
Broth, in Oef vers. Finska Vet. Soc. Porh. xxxvn, p. 170 
(1895); Vesicularia oblonga Broth, in Bngl.-Prantl., 
p. 1095 (1908). 
New Hebrides: Micholitz. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 153 

SEMATOPHYLLAOE^E. 

Trichosteleum (Mitt.) Jaeg. 

T. hamatum (Doz. et M.) Jaeg., var. semimammillosum 
(O. M.) Par. 
Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 (Hb. Watts, 382a). Previous 
range: Papua. 

T. (Theliclium) subtile Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoicum; tenellum, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, viridis- 
simis, opacis; caulis repens, fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, vage 
ramosus, ramis erectis, brevibus, complanatulis; folia falcatula, 
concava, oblongo-lanceolata, breviter subulato-acuminata, margin- 
ibus erectis, apice minute serrulatis, enervia, cellulis breviter 
ellipticis, papillis pluribus, dorso valde prominentibus instructis, 
basin versus sensim longioribus, alaribus c. 4, magnis, oblongis, 
vesiculosis, hyalinis; bracteae perichaetii internae erectae, e basi 
vaginante raptim subulatae, superne argute serratae; seta c. 5 mm. 
alta, tenuissima, rubra, apice grosse papilloso; theca nutans, 
minuta, ovalis, sicca deoperculata sub ore valde constricta, grosse 
mammillosa, fusca; operculums basi conica oblique subulatum. 

Paama: Gunn and Frater, June, 1912 (Hb. Watts, 256, 258). 

Species T. hamato var. semimammilloso (0. M.) affinis, sed foliis 
multo brevioribus, cellulis elevato-papillosis dignoscenda. 

T. (Thelidium) Plckeringii (Sull.) Jaeg. 

Tangoa, Santo: Annand, Dec, 1903 (Hb. Watt, 11, 21 e. p.); 
Aneityum: Gunn, 1913 (382 e. p., 485, 488, 489a, 496-7, 500 e. p.) 
Range: Pacific Islands. 

T. (Papillidium) Gunnii Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoicum; gracile, csespitosum, csespitibus densiusculiSj lute- 
scentibus, opacis; caulis repens, per totam longitudinem fusco- 
radiculosus, dense foliosus, subpinnatim ramosus, ramis erecto- 
patentibus, brevibus, complanatis; folia sicca suberecta, humida 
erecto-patentia, concava, oblongo-elliptica, breviter lanceolata vel 
lanceolato-subulata, marginibus erectis, inferne minutissime, apice 



154 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

distinctius denticulatis, enervia, cellulis anguste ellipticis, papilla 
media, elevata instructis, infimis aureis, alaribus c. 4, magnis, 
oblongis, vesiculosis, aureis vel fusco-aureis; bracteae perichaetii 
internae erectae, e basi vaginante raptim longe subulatae, superne 
serratae; seta c. 9 ram. alta, tenuissima, rubra, apice grosse 
papillosa; theca pendula, minutissima, ovalis, grosse mammillosa, 
sicca deoperculata sub ore constricta, fusca. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1912 (Hb. Lillie, 755), Feb., 1913 (Hb. 
Watts, 384, 382c). 

Species L. LeRatii Broth, et Par. valde affinis, sed statura 
paulum robustiore foliisque brevius acuminatis dignoscenda. 

Sematophyllum (Mitt.) Jaeg. 

S. bunodiocarpum (0. M.) Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn (or Epi: Riddle) 1911 (Hb. Watts 172, 176); 
Aneityum: Gunn, Aug., 1912 (277). Previous record: Papua. 

S. glabrifolium Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Gracillimum, csespitosum, caespitibus densis, mollibus, pallide 
viridibus, sericeis; caulis repens, fusco-radiculosus, hie illic filis 
elongatis, articulatis, fuscis instructus, densissime ramosus, ramis 
erectis, vix ultra 5 mm. longis, dense foliosis, simplicibus; folia 
ramea erecto-patentia, concava, anguste lanceolata, breviter subu- 
lato-acuminata, marginibus anguste revolutis, inferne minute, 
superne distinctius serrulatis, enervia, cellulis haud incrassatis, 
angustissimis, levissimis, alaribus minutis, oblongis, vesiculosis, 
fuscis. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum, south-west side: Gunn, May -June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 
436a). 

Species distinctissima, S. Etessei Broth, et Par. affinis, sed foliis 
brevius acuminatis, minutius serrulatis, cellulis levissimis optime 
diversa. 

S. serricalyx Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Pseudautoicum; robustiusculum, csespitosum, csespitibus densis, 
lutescenti-viridibus, nitidis; caulis repens, dense ramosus, ramis 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 155 

elongatis, adscendentibus, dense foliosis, pinnatim ramulosis, 
ramulis erecto-patentibus, vix ultra 1 cm. longis; folia patula, 
concava, e basi subcordata ovalia, breviter acuminata, marginibus 
erectis, superne incurvis, apice subconniventibus, integris vel sub- 
integris, enervia, cellulis incrassatis lumine angustissimo, infimis 
abbreviatis, aureis, alaribus magnis, vesiculosis, oblongis, aureis, 
externis hyalinis, omnibus levissimis ; bracteae perichaetii internae 
erectae, e basi vaginante subsensim in acumen subulatum, serratum 
attenuatae; seta l*5-2 cm. alta, tenuis, rubra, apice scaberula; 
theca inclinata vel subhorizontalis, minuta, ovalis, sicca deoperculata 
sub ore vix contracta, fusca; operculum e basi conica subulatum. 
Planta mascula minutissima, foliis affixa. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 56 e. p., 63 c. fr.); Epi: Riddle, 
Jan., 1911 (135); Aneityum: Gunn, Aug., 1912 (282), May-June, 
1913 (398 e. p., 444, 447, 457); Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 192 (329). 

Species & brevicuspidata (Mitt.) habitu similis, sed inflorescentia 
bracteisque perichaetii serratis dignoscenda. 

S. sigmatodontum (O. M.) Jaeg. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 50, 56 e. p.). Previous range: 
Sumatra, Java, Papua. 

S. turgidum (Doz. et M.) Jaeg. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913, var. (Hb. Watts, 360); North 
side, May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 399). Previous range: Ceylon 
and Sunda Islands. 

brachytheciaoele. 

Rhynchostegium Br. Eur. 
R. javanicum (Bel.) Besch. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 114). Previous range: Java 
and Sumatra. 

R. menadense (Br. javj Jaeg. 

Epi: Riddle, Aug. 1911, above 1,000 feet (Hb. Watts, 134 e.p., 
164). Previous range: Celebes and Tonkin. 



156 V. F. BROTHERUS AND W. W. WATTS. 

R. oblongifolium Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Autoicum; robustiusculum, csespitosum, csespitibus densiusculis, 
extensis, laete viridibus, nitidis; caulis elongatus, filiformis, foliis 
plerumque destructis, vage ramosus, rarnis plus minusve elongatis, 
laxiuscule et complanate foliosis, attenuatulis, subpinnatkn ramu- 
losis: folia ramea distiche patula, late oblonga, in apiculuin raptim 
contracta, marginibus infiina basi recurvis, dein erectis, argute 
serratis, nervo crassiusculo, infra apicem folii evanido, apice 
exstante, cellulis anguste linearibus, flexuosulis, basilaribus infimis 
laxiusculis, alaribus haud diversis. Caetera ignota. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 116). Futuna: Gunn, Oct., 
1912 (302). 

Species R. javanico affinis, sed foliorum forma optime diversa. 

HYPNODENDRACE^E. 

Hypnodendron (C. M.) Lindb. 

H. (Phcenicobryum) flagelliferum Broth, et Watts, n.sp. 

Dioicum; robustiusculum, viride, aetaterufescens, nitidiusculum; 
caulis secundarius erectus, usque ad 7 cm. longus, stipite usque ad 
3 cm. longo, nudo, laxe folioso, superne pinnatim ramosus, ramis 
erecto-patentibus, laxiusule et complanate foliosis, flagellis numer- 
osis elongatis, tenuissimis, plerumque axillaribus instructis; folia 
stipitis laxe disposita, squarroso-patula, late cordato-ovata, longe 
et anguste lanceolato-subulata, marginibus erectis, basi minutissime, 
dein distinctius et geminato-serratis, nervo sat tenui, longe exce- 
dente, levi, cellulis incrassatis, elongatis, lumine angustissime 
lineari, levissimis; foliacaulina erectiora, majora, argutius serrata; 
folia ramea minora, angustiora, argute serrata. Caetera ignota. 

Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 (Hb. Watts, 144, Hb. Lillie, 689), 1912 
(Hb. Lillie 746); May-June, 1913 (Hb. Watts, 402, north side, 
and 417, south-west side). 

Species distinctissima, a cogeneribus ad hue cognitis longe 
diversa. 



THE MOSSES OF THE NEW HEBRIDES. 157 

H. rigidum Mitt. 

Aneityum: teste Broth., Bryales. 

H. spininervium (Hook.) Jaeg. 

Santo: Bowie, 1909 (Hb. Watts, 66); Aneityum: Gunn, 1911 
(245), 1913 (374 e. p., 438); Futuna: Gunn, 1912 (300). 

H. sub spininervium (0. M.) Jaeg. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Feb., 1913 (374 e. p., 378). Previous record: 
Aneityum, Fiji, Samoa. 

Mniodendron Lindb. 
M. Helwigii Broth. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Aug., 1912 (Hb. Watts, 279, 280), Feb., 
1913 (370,372). Previous record: Papua. 

M. Milnei Mitt. 

Aneityum: Gunn, Oct., 1911 (Hb. Watts, 187, M. Gunnii in 
MS.; Hb. Lillie 1 no., M. Lilliei in MS.). Previous record: 
Aneityum. 



158 H. G. SMITH. 



THE ESSENTIAL OIL OP EUCALYPTUS SMITHII 
FROM VARIOUS FORMS OF GROWTH. 

By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. 

With Plates XIII to XXIII. 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 4, 1915.] 



This species was first described by my colleague, Mr. R. T. 
Baker, f.l.s., in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales, in 1899. It was more fully dealt with 
in our work, "A research on the Eucalypts and their 
essential oils," Sydney, 1902, p. 107. Since that time this 
species has been recorded from many localities in southern 
New South Wales, reaching as far north as Hill Top. As 
it occurs also in Victoria, the range is somewhat extensive. 
Under favourable conditions it grows to a large tree, but as 
its chief economic product is the essential oil from the 
leaves, its size is more a disadvantage than otherwise, 
particularly as the timber is of indifferent quality. It will 
be shown later, that the difficulty due to size may be over- 
come and the trees grown in a shrubby form, thus making 
the leaves more readily accessible for oil distillation. 

The time is rapidly approaching when it will be con- 
sidered advisable, and found to be profitable, to cultivate 
or reafforest with the best species for the required kinds 
of essential oils obtainable from the members of this great 
genus. The time seems opportune, therefore, to direct 
attention to the advantages which Eucalyptus Smithii 
offers for cultivation. It produces, perhaps, the best cineol- 
pinene Eucalyptus oil obtainable from any species. 

I am indebted to my colleague Mr. R. T. Baker, the 
Curator of the Technological Museum, for botanical* assist- 






ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS SMITHII. 159 

ance in the preparation of this paper, and to Mr. D. E. 
Chalker of Hill Top, who has distilled Eucalyptus oil from 
this species for the last ten years. He has given me much 
information respecting the growth of the species, and pro- 
vided some of the material for distillation. 

Rapidity of Growth and Reproduction. 
The growth of Eucalyptus Smithii, under natural con- 
ditions of soil and climate, is considerable, and is more 
rapid with the so-called "suckers," or new growths which 
spring from the stumps of the felled mature trees, than 
with plants grown from seed, although with the seedlings 
the increase in height usually averages, for the first year 
or two, from six inches to a foot per month. As the leaves 
are alone required for oil distillation it is apparent that 
the method which will produce the greatest crop of leaves 
in the shortest time is the one to adopt; and in this respect 
the felling of the trees gives by far the best results. It was 
thought at one time that better results could be obtained 
if the branches were lopped from the trunks of the trees, 
but this idea has been shown to be fallacious. Consider- 
able advantage is also derived when the trees are felled as 
the leaves are gathered from shrubby growths instead of 
from tall trees, and as labour in Australia is costly, this is, 
of course, a matter of some importance. The men, too, are 
greatly adverse to climbing the trees for the purpose of 
lopping off the branches, while the increased danger to the 
men by this method of working is also a matter for some 
consideration. 

The vitality shown by this species is remarkable and the 
trees may be lopped repeatedly without destruction, and 
the branchlets removed again and again as the leaves are 
required for distillation, the reproduction appearing to be 
continuous over a long period of years. 



160 H. G. SMITH. 

The evidence as to the length of time trees of this species 
can withstand this cutting back appears to be wanting, but 
that it is considerable is shown from the data so far 
accumulated. The following instances will give some idea 
of the persistence of reproduction. 

(a) There is a stump of E. Smithii about one mile on the 
south side of Hill Top Railway Station, on the old abandoned 
railway, right on the edge of the eastern side of the cutting. 
This tree was felled when the railway was constructed 
about forty years ago, and the new growth has repeatedly 
been chopped back since that time, yet, to-day, it is pro- 
ducing leaves and branchlets apparently as vigorously as 
ever. Mr. Ohalker has cut the leaves from it for oil dis- 
tillation several times, and from each gathering the leaves 
have apparently yielded the usual amount of oil for the 
species, while the oil itself has shown no difference in con- 
stitution from the normal. 

(b) A sapling four inches in diameter, growing at Hill 
Top, was cut stump high in April 1913; in May 1914 the 
new growth had reached 15 feet in height, with an abund- 
ance of leaves; in May 1915 the leaves were cut for oil 
distillation. 

The accompanying photographs will illustrate the various 
reproductive growths of this species: — 

Plate XIII. Taken in 1911. This tree was felled in 
1906; the top branches were first removed for oil distil- 
lation in 1908. In the photograph the tree shows three 
years' growth. Material has been collected from this tree 
for oil distillation four times in seven years, and to-day 
shows again good growth. 

Plate XIV. This tree was a seedling, and as shown 
is five years old. It had been lopped twice during that 
period; the first time at one foot from the ground; the 
second time at twelve feet. When the photograph was 
taken the tree was over twenty feet high. 



ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS SMITHII. 161 

Plate XV. This tree, one foot nine inches in diameter, 
was felled in 1909. The photograph was taken in 1911. 
The growth is all from the stump, and shows about 
twenty " suckers" of various sizes, the largest being three 
inches in diameter. 

Plate XVI. Growth of leaves on seedling stems which 
had been trimmed for oil distillation three months pre- 
viously. 

Plate XVII. Showing twelve months' growth of leaves 
on seedlings which had been felled stump high. 

Plate XVIII. Growth of leaves on big tall trees the 
branches of which had been lopped off two years previously. 

Plate XIX. Seedlings which have sprung up thickly 
when other Eucalyptus growth had been cleared away. 
This is a good illustration of natural Eucalyptus affores- 
tation. E. Smithii appears to be rather delicate in its 
early stages, and in the struggle for existence is crowded 
out by such species as E. piperita, E. eugenioides, E. quad- 
rangulata, etc.; but, if assisted to get a start, the result is 
as shown. Perhaps this peculiarity is the reason the trees 
of this species are often sparsely distributed. 

Plate XX. Seedlings between two and three years old. 

Plate XXI. The branches of this large tree had been 
lopped off. Through some reason the top of the tree died. 
The dense growth is an illustration of the vitality in the 
lower portion of the tree. 

Plate XXII. Shows twelve months' growth from a 
lopped tree (the tall one on the right), and from felled 
trees (those in the foreground and on the left). The 
spreading tree in the background is not this species. 

Plate XXIII (foliage). The form of leaf, (A) was alone 
produced until the seedling had grown nearly six feet 
in height. The rate of growth for about two weeks then 

K— August 4, 1915. 



162 H. G. SMITH. 

slackened, after which time it reverted to the original rate, 
but the leaves were all petiolate as in (B). (C) shows the 
venation of the mature petiolate leaves. This Eucalyptus 
leaf venation indicates that the oil consists of cineol and 
pinene and that phellandrene is absent. 

The rapidity of growth in localities away from the natural 
home of the species is illustrated by results obtained with 
a tree grown in my own garden at Marrickville, near 
Sydney. In January, 1912, seedlings, a few inches high, 
were brought from Hill Top. One of these grew very well, 
and by the end of the winter, in August of that year, was 
two feet three inches high. Measurements were then 
made every week until the end of December. During the 
month of September the height increased seven inches; 
during October the tree grew twelve inches; during 
November it grew fourteen inches, while at the end of 
December the height of the seedling was six feet. In 
January 1915 the height of the tree was twenty-two feet, 
while the diameter of the stem, eighteen inches from the 
ground, was three inches. In June of this year the top of 
the tree was removed and the leaves distilled for oil. The 
natural home of E. Smithii is on the Ranges, and at a 
considerable altitude, while Marrickville is near sea level. 
The yield of oil from this cultivated tree was practically 
equal in amount to that from naturally grown trees, (1*5 to 
2 per cent.), and the quality of the oil and its constituents 
were also in agreement. This is shown from the tabulated 
results below. 

The Essential Oil. 
This investigation of the oil of Eucalyptus Smithii, dis- 
tilled from material collected under different conditions of 
growth, was thought desirable in order that the variations 
in the amounts of constituents in the oil during these 



ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS SMITHII. 163 

various stages might be determined. From accumulated 
results obtained with a very large number of Eucalyptus 
species, collected during a quarter of a century of experi- 
mental research, it has been conclusively shown that the 
same species of Eucalyptus always yields a similar product, 
although the percentage amounts of the constituents 
characteristic of the species may vary under particular 
conditions. Not only is this true for trees grown under 
natural influences, but it appears to hold when they are 
cultivated. Numerous instances of this fact have accu- 
mulated, and the one now given is a good example of this 
constancy. It has long been known that the pinene in the 
cineol-pinene oils varies in amount under special conditions, 
and in the leaves of mature trees diminishes during the 
winter months, while the cineolatthe same time increases 
correspondingly in amount. The yield of oil is also less at 
that period, the maximum content being present in the 
early spring and summer months. To determine what 
alterations may be expected in the percentage amounts 
of the chief constituents in a rich cineol-pinene oil has 
been the object of the present investigations. 

Eucalyptus Smithii is a well defined species and has a 
somewhat extensive range. The oil obtained by steam 
distillation is one of the richest in cineol content of all 
Eucalyptus species so far examined. The yield of oil is 
also good, as much as from twenty to twenty-six pounds of 
oil being obtainable commercially from the leaves and 
terminal branchlets which can be packed in a four hundred 
gallon tank. The oil consists very largely of cineol, and the 
terpene is dextrorotatory pinene. In commercial samples 
the amount of high boiling constituents is often very small 
indeed, the original distillation not being carried to the 
end, and 96 per cent, or more of crude commercially distilled 
oil may come over below 190° O. With one sample of the 
oil distilled in January, 40 lbs of crude oil were steam 



164 



H. G. SMITH. 



distilled in the laboratory, and the residue distilled directly? 
only five ounces of the 40 lbs. did not distil below 190° CL 
equal to 0*78 per cent. 

The constituents present in the oil, besides pinene and 
cineol, are a phenol, a small amount of volatile aldehydes* 
dextrorotatory eudesmol melting at 79° O., a solid paraffin 
melting at 64° O., 1 a small quantity of esters, partly a low- 
boiling one, probably butyl-butyrate, 2 and a small amount 
of sesquiterpene. Neither phellandrene, piperitone nor 
aromadendral have so far been detected in the oil of this 
species. 

The ready way in which the chief volatile aldehyde 
polymerises or alters to a compound with a sweet-briar- 
like scent soon renders the oil pleasant both in odour and 
taste. The volatile cough-producing aldehydes which are 
often so objectionable in the oils of many species yielding a 
cineol-pinene product, seem to be largely absent in the oil 
of E. Smithii. The identity of the chief volatile aldehyde 
in the oil of this species has not yet been accurately deter- 
mined, but it seems to differ from those usually present in 
the oils of the members of the "Gum" group, such as E+ 
globulus, E. goniocalyx, etc., and also in those derived from 
some of the "Mallees." 

The colour of the rectified oil of E. Smithii, when freshly 
distilled, is slightly yellow, as are most of the richer cineol 
oils which do not contain phellandrene. This yellowish 
tint is apparently due to quinone influence, and is traceable 
to the particular phenol present in the oils of this group of 
Eucalypts. 3 Through the influence of light the colour 
disappears, the oil eventually becoming colourless. 

1 H. G. Smith, this Journal, Vol. xlvii, p. 95, 1913. 

2 H. G. Smith, this Journal, Vol. xlviii, p. 474, 1914. 

8 E. Eobinson and H. G. Smith, this Journal, Vol. xlviii, p. 518,1915. 



ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS SMITHII. 165 

The optical activity of the eudesmol, which occurs in the 
oil of this species, was determined in the product from a three 
year old cultivated tree growing at Marrickville. Usually 
this stearoptene is present in very small amount, particu- 
larly in commercial samples, and the higher dextrorotation 
of the crude oil, over that of the rectified, indicated the 
presence of an active substance in the portion boiling above 
190° O., and as eudesmol appeared to be the chief con- 
stituent in the residue it was isolated and purified. 0*2146 
gram, in 10 cc. alcohol rotated the ray 0*85 degrees to the 
right, the specific rotation of this sample of eudesmol was, 
therefore, [a] D — + 39*6°. 

It will be interesting to determine whether the difference 
in optical activity between eudesmol from the non-phellan- 
drene oils, and that from the phellandrene bearing ones is 
of a constant character with all the species of the several 
groups. There is much work yet required to be done in 
order to determine the chemistry of this peculiar con- 
stituent, of not uncommon occurrence in Eucalyptus oils. 

The comparative absence of constituents in the oil of this 
species which might be considered of an objectionable 
nature, suggested the desirability of adopting other methods 
for the rectification of the crude oil than that of redistilla- 
tion or steam distillation. The following method answers 
admirably for this purpose. When the crude oil was shaken 
repeatedly for some hours with very dilute sulphuric acid, 
the reddish colour — due to the presence of a small amount 
of iron from the still acting on the phenol — was removed. 
The oil was well washed and dried by agitating with per- 
fectly dry carbonate of soda. The product thus obtained 
was usually tinged yellow and had all the brilliancy of the 
oil when redistilled, besides retaining the small amount of 
phenol and traces of other constituents which may, perhaps, 
be found eventually to add therapeutic value to an oil of 



166 H. G. SMITH. 

this class. It seems quite unnecessary, therefore, to go to 
the expense of redistilling the crude oil of Eucalyptus 
Smithii, as it can so readily be prepared in a marketable 
condition by simpler methods. 

The material which has furnished the oils for the present 
investigation was all collected from trees growing at Hill 
Top, in this State, with the exception of that from the 
cultivated tree at Marrickville. The leaves and terminal 
branchlets were, in all cases, cut as for commercial oil 
distillation and were distilled at the Technological Museum, 
with the exceptions of (f) and (g) below, which were dis- 
tilled by Mr. Ohalker. 

The material worked upon is represented by the following 
stages of growth: — 

(a) Leaves from lopped trees, seven months' growth ; col- 

lected May 1913. 

(b) Leaves from lopped trees, fifteen months' growth; col- 

lected May 1913. 

(c) Leaves from seedlings, twelve months' growth; col- 

lected June 1914. 

(d) Leaves from seedlings two and a half years old; col- 

lected July 1914. 

(e) Leaves from cultivated tree at Marrickville; collected 

June 1915. 

(f) Leaves from general material, partly young; collected 

January 1915. 

(g) Leaves from general material collected three weeks 

later than (f). 
(h) Leaves from old trees; collected March 1913. 

The constants etc. given by the crude oils from the above 
material were as follow: — 



ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS SMITHII. 



167 





Specific 
gravity 
at 15° C. 


Rotation 


Refractive 
index. 


Solubility 
in 70% 
alcohol. 


Saponifi- 
cation 
number. 


Cineol 
per cent. 


(a) 


0-9098 


+ 


7-6° 


1-4636 

at 20° 


Required 
1*6 vols. 


4-8 


67-4 


(b) 


0-9157 


+ 


6-5° 


1-4635 

at 20° 


1-2 „ 


5-6 


74-2 


M 


0-9116 


+ 


9-2° 


1-4650 
at 19° 


2-1 „ 


1-3 


61-5 


(d) 


0-9139 


+ 


7-6° 


1-4634 

at 18° 


1-4 » 


4-1 


69-0 


(•) 


0-9198 


+ 


4-7° 


1-4672 
at 16° 


1-2 „ 


2-7 


75-0 


(/) 


0-9156 


+ 


5-3° 


1-4571 
at 26° 


1-1 ,, 


3-3 


80-7 


(9) 


0-9154 


+ 


5-1° 


1-4574 
at 25° 


1-1 „ 


3-1 


79-0 


(h) 


0-9210 


+ 


4-2° 


1-4604 

at 22° 


1-1 „ 


1-3 


85-2 



The cineol was determined by the resorcinol method, in 
all cases in the redistilled portion of the freshly obtained 
oil boiling below 190°. The alcohol for solubilities was 70 
per cent, by weight. 

It will be noticed from the above that the oil from the 
younger seedlings contains more dextrorotatory pinene and 
less cineol than that from saplings two to three years old, 
and that the maximum cineol content is reached in the oil 
from leaves collected from older trees. This is true also 
for the leaves which are reproduced from lopped old trees, 
and the oil from the seven months' "suckers" contains 
more cineol and less pinene than that from twelve months' 
old seedlings, while that from the fifteen months' old 
"suckers" follows the same rule in respect to the two and 
a half years' old seedlings. The constants follow this change 
in constituents somewhat regularly. To a small extent 
these are governed by the length of time to which the 
leaves are distilled, as naturally the heavier constituents 
are brought over with more difficulty. The factors which 
are influenced to the greatest extent are the specific 



168 H. G. SMITH. 

gravity and refractive index, and this is noticeable with 
(e) where the idea was to obtain as much of the eudesmol 
as possible. With commercially distilled oil from mixed 
leaves of this species there ought to be obtained a product 
of a fairly constant nature, and this is more readily seen 
from the results with (f) and (g). This relative constancy 
is also illustrated from the results originally obtained in 
1898 with material from Mooga, N. S. Wales, (over fifty 
miles from Hill Top), and published in the "Research on 
the Eucalypts," page 109. The specific gravity of two 
samples of the oil of this species, distilled at the Techno- 
logical Museum at that time, but collected on different 
dates, was 0*915 in both cases; the rotation was a D + 6*14° 
one case, and + 6*24° in the other; both samples were 
soluble in one and a quarter volumes 70 per cent, alcohol; 
the saponification number of one sample was 2*4, and of the 
other 2*9; the cineol in both, determined by the phosphoric 
acid method, exceeded 70 per cent. These results, when 
compared with (f) and (g) above, agree most closely. 

The ester content in the oil of this species appears to be 
higher in that from the "suckers" than in the oil from 
seedlings; it is not high in any case, although sufficient, 
perhaps, to somewhat influence the odour. 

The dextrorotation of the oil of this species is not entirely 
due to the pinene, because the eudesmol is also optically 
active in the same direction ; it may be fairly well assumed, 
however, that the optical activity of the oil gives a good 
indication of the amount of pinene present. 

From the results so far obtained it may be accepted that 
the first cutting for oil distillation, with cultivated trees 
of E. Smithii, should not take place until the seedlings are 
three years old. The trees might then be expected to 
furnish a fresh crop of leaves every two years. 



Journal Eoyal Society of N.8. W., Vol XLIX, 1915. Plate XIII. 










Eucalyptus Smithii, 



Journal Boyal Society o/JST.S. TV., Vol. XL1X , 1915. Plate XIV. 




Eucalyptus Smithii. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XLIX , 1915. 



Plate XV. 






w& 







Eucalyptus Smithii 



Journal Boyal Society of N.8. W., Vol XL IX., J 915. Plate XVI. 




Kucalyptus Smithii. 



Journal Royal Society of N S. W '., Vol. XL1X, 1915. 



Plate XVII 





Journal Royal Society of N.8. W.,Vol. XLIX, 1915. Plate XV III. 




Eucalyptus Smithii. 



Journal Royal Society o/N.S. W ., Vol. XLIX.,1915. 



Plate XIX. 







£ 
w 

Ifl 

3 

ft 

>> 

o 

W 



j L. £ — i_5~ 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. TV., Vol XLIX, 1915. 



Plate XX. 




Eucalyptus Smithii, 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX.,1915. Plate XXI. 




Eucalyptus Smithii. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915 



Plate XXII. 




Eucalyptus Smithii. 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XL IX., 1915. Plate XXIII. 




Foliage of Kucalyptus Smithii. 
Half natural size. 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 169 



ON THE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN 
AUSTRALIA. 1 

Part I. The Composition during the Early Stages of 

Lactation. 

By H. S. Halcro Wardlaw, b.Sc 

(From the Physiological Laboratory of the University of Sydney.) 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 4, 1915.'] 

SYNOPSIS. 

1. Introduction. 

2. Nature of samples and methods of analysis. 

3. Results. 

4. Most probable composition of human milk. 

5. Variation of composition with time since parturition. 

6. Effect of age on composition. 

7. Fat-content of milk of each breast. 

8. Effect of number of pregnancies on composition. 

9. Effect of volume of sample and of period of rest on fat-content. 

10. Summary. 

11. References. 

1. Introduction. 
Although the composition of human milk has for many 
years been the subject of investigation, the number of 
exhaustive series of analyses which exist to day is very 
small, and as samples of milk from individual women seem 
so frequently to have compositions which differ widely from 
that represented by the mean of the results of the separate 
analyses of a series, it has proved rather difficult to say 
what is the significance of these mean or average figures, 
and from them to lay down a certain composition as being 

1 The work of which this paper is an account was carried out in the 
year 1914, during the author's tenure of a Science Research Scholarship 
of the University of Sydney. 



170 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



that which the composition of any given sample of human 
milk is most likely to be. This fact is not very generally 
recognised, although a few investigators have pointed 
out the indefiniteness of these mean figures, and have 
despaired of making any general quantitative statement as 
to the composition of human milk (Hammarsten, Voltz). 
Other workers, for example Leeds, have endeavoured to 
give additional value to the mean of the results of their 
analyses by stating also the highest and lowest figures 
obtained for the amount of each constituent, and thus indi- 
cating the limits between which the variations occurred. 

In the following table are given typical sets of figures 
representing the means of the results obtained for the per- 
centages of the various constituents in series of analyses 
of human milk. The maximum and minimum values for 
the amount of each constituent are also given. The 
examples chosen are from the only three exhaustive modern 
investigations of the composition of human milk which the 
present author has been able to find. The original figures 
of an extensive series of analyses carried out by Adriance 
and Adriance (1898) unfortunately could not be obtained. 

Table I. — Typical mean, maximum, and minimum figures for the 
density and composition of human milk. 





Density. 


Total 
Solids. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not fat. 


Protein. 


Milk 

Sugar. 


Ash. 


Maximum 


1-0353 


16-8 


6-9 


12-1 


4-9 


7-9 


0-37 


Mean 


1-0313 


133 


4-1 


9-1 


2-0 


6-9 


0-20 


Minimum 


1-0260 


10-9 


2-11 


6-6 


0-85 


5-4 


0-13 


Maximum 


1-0426 


17-1 


8-8 




4-05 


8-9 


0-50 


Mean 


1-0313 


12-0 


3-07 


8-2 


1-97 


6-6 


0-26 


Minimum 


1-0240 


8-6 


0-47 




1-02 


4-4 


0-17 


Maximum 




13-9 


5-8 




2-04 


7-5 


0-34 


Mean 




12-0 


3-36 


8-6 


1-35 


6-4 


0-23 


Minimum 




9-4 


1-27 




0-81 


5-35 


0-11 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 171 

The first set of figures is from sixty analyses of the milk 
of women living in America, carried out by Leeds (1884); 
the second set of figures is from ninety-four analyses of 
the milk of women living in England, carried out by Carter 
and Droop Richmond (1898); the third set of figures is 
from fifty-three analyses of the milk of women living in 
Germany, due to Oamerer and Soldner (1895, 1896, 1898). 

From this table will be seen the amounts to which the 
percentages of the various constituents of human milk may 
vary. It will be noticed that these variations are greatest 
in the case of the fat, and least in the case of the sugar. 
It will be seen also that the average figure given for the 
protein-content of human milk by Oamerer and Soldner, 
is considerably lower than that given by the other inves- 
tigators. The former workers estimated protein by 
determining the nitrogen of the tannic acid precipitate 
from the milk and multiplying this quantity by the factor 
6*25, the latter workers estimated the protein by the 
method of Ritthausen (precipitation by means of alkaline 
copper sulphate, extraction of the precipitate with ether, 
and direct weighing, or estimation of the nitrogen in it). 

Practically all of the analyses of human milk available 
to the present author were, with the exception of the 
results of Leeds and of Adriance and Adriance, who analysed 
the milk of women living in America, of the milk of women 
living in Europe. In the present communication the results 
of the analyses of samples of milk from over one hundred 
European women living in Australia are submitted. A 
simple application of the theory of probability to these 
results has been made in the endeavour to arrive at a better 
defined general quantitative statement as to the composition 
of the milk examined than is given by the admittedly inade- 
quate method of simply stating the mean, maximum, and 
minimum values for each constituent. The influence of the 



172 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

age and of the number of pregnancies of the mother, and 
of the time of lactation, on the composition of the milk has 
been studied. The effect of the length of the period of rest 
which has elapsed since the last withdrawal of milk from 
the breast and of the volume of the sample, and the differ- 
ence between the average compositions of the milk from 
each breast, have also been examined. 

The most striking feature of the results obtained is that 
they seem to give further support to the view that the 
secretion of the fat of human milk occurs independently of 
that of the other constituents, since the percentages of the 
latter show marked tendencies to approach certain "most 
probable" values, the percentages of fat show not such 
tendency, but the occurrence of any one percentage within 
wide limits seems to be no more probable than that of any 
other. 

2. The samples of human milk and methods of analysis. 
The samples of human milk of which the analyses are 
given in this paper were obtained from patients of the 
Royal Alexandra Hospital for Women, Sydney, through the 
courtesy of Miss E. M. Buckley, m.b., Pathologist to the 
Hospital, to whom I express my best thanks. 

The patients who come to this hospital for confinement 
remain there in the ordinary course of events for ten or 
eleven days after the birth of the child, and of the 105 
samples of human milk of which the analyses are given 
only one represents the milk secreted after a period longer 
than this after child-birth. The great majority of the 
samples were obtained four or five days after the birth of 
the child. 

The nurses who obtained the milk were at first instructed 
to obtain it by massaging the breast of the patient, as a 
better sample is said to be obtained in this way than with 
a pump (Engel), but as the nurses seemed to have great 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 173- 

difficulty in collecting samples large enough for analysis 
by this means, the use of the breast pump was resorted to r 
and all of the samples except the first two or three were 
collected with it. 

In the case of each sample of human milk the nurses 
were instructed to record the following particulars : — 

1. Age of mother. 

2. Number of pregnancies. 

3. Age of child. 

4. Time of collection of sample. 

5. Time of last suckling. 

6. Breast from which sample was taken. 

The nurses were directed to obtain the whole sample 
from one breast whenever possible, and to endeavour to 
empty the breast completely. The samples of milk were 
collected between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m.; the analyses were 
begun at about 10 a.m. of the same morning, so that all the 
estimations were made upon perfectly fresh milk. 

Methods of Analysis. — Determinations of density, total 
solids, fat, and total protein, were made on the samples of 
human milk obtained. The amounts of solids not fat, and 
of solids not fat and not protein (chiefly milk-sugar) have 
been calculated by difference. 

The densities of the milks were determined with a 
pyknometer. The pyknometer used for the first twenty- 
five samples had a volume of about 8*5 cc, but as the 
quantities of milk obtained were occasionally smaller than 
this, a pyknometer having a volume of only about 2*7 cc. 
was used for the rest of the determinations. The levels of 
the pyknometer were adjusted after it had hung in a water 
thermostat for at least ten minutes; the densities given 
are for a temperature of 25° O. Their values are given to 
one part in 10,000. 



174 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

The total solids of the milk were determined on 1 cc. 
measured from a pipette and evaporated to dryness on a 
watch-glass in a glycerine oven at 103° O. This small 
quantity of milk can be spread out in a thin layer on the 
watch-glass and dries fairly quickly at 103° 0. In the 
calculation of the percentage of total solids the volume of 
the milk is multiplied by its density to give the weight. 
The values of the percentage of total solids are given to 
one part in one hundred. 

The fat in the samples of milk was determined by the 
Rose-Gottlieb (1888, 1891) method. In this method the fat 
is extracted from the milk mixed with alcohol and ammon- 
ium hydroxide by means of a mixture of ether and petroleum 
spirit of low boiling point, the fat dissolved in this mixture 
being weighed after evaporating off the spirit. The results 
of the analyses are given to one part in one hundred. 

It has been stated by Radenhausen (1881), Forster (1881), 
Mendes de Leon (1881), and by others, that the percentage 
of fat in human milk is lower in the portions first withdrawn 
than in the portions withdrawn later, and Reyher (1905), 
Forest (1906), and Bngel (1906) have suggested that on 
account of this fact the whole of the milk contained in the 
mammary gland should be taken for analysis in order to 
determine the average percentage of fat in it, or, failing 
this, that equal portions should be taken for analysis at 
the beginning and the end of the withdrawal of the sample, 
the mean of the percentages of fat found in these two por- 
tions being taken as the average percentage of fat in the 
total amount of milk withdrawn. Helbich (1912), who 
reinvestigated this question later, did not find this depend- 
ence of the percentage of fat in human milk on the volume 
withdrawn from the breast, however. He therefore states 
that the inverse relation between volume and percentage 
of fat which Engel claims to have observed, does not exist. 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 175 

In the present work an endeavour was made to comply 
with the above recommendations by having the mammary 
gland emptied as completely as possible for each sample. 

It has also been shown by Engel (1910), that the per- 
centage of fat in human milk is lower the longer the interval 
of time is which has elapsed since milk was last withdrawn 
from the gland. Account has been taken of this statement 
in the present case by noting the time which had elapsed 
for each sample since the last withdrawal of milk from the 
same gland, with a view to ascertaining whether any 
similar effect of time on the percentage of fat in the milk 
secreted was to be observed. 

In the case of the cow, the fact that the last portions 
of a milking are richer in fat than the first is well known, 
and seems to have been first demonstrated by Parmentier 
and Deyeux as long ago as 1790. It is also well known to 
dairymen that the shorter the period of rest between two 
successive milkings of a cow the richer in fat is the milk 
yielded at the second milking, but the smaller is the volume 
obtained. 

The total protein in the first fifty-three samples ofjiuman 
milk was estimated by the method of Sikes (1906). In this 
method, 5 cc. of milk to which two or three drops of a 
saturated solution of citric acid have been added to hinder 
the precipitation of salts, are mixed with 100 cc. of absolute 
alcohol, and boiled. The proteins are completely precipi- 
tated, and the fat, sugar, and extractives go into solution 
in the hot alcohol. The precipitate is spun in a centrifuge 
while hot and washed twice with 30 cc. of boiling alcohol. 
In the present case large quantities of absolute alcohol and 
a centrifuge in which the washing could be done con- 
veniently were not available. The precipitation was 
therefore brought about by means of 95% methylated spirit, 
and the precipitate was washed twice with 50 cc. of the 



176 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

spirit on a filter surrounded by a steam coil which kept the 
liquid hot. No protein could be detected in the filtrate 
from this precipitation by means of Millon's reagent. This 
reagent as used in the present case was capable of detect- 
ing one part in 20,000 of protein in solution, a quantity 
which would amount to about 0*25% of the protein esti- 
mated. No sugar could be detected in the second washing 
by means of Fehling's solution. This reagent, as used in 
the present case was capable of detecting one part of 
lactose in 8,000, a quantity which would amount to about 
0*2% of the whole of the lactose present. No simple quali- 
tative test for fat of a well-defined order of delicacy was 
known, but a comparison of the results obtained by this 
method with those obtained by another method (described 
below) in which the fat was completely removed from the 
milk before the estimation of protein showed that the 
amount of any fat not removed by the washing was within 
the experimental error. 

In samples 71 to 122 a modification of the above method 
was used for the estimation of protein. Instead of a fresh 
sample of milk being taken, an aliquot part of the aqueous 
layer of the liquids obtained in the estimation of fat by the 
Rose-Gottlieb method was used. The method thus modified 
has the advantage that the fat and protein are both esti- 
mated on the same sample of milk, and that the fat in the 
liquid in which the protein is estimated has already been 
completely removed. The quantity of milk required for 
analysis is in this way much reduced, a determination of 
both fat and protein being easily made on 5 cc. of milk. 
Further, it is unnecessary to take precautions to keep the 
liquids hot during filtration in order to keep fat in solution. 
The first precipitation must, however, still be made from 
boiling alcohol, or the precipitate will not come down com- 
pletely, and hot alcohol is more convenient for the washings 
than cold. Citric acid was added before the precipitation 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 177 

as in Sikes' method, but was found later not to reduce the 
ash-content of the precipitate of protein. The percentage 
of ash in the precipitates was found to be about five ; 
Sikes found the percentage of protein to be about three in 
his precipitates, but in the present case the percentage of 
ash in the precipitates obtained by his method was the 
same as in those obtained by the method described. 

The aqueous layer of the liquids obtained in the estima- 
tion of fat by the Rose-Gottlieb method is not clear, but 
opalescent, owing to the presence of substances in colloidal 
solution, the chief of which are caseinogen and phosphates. 
On standing, part of this fine suspension slowly rises and 
collects beneath the ethereal layer. When this has 
occurred, the distribution of the substances in the aqueous 
layer is no longer uniform, so that, in taking an aliquot 
part of this layer for the estimation of protein, a represen- 
tative sample might not be obtained, and a fallacious result 
might be arrived at, although, as the precipitate is probably 
composed of phosphates which have been thrown down by 
the addition of ammonia, the effect of this uneven distri- 
bution of the contents of the aqueous layer upon the amount 
of protein found would probably be insignificant. The 
liquids, however, should not be allowed to stand longer 
than about one hour, or should be shaken up and allowed 
to settle again if they have stood too long. 

The following protocol of an estimation of fat and protein 
on the same sample of milk will give a more definite idea 
of the method outlined above. 

Ten cc. of human milk in a 100 cc. stoppered measuring cylinder 
were mixed with 2 cc. of 10% ammonium hydroxide and 10 cc. of 
95% methylated spirit; 25 cc. portions of ether and of petroleum 
spirit were then added, the mixture being thoroughly shaken after 
each addition, and finally allowed to stand for about one hour. 
The levels of the ethereal and aqueous layers were then found to 
be at 70- 6 cc. and 19'0 cc, respectively. The volume of the 

K— August 4, 1915. 



178 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

ethereal layer was therefore 51-6 ce, and that of the aqueous 
layer 19-0 cc. Twenty cc. of the ethereal layer were pipetted off 
and the spirit was driven off in a weighed vessel. The fat which 
remained behind weighed 0-1257 gm. The percentage of fat in 
the milk was therefore: 0-1257/10 x 51-6/20 x 100/1-030 or 
3*14, the density of the milk being taken as 1-030. Ten cc. of 
the aqueous layer were now pipetted off and the protein in this 
liquid was precipitated as described above The dried precipitate 
weighed 0-1146 gm. The percentage of protein in the milk was 
therefore; 0-1146/10 x 190/10-0 x 100/1 -030 or 2-1 I. 

The following series of estimations of the amount of 
protein in human milk show the degree of concordance 
which is attainable between individual estimations on the 
same sample by this method: 



Sample A. 


Sample B. 


Sample O, 


2-62% 


3-20% 


2-59% 


2*63 


3*22 


2*57 


2*60 


3'21 


2*56 


2*63 






2-62 







The results obtained by this method thus agree together 
to within about 1%. 

In order to ascertain whether the results obtained by 
this method are strictly comparable with those obtained 
by the method of Sikes, six estimations of the amount of 
protein in a sample of milk were carried out by each method. 
The mean result of the six estimations by Sikes' method 
gave the percentage of protein as 1*36, while the mean of 
the six estimations by the present method gave the per- 
centage as 1*35. The two methods therefore give closely 
agreeing results. The percentages of protein are given to 
one part in one hundred in the accompanying tables. 

Of the remaining constituents of human milk, which 
have not been directly estimated, 90% are made up of milk 
sugar. The chief other substances present are: ash 0*2%; 
nitrogenous extractives, principally urea, 0*2%; citric acid 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



179 



0*05%. The total quantity of these substances is small, 
so that comparatively large variations in their amount 
would not materially alter the total amount of these 
remaining constituents of human milk, and so a reliable 
estimate of the amount of sugar present may be arrived at 
by simply deducting 0*5 from the percentage of substances 
obtained by subtracting the percentages of fat and of protein 
from the percentage of total solids. In the table of results 
the percentages of these solids not fat and not protein are 
given, and from them the percentages of sugar may be 
calculated by making the above deduction. 

The percentages of solids not fat have also been given in 
the table of results, as this portion of the milk has been 
observed to be more constant in amount than the other con- 
stituents, and importance has therefore been attached to 
it for purposes of comparison. 

3. Results. 
The results of the analyses made, and the particulars of 
the samples of milk used are given in the following table. 
The figures given in the several columns represent: (1) the 
number of the sample ; (2) the breast from which the 
sample was taken, R = right breast, L = left breast, B = 
both breasts; (3) the age of the mother in years; (4) the 
number of the pregnancy; (5) the age of the child in days; 
(6) the time in hours since the last application of the child 
to the breast; (7) the volume of the sample in cc; (8) the 
density of the sample; (9) the percentage of total solids; 
(10) the percentage of fat; (11) the percentage of solids 
not fat; (12) the percentage of protein; (13) the percentage 
of solids not fat and not protein. The results given in the 
table have been arranged in descending order of the number 
of pregnancies of the mother, the results for any given 
number of pregnancies being in descending order of the age 
of the mother and of the time since the child was last 
suckled. 



180 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



Table II. — Results of analyses of human milk and particulars of samples. 



u 

CD 

a 


CO 

d 
M 




PI 

Pt 

to 
<v 
U 


Org 
6C,CJ 


a* 
o 

c 

CO CD 
Si 


o 
a> • 

> % 


'w 
a 
a> 

ft 


!9 

"3 

CO 

"3 

O 

H 


■4-3 

a 




CO 

2 


"53 





■si J 
in 


42 


B 


14 




5 


1-0 


19 


1-0297 


10-4 


2-10 


8-3 


2-02 


83 


69 


E 


17 




4 


7-0 


15 


1-0360 


12-3 


2-78 


9-5 






98 


E 


17 




9 


1-0 


8 


1-0291 


14-0 


3-95 


10-6 


1 : 68 


8-3 


121 


B 


18 




5 


1-5 


31 


1-0333 


13-0 


3-28 


9-7 


2-26 


75 


67 


B 


18 




10 


0-5 


14 


1-0297 


137 


4-32 


9-4 






58 


E 


19 




4 


1-25 


26 


1-0325 


13-6 


4-38 


9-2 


1 : 81 


7-4 


101 


E 


19 




4 


1-75 


16 


1-0358 


10-8 


1-09 


9-7 


1-29 


8-4 


99 


L 


19 




4 


3-0 


18 


1-0327 


10-7 


1-42 


9-3 


1-67 


76 


72 


B 


19 




9 


1-6 


24 


1-0329 


13-2 


3-61 


9-6 


1-53 


8-1 


78 


B 


20 




4 


20 


23 


1-0301 


14-8 


2-55 


12-2 


1-23 


110 


32 


L 


20 




5 


2-5 


20- 




11-9 


2-39 


9-5 


1-87 


7-6 


60 


B 


20 




5 


3-25 


13 


1-0318 


13-3 


3-85 


9-4 


2-42 


7-0 


30 


E 


20 




7 


7-75 


20+ 


1-0334 


11-5 


5-26 


6-2 


1-82 


4-4 


102 


L 


20 




11 


0-5 


9 


1-0320 


12-2 


5-88 


6-3 


2-50 


3-8 


23 


E 


20 




5 




20+ 


1-0330 


13-2 


2-98 


10-2 


2-20 


8-0 


113 


L 


21 




4 


1-25 


10 


1-0372 


11-7 


1-42 


10-3 


3-00 


73 


117 


L 


21 




4 


3-0 


9 


1-0337 


12-2 


2-51 


9-7 


2-41 


73 


44 


E 


21 




5 


1-0 


16 


1 '0338 


12-0 


2-71 


9-3 


2-60 


6-7 


39 


B 


22 




3 


2'0 


20+ 


1-0330 


12-8 


3-14 


9-7 


2-32 


8-3 


24 


L 


22 




3 


7-75 


20+ 


1-0311 


133 


3-87 


9-4 


2-08 


73 


96 


E 


22 




4 


3-5 




1-0331 


12-9 


3-3L 


9-6 


1-82 


7-8 


108 


E 


22 




7 


1-5 


20*' 


1-0312 


12-8 


3-46 


93 


1-35 


8-0 


46 


B 


23 




5 


0-5 


16 


1-0298 


12-9 


3-44 


9-5 


2-18 


7-3 


S2 


B 


23 




5 


11-0 


27 


1-0332 


12-6 


2-82 


9-8 


1-81 


8-0 


86 


B 


23 




6 


1-6 


15 


1-0331 


12-5 


3-40 


9-1 


1-73 


7-4 


93 


E 


23 




10 


ro 




1-0337 


12-7 


252 


10-2 


1-65 


8-4 


64 


L 


24 




6 


0-5 


35* 


1-0344 


11-5 


1-93 


96 


1-67 


7-9 


38 


B 


24 




3 


1-0 


20- 




10-2 


2-21 


8-0 


2-86 


5-1 


52 


E 


24 




7 


0-5 


14 




10-7 


2-03 


8-7 


2-88 


5-8 


55 


E 


24 




18 


2-0 


8 




13-7 


4-59 


9-L 






31 


E 


25 




4 


0-5 


20+ 


1-0343 


12-6 


2-86 


9-7 


2 : 30 


7-4 


48 


B 


25 




4 


6-5 


10 




9-5 


0-56 


8-9 


2-43 


6-5 


28 


L 


25 




8 


2-75 


20+ 


1-0308 


11-3 


2-37 


7-9 


2-45 


6-3 


104 


B 


26 




3 


1-0 


9 


1-0308 


11-2 


2-29 


8-9 


1-66 


7-2 


103 


L 


26 




6 


1-0 


15 


1-0302 


12-2 


2-78 


9-4 


1-77 


7-6 


57 


L 


26 




11 


1-0 


27 


1-0238 


16-5 


7-65 


8-8 


1-64 


72 


61 


L 


27 




4 


1-6 


22 


1-0327 


11-8 


2-40 


9-4 


232 


71 


76 


B 


27 




5 


0-5 


14 


1-0325 


9-2 


0-73 


8-5 


1-70 


6-8 


105 


E 


27 




5 


1-25 


29 


1-0312 


9-4 


1-01 


8-4 


1-54 


6-8 


25 


E 


27 




5 


4-25 


20+ 


1-0318 


11-2 


2-22 


9-0 


1-78 


7-2 


119 


L 


27 




8 


2-0 


11 


1-0295 


12-9 


3-07 


9-8 


2-01 


7-8 


114 


B 


27 


2 


9 


1-0 


9 


1-0313 


12-5 


3-23 


9-3 


1-62 


7-6 


22 


E 


28 


2 


3 


2-75 


20- 




13-1 


3-10 


10-0 


202 


8-0 


109 


L 


37 


2 


6 


1*0 


15 


1-0323 


133 


3-46 


9-8 


1-68 


8-2 


27 


E 




2 


4 


4-75 


20- 




11-2 


1-63 


9-6 


1-97 


7-6 


34 


B 




2 


5 


1-5 


20+ 


1-0351 


12-6 


2-41 


10-2 


4-00 


6-2 


66 


E 


18 


2 


4 


1-0 


30 


1-0318 


11-9 


2-86 


9-0 


1-85 


7-2 


112 


B 


18 


2 


6 


5-5 


15 


1-0301 


12-2 


3-11 


9-1 


1-65 


7-4 


41 


L 


19 


2 


3 


ro 


20+ 


1-0324 


12-0 


3-77 


8-2 


2-08 


6-1 


80 


L 


19 


2 


4 


1-0 


23 


1-0337 


12-1 


2-76 


9-3 


1-28 


8-1 


45 


B 


19 


2 


5 


0-5 


14 




12-5 


3-87 


8-6 


2-75 


5-9 


92 


E 


19 


2 


5 


2-5 


13 


1-0351 


11-6 


1-83 


9-8 


2-67 


71 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



181 



TABLE II. — continued. 









o 




a 

.9 


"3 




CO 

2 




-m 





-M 
O 


u 

a 

s 


DO 

cS 
ID 
h 

n 




B 

05 

B 

tx 

a* 

Si 

Ph 




as <u 


^a 


'm 

A 


CO 

"eg 
O 

H 


43 


a 

m 

0Q«2 


a 
'55 



M 

Ph 


ill 
ill 


68 


L 


20 


2 


4 


1-75 


14 




12-8 


3-20 


9-6 






53 


L 


21 


2 


4 


1-25 


17 


1-0347 


12-2 


2-16 


10-0 


2-70 


7*3 


95 


L 


21 


2 


6 


1-5 




1-0326 


11-5 


2-25 


9-2 


1-44 


6-7 


51 


E 


22 


2 


5 


0-5 


29" 


1-0332 


10-9 


1-46 


8-4 


2-11 


73 


20 


L 


22 


2 


5 


2-0 


20+ 


1-0295 


12-2 


1-64 


10-6 


1-60 


9-0 


33 


L 


22 


2 


2 


7-5 


20+ 


1-0344 


12-2 


2-50 


9-7 


2-39 


73 


54 


L 


23 


o 


4 


9-25 


28 


1-0327 


13 5 


3-65 


9-8 


1-96 


7-9 


71 


L 


23 


2 


7 


1-0 


19 


1-0349 


11-9 


2-05 


9-8 


1-94 


7-9 


74 


L 


24 


2 


4 


5'25 


11 


1-0336 


13-5 


3-64 


9-9 


1-94 


7-9 


77 


E 


25 


2 


4 


0-75 


13 


1-0300 


13-2 


4-15 


9-0 


1-92 


71 


115 


B 


26 


2 


2 


2-0 


9 


1-0330 


13-7 


3-48 


10-2 


2-95 


73 


89 


L 


26 


2 


5 


1-5 


15 


1-0310 


13-6 


4-08 


9-5 


1-68 


7-8 


65 


L 


26 


2 


5 


2-0 


24 


1-0351 


15-5 


4-53 


11-0 


2-55 


8-4 


70 


L 


26 


2 


6 


0-75 


16 


1-0293 


14-9 


3-14 


11-8 


2-01 


9-7 


79 


E 


27 


2 


5 


1-0 


9 


1-0340 


13-7 


3-93 


9-8 


2-09 


7-7 


21 


L 


27 


2 


5 


1-5 


20- 




12-3 


2-00 


10-3 


2-40 


7-9 


94 


L 


28 


2 


5 


1-0 




1-0333 


11-8 


2-52 


9-3 


1-68 


7-6 


19 


L 


28 


2 


5 


3-5 


10+ 


1-0308 


13-6 


1-82 


11-8 


1-10 


10-5 


100 


E 


29 


2 


4 


2-75 


8 


1-0296 


12-6 


3-48 


9-1 


3-92 


5-2 


107 


E 


30 


2 


3 


1-0 


10 


1-0353 


11-0 










HI 


B 


30 


2 


5 


1-0 


11 


1-0324 


11-3 


2-14 


9 V 2 


1-58 


7-6 


88 


E 


30 


2 


5 


1-75 


9 


1-0298 


11-6 


4-22 


7-4 


1-30 


6-1 


120 


B 


30 


2 


9 


1-5 


35 


1-0318 


13-2 


3-91 


9-3 


1-53 


7-8 


90 


B 


30 


2 


8 


1-5 


13 


1-0335 


12-6 


2-81 


9-8 


1-32 


8-5 


122 


L 


30 


2 


8 


8-75 


20 


1-0360 


10-8 


3-50 


7-3 


1-43 


5-9 


62 


L 


31 


2 


5 


1-0 


30 


1-0368 


13-2 


2-48 


10-7 


3-58 


7-1 


87 


L 


32 


2 


3 


3-5 


23 


1-0329 


13-5 


2-03 


11-5 


1-98 


9-5 


75 


L 


26 


3 


4 


1-0 


15 


1-0358 


10-8 


1-21 


9-6 


2-44 


71 


29* 


E 


28 


3 


2 


8-25 


20- 




18-6 


2-63 


16-0 


4-10 


11-9 


43 


B 


30 


3 


4 


0'5 


22 


1-0263 


11-8 


3-75 


8-0 


2-60 


5-4 


97 


E 


32 


3 


3 


3-0 


11 


1-0307 


13-6 


4-12 


9-5 


1-16 


8-3 


73 


L 


34 


3 


4 


2-0 


21 


1-0332 


13-2 


3-42 


9-8 


2-01 


7-8 


47 


B 


40 


3 


7 


0-5 


27 


1-0313 


12-9 


3-97 


8-9 


2-04 


6-9 


50 


L 




3 


4 


0-5 


31 


1-0301 


9-9 


4-14 


5-8 


2-78 


3-0 


85 


B 


26 


4 


8 


1-0 


18 


1-0305 


13-8 


4-43 


9-4 


1-38 


8*0 


26 


L 


29 


4 


8 


2-0 


20+ 


1 -0307 


13-4 


3-80 


9-6 


1-99 


7-6 


91 


E 


31 


4 


9 


1-0 


12 


1-0307 


13-7 


4-41 


9-3 


0-99 


8-3 


59 


L 


42 


4 


4 


1-0 


17 


1-0313 


11-4 


3-66 


7-7 


1-49 


62 


40 


B 


33 


5 


6 


3-5 


20- 




12-5 


2-86 


9-6 


1-99 


76 


110 


E 


26 


6 


5 


3-0 


18 


1-0343 


11-2 


1-82 


9-4 


1-71 


7-7 


81 


B 


30 


6 


4 


1-0 


12 


1-0293 


10-0 


1-09 


8-9 


4-20 


4-7 


83 


B 


30 


6 


4 


1-5 


31 


1-0329 


12-5 


3-80 


8-7 


2-17 


6-5 


56 


L 


30 


6 


5 


0-5 


26 


1 -0325 


11-6 


1-99 


9-6 


1-94 


7-7 


49 


L 


31 


6 


6 


0-5 


20 


1-0297 


10-6 


2-39 


8-2 


2-30 


5-9 


118 


E 


31 


6 


8 


1-0 


35 


1-0274 


12-3 


3-87 


8-4 


2-57 


5-9 


116 


L 


32 


7 


8 


0-25 


19 


1-0318 


12-2 


2-25 


9-9 


1-91 


8-0 


84 


B 


32 


9 


9 


1-0 


11 


1-0308 


14-5 


4-64 


9-9 


1-87 


8-0 


63 


L 


25 


multi- 


6 


1-0 


14 


1-0329 


13-1 


3-38 


9-7 


2-02 


7-7 


35 


B 


18 


para 


4 


1-5 


20+ 


1-0316 


10-9 


1-77 


9-1 


393 


52 


18 


E 


21 




11 


3-0 


20+ 


1-0293 


11-7 


1-52 


10-2 


0-95 


9-2 


37 


B 


20 




4 


2-5 


20+ 


1-0322 


11-7 


2-53 


9-2 


1-98 


7-2 


36 


B 


24 




4 


4-0 


20+ 


1 -0339 


13-0 


3-02 


10-0 


321 


7-8 



Colostrum. 



182 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



Although the significance of the mean values of the 
results of a series of analyses such as the above is in general 
not so apparent as might be desired, the mean values of the 
results of the above series have been given, together with 
the maximum and minimum values, both for comparison 
with the results of other investigators, and because, as 
will be shown later, mean values may approach values 
having a definite significance when the number of observa- 
tions is fairly large, as in the present case. 

Table III. — Maximum, mean, and minimum values of the density 
and composition of the samples of human milk examined. 



Maximum 

Mean 

Minimum 



Density. 



1-0370 
1-0321 
1-0260 



Total 
Solids. 



15-5 
131 

9-4 



Fat. 



7-65 
3-14 
0-56 



Solids 
not fat. 



12-2 

10-0 

6-2 



Protein 



4-2 

2-00 

0-95 



Solids not 
fat nor 
protein. 



11-9 

8-0 
3-8 



The results for sample 29, which was colostrum, are not 
included in the above table. The figures in the table show 
how widely separated are the limits between which the 
composition of the samples of human milk examined in the 
present case varied. The mean values, it will be noticed, 
are not very different from those of the investigators quoted 
at the beginning of the paper, with the exception of the 
values for the percentage of protein given by Oamerer and 
Soldner {loc. eit.), which differ from the values given by 
the majority of other workers. It must be remembered, 
however, that the present results are for the milk of the 
first week of lactation only. 

4. The most probable composition of human milk. 

When a series of measurements of a certain quantity is 

made, the results of these measurements are found, in 

general, not to be identical, but to differ among themselves, 

even when the quantity measured is assumed to remain 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 183 

unchanged. Under these circumstances, when the measure- 
ments are all made with equal care, there is no reason to 
believe that any one of them is nearer the truth than any 
other and the arithmetic mean of the whole number of 
measurements is taken as representing a value which is 
probably nearer to that of the quantity itself than the value 
obtained from any isolated measurement. The arithmetic 
mean of the results in this case has a very definite meaning. 

But when the quantity measured itself varies, each value 
which it takes cannot be regarded as an equally probable 
approximation to a hypothetical "true" value, but itself 
has a real existence. To take the arithmetic mean of a 
series of measurements of such a quantity, then, is to obtain 
a figure which only has a meaning on the basis of assump- 
tions which do not hold in this case. As the arithmetic 
mean of a series of measurements of a quantity which varies 
has thus, of itself, no significance, how then is a series of 
measurements of such a quantity to be briefly described? 
Attention seems to have been first directed to this ques- 
tion by Francis Galton (1879). 

Quantities which are observed to vary are of two main 
types: (1) those whose variations bear a definite relation to 
the variations of a second quantity or group of quantities, 
and (2) those in which no such relation to other quantities 
has been detected. A series of measurements of a quantity 
of the first type may be briefly and completely described by 
stating the relation which exists between this quantity 
and the second quantity or group of quantities. Such a 
relation is expressed by the mathematical function which 
the values of the first quantity are of the values of the 
second quantity. Numerous intermediate stages occur 
between the extreme cases where all the values taken by 
one quantity are a function of the values of other quanti- 
ties and where no definite relation has been discerned 



184 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

between the values of the quantities associated together. 
Karl Pearson (1903) has regarded all phenomena as being, 
to a certain degree, contingent upon one another. In 
phenomena or quantities of the first type the degree of 
contingency is high, and may be expressed numerically as 
approaching unity, where a contingency of 1 represents 
absolute dependence. In phenomena or quantities of the 
second type the degree of contingency is low, and may be 
represented as approaching zero, where a contingency of 
represents complete independence. 

The values of the various quantities which may be 
measured in milk, the percentages of the various substances 
which occur in it, although they must a priori bear an 
intimate relation to one another, being produced together 
by living organism which we know by observations made 
in other directions to have a wonderful power of co-ordin- 
ating its activities, yet do not bear to one another a rela- 
tion which we have so far been able to accurately and 
briefly define. The amounts of the different substances 
occurring in milk must therefore be regarded at present as 
bearing only a low degree of contingency to one another, 
and not very much information may be gained by the study 
of the relation between series of observations of such 
quantities, as will be seen later. 

If, however, each of these series be examined separately, 
and the results be arranged according to their magnitude, 
the series may be found to be capable of being divided into 
two main classes: (1) those in which the numbers of results 
are fairly evenly distributed over the whole range of the 
values observed, or (2) those in which there is a certain value 
in whose vicinity the results are much more numerous than 
elsewhere, the numbers of results becoming smaller and 
smaller as this value is receded from in either direction. 
In a series of results of the first kind, any particular result 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 185 

is, to all appearances, no more likely to occur than any 
other, and the values of the results obtained must, on the 
evidence at hand, all be regarded as equally probable. The 
only convenient way of summarising such a series of values 
is to take the arithmetic mean of them all. But the figure 
obtained by this process cannot be regarded as being likely 
to be nearer a " true " value of the quantity measured than 
any isolated result, as in the case discussed above, but is 
simply a number such that any particular result in the 
series is no more likely to be above it than below it. 

But in the case of a series of the second kind, there is a 
value in the vicinity of which the results seem to be more 
likely to occur than in parts of the series further removed 
from this value. There is thus a greater probability that 
any result will fall in the vicinity of this value than any- 
where else. Such a value may, therefore, be regarded as 
the most probable value of the quantity which is being 
observed. 

The values obtained for the percentages of the various 
constituents in the samples of human milk analysed in the 
present work have been arranged according to their mag- 
nitude, as described above, and it has been found that both 
of these latter types of series are represented among them. 
In arranging a series of values according to their magnitude 
for examination in this way, the successive values must 
be so chosen as to increase by some convenient amount at 
each step, and in the present case the increment chosen 
for each step is one-tenth of the mean or most probable 
value of the series. If the steps chosen be too small, 
irregularities (not necessarily inaccuracies) in the values 
of the results obtained will obscure the general trend of 
the observations, while if the steps be too large, their 
number will be too few to adequately show the way in 
which the grouping of the results varies through the series. 



186 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



In the following tables the percentages of the constituents 
of human milk are arranged in ascending order of magni- 
tude, and under each value is given the number of results 
falling between this value and the succeeding one. Since, 
in the present case, the total number of results is about 
one hundred, these numbers represent the percentages of 
the total number of results falling between each pair of 
values, and may be considered as the relative probabilities 
of the occurrence of results having these particular values. 

(1) Fat — The following are the relative frequencies of 
occurrence of the various percentages of fat observed in 
the samples of human milk examined. 



Percentage 
of fat 

Number of 
results 



under 
























1-2 


1-2 


1-5 


1-8 


2-1 


2-4 


2*7 


3-0 


3-3 


3-6 


3-9 


4-2 


5 


3 


4 


9 


9 


13 


10 


9 


11 


8 


11 


6 



4-5 

and 

over 



From these figures it will be seen that in the case of the 
fat of the samples of human milk examined, the results 
show no tendency to group themselves about any particular 
value, but occur with fairly even frequency over the greater 
part of the values observed. No most probable value for 
the percentage of fat can therefore be stated from these 
results, and the only easily obtained figure of general 
significance for the whole series is the arithmetic mean of 
the results, 3*14%. j 

(2) Protein — The following are the relative frequencies 
of occurrence of the various percentages of protein observed 
in the samples. 



Percentage 
of protein 


0-8 


1-0 
2 


1-2 

7 


1-4 

7 


1-6 

17 


1-8 

18 


2*0 
13 


2-2 

7 


2-4 
9 


2-6 
6 


2-8 
3 


3-0 

1 


3'2 

and 
over 


Number of 
results 


2 


7 



It will be seen from these figures that samples of milk 
having percentages of protein between 1*6 and 2*2 were 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



187 



much more frequent than samples having any percentage 
outside of these limits. About 50% of the total number of 
results occur between these values and as they are fairly 
evenly distributed within the limits, their mean value 1*9 
may be taken as representing the most probable percentage 
of protein in the human milk examined. 

(3) Solids not fat and not protein — The following are the 
relative frequencies of occurrence of the various percent- 
ages of solids not fat and not protein in the samples. Over 
90% of this portion of the milk, it will be remembered, is 
composed of milk-sugar. 



Percentage of solids not 
fat nor protein 


3'8 
3 


4-5 
3 


5'2 

4 


5-9 
10 


e-6 

16 


7-3 

37 


8-0 
19 


8-7 
2 


9'4 

2 


1-1 


Number of results 


3 



From these figures it will be seen that samples of milk 
having percentages of solids not fat and not protein 
between 6'7 and 8*7 occur more frequently than samples 
having any percentage outside of this range, and the mean 
of this range of values, 7'6, may be regarded as the most 
probable value of the percentage of solids not fat and not 
protein in the samples of human milk examined. About 
60% of the total number of results occur within this range. 
The closeness with which the results are grouped about a 
certain value is greater in this case than the case of the 
percentages of protein. 

The values of the percentages of the other portions of 
human milk which are considered as being of importance, 
of the total solids and of the solids not fat and are deter- 
mined by the values of the constituents just given. The 
percentages of total solids and of solids not fat are given 
separately below. 

(4) Total solids — The following are the relative fre- 
quencies of occurrence of the various percentages of total 
solids in the samples examined. 



188 


H. S 


. H. WARDLAW. 








Percentage of total solids 


8-3 


9-6 


10-9 

24 


12-2 


13-5 


14-8 


15-1 

and over 


Number of results 


3 


12 


45 


15 


3 


2 



It will be seen from these figures that samples of milk 
having percentages of total solids between 10*9 and 14*8 
are of considerably more frequent occurrence than samples 
having a percentage outside of this range. The mean of 
this range, 12*8% may therefore be considered as the most 
probable percentage of solids for the series. The results 
are even more closely grouped about this value than in the 
previous case, over 80% of the results occurring within an 
equal range. These figures also indicate that the occur- 
rence of percentages of total solids above this value is 
rather less likely than the occurrence of percentages below 
it, as the numbers of results are not quite symmetrically 
arranged about the most probable value but lower values 
are more plentiful than higher values. 

(5) Solids not fat — The following are the relative fre- 
quencies of occurrence of the various percentages of solids 
not fat observed in the samples of human milk examined. 



Percentage of solids not fat 
Number of results 



6-3 


7-2 


8-1 


9-0 


9-9 


10-8 


3 


6 


17 


55 


16 


2 



11-7 



These figures show that samples having percentages of 
solids not fat between 8*1 and 10*8 are much more fre- 
quent than those having any percentage outside this 
range. Nearly 90% of the total number of results occur 
between these limits. The mean of this range of values, 
9*4%, may therefore be considered as the most probable 
value of the percentage of solids not fat of these samples 
of human milk. It will be noticed that the numbers of 
results are much more closely grouped about the most 
probable value in this than in any of the other cases studied. 
This is another way of expressing the generally recognised 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



189 



fact that solids not fat of milk are much more constant 
in amount than any of the other constituents usually 
determined. 

The distributions of these results over the ranges of values 
observed are represented graphically in the accompanying 
diagram. In this diagram the percentage deviations of the 
results from the most probable value have been plotted as 
abscissse, the percentages of the total number of the 
results showing these deviations as ordinates. 



60 


- 








4 




so 

40 










M\ 




30 


- 








// w 




HO 


- 








C2^ 




/o 

O 


1 


l 1 


l 


7$' 

1 


1 1 1 


X — - ' ./ 

1 1 1 1 



— 60 SO *.0 -30 



40 &O -f- 



Percentage deviation from most probable value. 

Diagram showing the distributions of the percentages of the 
constituents of human milk over the ranges of values found. 

O O — O = fat. 

# # = protein. 

O O = solids not fat and not protein. 

x x = total solids. 

______ — solids not fat. 

This diagram shows very clearly how the results tend 
towards certain values in the case of all of the constituents 
of human milk estimated, with the exception of the fat. 
The different degrees of closeness with which the results 



190 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



are grouped about the most probable values are also well 
shown by the different heights of the maxima on the curves, 
and the different degree of steepness with which they rise 
to these maxima. 

The striking difference between the distribution of the 
percentages of fat and those of the percentages of the other 
constituents is not peculiar to the present results, but is 
equally well shown by the results of Leeds, Carter and 
Droop Richmond, and Oamerer and Soldner already quoted 
in this paper. The following are the relative frequencies 
of occurrence of the various percentages of fat recorded in 
their papers arranged as described above. In these cases, 
of course, since the total numbers of results are not one 
hundred, the numbers given do not represent percentages. 



Per- 






























cent. 


i-h 

and 


1-8 


2-1 


2-4 


2V 


3-0 


3-3 


3-6 


3-9 


4-2 


4-5 


4-8 


5-1 


c>-4 

and 


of fat. 


under 


























over 


Num- 


*1 


3 


2 


5 


6 


6 


9 


7 


2 


5 


3 





2 


1 


ber of 


to 





3 


3 


6 


6 


2 


7 


5 


5 


3 


4 





13 


results 


tie 


6 


6 


10 


6 


11 


9 


9 


7 


3 


3 


2 


1 


4 



* Camerer and Soldner. f Leeds, J Carter and Droop Kichmond. 

As will be seen from these figures, the results show 
practically no tendency to group themselves about any 
particular value but occur with fairly even frequency over 
a wide range of values. 

When, however, the percentages of the other constituents 
are arranged in the same way they are found, as in the case 
of the results of the present work, to group themselves 
about certain values with varying degrees of closeness. 

The process by which the fat of human milk is secreted, 
therefore, unlike the processes by which the other con- 
stituents are produced, does not seem to favour the appear- 
ance of milk containing any particular percentage more 
than any other between certain wide limits. Although it 
might be contended that the irregularities found in the 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



191 



percentages of fat in human milk may be due to a faulty 
method of obtaining the samples, it seems fairly evident 
that the fat of the milk is secreted by a process which is 
more less independent of that by which all the other con- 
stituents are produced, and the samples obtained for 
analysis must surely be comparable with the samples 
obtained by a suckling child, which can hardly be regarded 
as regulating to a nicety both the intervals between its 
meals, and the quantities which it takes. The chief object 
of the analysis of human milk is, after all, to ascertain the 
composition of the food of the human infant. 

In the table given below the values for the most probable 
percentages of the various constituents of human milk 
obtained from the results of the present work and from 
those of the work of the authors quoted are placed together. 
The values of the mean percentages are also given for 
comparison. 

Table IY. — Most probable and mean values of percentages of 
constituents of human milk. 



Author. 


Total Solids. 


Solids not fat 


Protein. 


Sugar. 




Mean. 


Most 
probable. 


Mean. 


Most 
prob. 


Mean. 


Most 
prob. 


Mean. 


Most 
prob. 


Leeds ... 

Carter and Droop 
Richmond 

Camerer and 
Soldner 

Halcro Wardlaw 


13-3 
12-0 

12-0 
131 


13-0 
11-7 

12-0 

12-8 


9-1 

8-9 

8-6 
10-0 


9-3 
8-6 

8-7 
9-8 


2-0 
2-0 

1-4 
2-0 


2-0 
1-7 

1-1 
1-9 


6-9 
6-6 

6-4 

7-4 


7-1 

6-9 

6-7 
7-1 



From the above table it will be seen that the results 
obtained in these four series of analyses, with the exception 
of the percentage of protein given by Camerer and Soldner, 
do not differ materially from one another. It would appear, 
therefore, that climate has no very marked effect on the 
composition. 



192 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

These figures show also that the mean values of the 
results do not differ much, as a rule, from the most probable 
values. This is due to the fact that the results lying out- 
side the range of most probable values are fairly evenly 
distributed on either side, and so balance when the arith- 
metic mean of the whole is taken. The arithmetic mean 
of series of analyses such as these, although of itself it has 
no meaning, thus lies close to a value which has a definite 
significance, and the mean value may, therefore, be used 
in many cases instead of the better defined, but not so 
readily accessible, most probable value. It should be 
remembered, however, that the occurrence of a number of 
very high or low values in a series of results would con- 
siderably alter the mean of the series, but not the most 
probable value. 

5. Variation of composition with, time since parturition. 
The composition of a sample of human milk is known to 
depend on the stage of lactation of the woman from whom 
it is obtained (Schloss, 1912 ; Oamerer and Soldner, Engel, 
Adriance and Adriance, loc. cit.). The main features of 
this dependence are that the ash and protein of the milk 
tend to decrease as the lactation continues, while the 
amount of milk sugar slightly increases. These statements 
apply to the very gradual alteration in the composition 
of human milk during the course of months of lactation. 
During the first few days of lactation, however, the alter- 
ation in the composition must be very much more rapid, 
since the milk first secreted after the birth of the child, the 
colostrum, has a composition which differs considerably 
from that of the milk secreted later, the principal differ- 
ence being the high percentage of protein in the former. 
Sample No. 29, Table II, is a typical example of colostrum. 
The variation of the composition of human milk obtained 
in the first few days after the colostral period, which 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



193 



normally does not last longer than forty-eight hours, does 
not seem to have been examined in detail. Practically all 
of the human milk, the analyses of which are given iu this 
paper, were obtained during this immediately post-colostral 
period, and the results of these analyses have been arranged 
in the following table so as to indicate how the average 
composition alters during these first few days of lactation. 
The samples from which the table has been compiled were 
obtained from women who had been suckling for periods 
ranging from two to eleven days. 

Table V. — Variation of composition of human milk with stage of 

lactation. 



Sucklia g 
for 


Number 

of 
samples 


Density. 


Total 
solids. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not fat. 


Protein. 


Solids 
not fat 

nor 
protein. 


1 - 2 days 


3 


1-0337 


14-8 


2-84 


12-0 


3-30 


8-7 


3-4 „ 


39 


1-0322 


12-2 


2-84 


9-4 


2-33 


7-0 


5-6 „ 


36 


1-0320 


12-2 


2-64 


9-6 


2-06 


7-5 


7-8 „ 


13 


1-0319 


12-3 


3-27 


9-0 


2-02 


7-0 


9-11 „ 


11 


1-0308 


13-5 


4-13 


9-4 


1-69 


7-7 



It will be seen from this table that the average values 
of the density and protein fell during the period of obser- 
vation ; the fat remained almost constant for a time and 
then rose considerably; the amount of total solids fell 
rapidly at first, this fall being due to the large decrease in 
the amount of protein associated with the disappearance 
of colostrum, then rose again as the amount of fat present 
increased; the amount of solids not fat fell rapidly at first, 
and then fluctuated slightly, but did not move steadily in 
any direction; the amount of solids not fat and not protein 
varied in the same way as the amount of solids not fat. 
On the whole the composition did not alter materially after 
the second day. The author hopes to deal with the later 
stages of lactation in detail in a subsequent paper. The 

M— August 4, 1915. 



194 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



great majority of the samples dealt with in the present 
paper were obtained four to five days after the commence- 
ment of suckling. 

6. Effect of age of woman on composition of milk. 
In the samples of human milk which Leeds (loc. cit.) 
examined, he found that the average composition of the 
milk of women under twenty years of age showed higher 
values in the amount of every constituent than the milk of 
women over twenty years of age. In the following table 
the average compositions and densities of the human milks 
examined in the present investigation are arranged accord- 
ing to the ages of the women from whom they were obtained. 
The samples obtained from primiparse have been kept 
separate from those from multipara. 

Table VI. — Effect of age on composition of human milk. 





Primiparee. 


Multipara. 


Age. 


20 and 
under. 


21 to 30 


31 and 

over 


20 and 
under 


21 to 30 


31 and 

over 


No. of results 


15 


. 28 


1 


8 


37 


12 


Density 


1-0319 


1-0323 




1-0326 


1-0319 


1-0314 


Total solids ... 


12-4 


12-2 


13-3 


12-1 


12-9 


12-4 


Pat 


3-15 


2-67 


3-46 


2-87 


2-98 


2-97 


Solids not fat 


9-4 


9-5 


9-8 


9-2 


9-9 


9-4 


Protein 


1-91 


2-06 


1-68 


1-88 


2-40 


1-96 


Solids not fat 


7-7 


7-1 


8-1 


7-3 


7-5 


7-4 


nor protein 















No very clear evidence of a definite relation between 
the age of a woman and the composition of the milk secreted 
by her seems to be shown by the above figures. There is 
some evidence, however, that the percentage of protein is 
higher in the milk of women between the ages of 20 and 30 
than in the milk of women younger or older than this in 
the case of primiparae as well as in that of multiparse. 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 



195 



7. Percentage of fat in milk of each breast. 
It has been supposed by certain investigators that there 
is a constant difference between the average percentages 
of fat in the milk obtained from each breast. Mendes de 
Leon (loc. cit.) states that the milk of the right breast is 
richer in fat than that of the left, while Zappert and Jolles 
(1903) found the milk of the left breast to contain up to 
0*6% more fat than that of the right breast. The samples 
of milk examined in the present case have been compared 
together to determine whether any such difference between 
the secretions of the two breasts is to be seen in them. All 
of the samples compared were of the milk secreted at the 
same stage of lactation (4-5 days post partiim). The 
average percentage of fat in the milk of the right breast 
(19 samples) was found to be 2*57; the average percentage 
of fat in the milk of the left breast (22 samples) was found 
to be 2*50. In view of the large variations in the percentage 
of fat in the samples of human milk examined, however, 
the difference between these two figures (0*07%) is too small 
to justify a conclusion that the average percentage of fat 
in the milk of one breast is persistently higher than that of 
the milk of the other breast. 

8. Effect of number of pregnancies on composition of 
human milk. 

In the following table are given the average values of 
the density and composition of the milk of women at the 
first, second, third, and subsequent pregnancies. 

Table VII. — Effect of number of pregnancies on composition of 
hum,an milk. 



Number or pregnancies 


1 


2 


3 


More than 3 


Number of samples 


46 


33 


20 


13 


Density ... 


1-0324 


1-0328 


1-0312 


1-0309 


Total solids 


12-2 


12-6 


12-6 


12-5 


Fat 


2-91 


3-04 


3-44 


3-32 


Solids not fat 


9-4 


8-6 


8-1 


9-1 


Protein ... 


201 


2-14 


2-17 


1-89 


Solids not fat nor protein 


7-4 


6-4 


6-4 


7-2 



196 H. S. H. WARDLAW. 

From this table it will be seen that the average density 
is highest at the second pregnancy, and falls as the number 
of pregnancies increases; the average percentage of total 
solids is slightly lower at the first pregnancy than at the 
subsequent; the average percentage of fat rises till the 
third pregnancy, and then begins to fall; the average per- 
centage of solids not fat is higher at the first than at sub- 
sequent pregnancies, although there is a rise after the 
third; the average percentage of protein, like that of the 
fat rises, until the third pregnancy and then falls; while 
the average percentage of solids not fat and not protein, 
falls after the first pregnancy, but increases again after 
the third. 

9. Effect of volume of sample and of period of rest on 
fat-content of human milk. 

With regard to the effect of the volume of a sample of 
human milk obtained from the breast one might expect 
from the work of Engel and others quoted in this connec- 
tion that, in general, the smaller the volume of a sample 
was the higher the percentage of fat in it would be. In 
the present case, when the volume of the sample was 
between 15 cc. and 24 cc. the average percentage of fat 
was 2*66; and when the volume of the sample was between 
25 cc. and 35 cc. the percentage of fat in it was 3*09. These 
figures are more in accord with the statement of Helbich 
(loc. cit.) than with that of Engel, and show no very evident 
reciprocal relation between the volume of the sample and 
the percentage of fat in the milk. 

The effect of the time of rest since the last withdrawal 
of milk from the mammary gland on the percentage of fat 
in the milk yielded should be similar, according to the 
workers cited above, to that of the volume of the sample, 
that is, the relation should be an inverse one. When 
samples of milk of approximately equal volume, but obtained 



COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK IN AUSTRALIA. 197 

after different periods of rest, were compared in the present 
case, it was found that after half an hour the percentage 
of fat was 3*07; after one hour it was 2*95, and after that 
fluctuated irregularly. No definite relation between the 
time of rest of the mammary gland and the percentage of 
fat of the milk yielded is apparent, therefore, from these 
results. 

10. Summary. 

1. Certain values of the percentages of constituents other 
than fat of human milk of the first week post partum 
occurred much more frequently than others. These values 
were: — total solids, 12*8; solids not fat, 9*8; protein, 1*9; 
Solids not fat and not protein, 7*6. 

2. There was no definite percentage of fat near which 
the percentages in the majority of the samples lay, but 
the results were fairly evenly distributed over the whole 
range of values found. The average percentage of fat 
was 3*14. 

3. The average percentage of fat increased from 2*84 
to 4*13 during the first eleven days of suckling; the average 
percentage of protein decreased from 3*30 to 1*69 during 
the same period. 

4. The age of the woman, the number of pregnancies, 
the volume of the sample, the time since the last with- 
drawal of milk from the breast, and the breast from which 
the sample was taken, appeared to have no distinct effect 
on the composition of the milk examined. 

5. A new method for the estimation of protein in milk 
has been described. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks to Professor 
Sir Thomas Anderson Stuart, in whose laboratory this work 
was carried out, and to Dr. H. G. Chapman for his advice 
and helpful suggestions. 



198 



H. S. H. WARDLAW. 



11. References. 

Adriance and Adriance, J.S.C.I., 17, 636, 1898. 

Camerer and Soldner, Zeitschr. f. Biol., n. F., 15, 535, 1895. 

Ibid., n. F., 18, 277, 1898. 

Carter and Droop Richmond, Brit. Med. J., 199, Jan. 1898. 
Engel, Jahresber, f. Tierch., 36, 263, 1907. (From Arch. f. 
Kinderheilk., 43, 181, 1906). 

Ibid., 40, 254, 1911. (From the same, 53, 241, 1910.) 

Sommerfeld's "Handbuch der Milchkunde,"art.Frauenmilch. 

Wiesbaden, 1909. 

Forest, Jahresber. f. Tierch., 36, 263, 1907. (From Arch. f. 

Kinderheilk., 42, 81, 1906.) 
Forster, Ber. d. d. chem. Gesellsch., 14, 591, 1881. 
Galton, Proc. Roy. Soc, 29, 365, 1879. 
Gottlieb, Jahresber. f. Tierch., 21, 151, 1891. (From Tidskrift 

for Physik og Chemie, 1890.) 
Helbich, Jahresber. f. Tierch., 42, 200, 1913. (From Monatschr. 

f. Kinderheilk., 10, 649, 1912.) 
Leeds, Chem. News, 50, 263, 1884. (Reprinted from Trans, of 

College of Physicians of Philadelphia.) 
Mendes de Leon, Zeitschr. f. Biol , 17, 501, 1881. 
Parmentier and Deyeux, "Traite sur le Lait," 1790. (Cited by 

by Reiset, Ann, de Chim. et de Phys., ser. 3, 25, 83, 1849.) 
Pearson, "Grammar of Science," 3rd Ed, Chap. V. London, 1911. 
Peligot, Ann. de Chim. et de Phys., 62, 432, 1836. 
Radenhausen, Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem., 5, 13, 1881. 
Reyher, Jahresber. f. Tierch., 35, 308, 1906. (From Jahrb. f. 

Kinderheilk., 61, 601, 1905.) 
Rose, Jahresber. f. Tierch., 17, 167, 1888. (From Zeitschr. f. 

angew. Chem , Heft 4, 1887.) 
Schloss, Jahresber. f. Tierch, 42, 232, 1913. (From Monatschr. 

f. Kinderheilk., 10, 499, 1912.) 
Sikes, J. of Physiol., 34, 481, 1906. 
Soldner, Zeitschr. f. Biol., n. F., 15, 43, 1895. 
Voltz, Oppenheimer's Handb. d. Biochemie, art Vergleichende 

Chemie des Milch. 3(1), 399, Jena, 1910. 
Zappert and Jolles, Jahresber, f. Tierch. 33, 309, 1904. (From 

wien, med. Wochenschr., S. 1913, 1903.) 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 199 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI, No. II. 
PHALLOIDS and GEASTERS. 

BY 

J. Burton Cleland, m.d., 

Principal Microbiologist, Department of Public Health, 
and 

Edwin Oheel, 

Botanical Assistant, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

With Plates XXIV and XXV. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, August 4, 1915.] 



PHALLOIDS. 

In 1907 O. G. Lloyd of Cincinnati wrote a most excellent 
account of the Phalloids of Australasia, and in 1909 a 
4 Synopsis of the Known Phalloids.' In these papers the 
account of the Phalloids in Cooke's ' Handbook of Australian 
Fungi,' is critically reviewed and the number of species 
recorded for this continent materially reduced. Having a 
considerable number of Phalloids under our observation, 
either in our private collections or in the National Her- 
barium, we have in this paper recorded notes concerning 
them which in some respects supplement Lloyd's accounts. 
In addition, we append a list of the species given by Cooke 
with their diagnoses as collated from Lloyd's work, as well 
as a new list of the Australian Phalloids which may be 
accepted as replacing that compiled by Cooke. 

Phallus rubicundus var. gracilis, (69, p. 8, fig. 5). Syn. 
Phallus novce-hollandice Corda (40), Ithyphallus novce- 
hollandice Cooke (37 No. 1184, fig. 98), Cynophallus 
Caylei Berk, in F.v.M. (104 p. 119), Phallus Mbidi- 
nosus Oaley (MS.) Cooke (33, p. 57). 



200 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

In the National Herbarium, Sydney, there is a fine col- 
lection of specimens of this species collected at Campbell- 
town State Nursery by Mr. J. H. Maiden, in December, 
1900, and also two specimens from Grafton collected by 
Mr. Heinreich in December, 1913. Lloyd suggests (69, p. 8) 
that Phallus vitellinus F.v.M. (Fragm. 7, p. 122) and also 
Ithy phallus atrominiatus Bail, belong to this species. 

Phallus indusiatus Vent. Syn. Dictyophora phalloidea 

Desv. in Cooke (37, No. 1175) and D.tahibensis Schlecht. 

of F.v.M. (104) and Cooke (37, No. 1176). 

We have specimens of this species from Neutral Bay 

collected by Dr. E. A. D'Ombrain, spores 4*2 x 1'2/x and 

from Fiji, collected by D. J. North in March, 1908. It had 

previously been recorded from Richmond River by F. v. 

Mueller (I.e.) and from Booyong by Jackson (54). Also on 

the Endeavour River and at Brisbane, Lloyd (69, p. 4). 

Phallus multicolor Berk, and Br. (25, p. 67, t. xiv, fig. 16) r 
Lloyd (69, p. 6). Syn. Dictyophora multicolor Berk, in 
Cooke (37, No. 1178). 
According to Lloyd (I.e.) the type specimen of this 
plant is in the British Museum. It was collected at Bris- 
bane by the late Mr. F. M. Bailey. Our specimen was 
collected in a moist spot in sandy soil at Ballina, near 
Lismore, by Miss R. Roth well in April, 1910, and agrees 
exactly with the description and illustration given by Lloyd. 

Mutinus curtus Berk. (13), Lloyd, (69, 70), Cooke (37, No. 

1188). Syn. (?) Mutinus papuasius Kalch. (55), Lloyd 

(69, 70), Cooke (37, No. 1189). 
Of Mutinus curtus Lloyd says (in 1907) that the descrip- 
tion is based on a single collection made sixty years ago 
by Drummond. It impressed him as based on undeveloped 
plants and the figure given by Corda (which he reproduces) 
he thinks is largely imaginary, and he can see no warrant 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 201 

for the lobed volva. Of Mutinus papuasius he states that 
the plant is only known from Kalchbrenner's figure (re- 
produced), which was made from specimens sent him by 
Mueller. He adds that it is not really known whether the 
plant is a Mutinus or a Phallus, and that if it is a Mutinus 
it is the most slender species known. 

Although these two figures appear at first sight to repre- 
sent quite different plants, we have collected on two 
occasions a Mutinus which, in certain stages of its develop- 
ment, could be represented by either figure (with certain 
reservations), whilst the mature fungus might figure as a 
third species. From the comparisons of our specimens with 
the figures we have little doubt that one species is alone in- 
volved which approaches Mutinus bambusinus in general 
appearance, but is best called, at present at any rate, M. 
curtus. The explanation of the figures seems to be as follows: 
At an early stage within the volva, the receptacle is drum- 
stick shaped, consisting of a delicate white stem capped 
by a relatively large dull sage-green knob; which elongates 
later. The apex of the knob is white, the gleba being here 
deficient, and has a well-marked ostiolum. Both these 
features are clearly shown in the figure of M. curtus, as 
is also the elongated gleba-bearing knob. The stem is also 
attenuated downwards but is thicker than in our specimens. 
The figure is so evidently diagrammatic, however, that this 
may be overlooked, whilst the five 'lobes' of the volva sug- 
gest either the artificial cutting of the closed volva to 
expose the contents or the delineator's idea of what it 
would have been had it ruptured in the course of growth. 
The figure of M. papuasius (reproduced in Cooke's Hand- 
book of Australian Fungi, fig. 99) very closely resembles 
our plants, especially if the stem were considerably short- 
ened. As the figure was drawn from specimens sent to 
Kalchbrenner which, if our contention is right, had not yet 



202 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

emerged from their volvas, it is quite reasonable to suppose 
that the artist would be directed to represent the plant as 
it would be supposed to appear at maturity, an elongation 
of the stem being the result. In reality, however, as the 
plant matures the whole stem enlarges rapidly, becom- 
ing more or less uniformly cylindrical but tapering at the 
summit, whilst its upper half is covered with the gleba. 

In further support of the view we hold, that our plants 
belong to the same species as the two mentioned, it is 
pointed out that we have obtained it on rotten wood on two 
separate occasions in different localities on the Blue Moun- 
tains, suggesting that it is not an uncommon species, and 
is therefore likely to have been described. Further, when 
collected all the specimens were immature, one only emerg- 
ing during the night from its volva showing how different 
the adult was from the immature form — immature speci- 
mens being, therefore, those most likely to have been 
collected. 

The description of our specimens is as follows : — The 'egg* 
is more or less globular. On being opened at an early stage, 
there appears a very slender white stem (A in. long), slightly 
attenuated downwards, capped by a globular slightly rugose 
dull sage-green head (f in. high) having a white apex with 
a minute ostiolum (the sage-green material being the gleba, 
the white apex a portion of the stem free from this). Later, 
when the stem and its head are half-an-inch high, the two 
together form an elongated inverted cone, the basal half 
being white and vaguely transversely rugose, whilst the 
distal half except at the apex is slightly rugose, being 
covered with the dull sage-green gleba, the apex itself being 
slightly raised and with a marked ostiolum. Covering the 
gleba is an obscure wide-meshed whitish network, such as 
may be seen on opening a Clathrus egg, attached to the 
jelly-like material where this came in contact with the 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 203 

folded branches and contained gleba, though in the Mutinus* 
the network adheres to the gleba and not to the jelly. On 
removing the gleba from the Mutinus at this stage, the 
hollow stem is found to be attenuated both ways, though 
more rapidly constricted at the apex, whilst the part 
covered by the gleba is pale reddish, the rest of the stem 
being whiter. 

When mature, the whole of the stem is about 1 in. high, 
the basal half being slightly rugose and whitish. The distal 
half is of the same size at the junction of the two and 
attenuates slightly to the blunt apex, in which is a minute 
orifice. This portion is also somewhat rugose and is slightly 
yellowish, being wrapped round in its lower part by the 
dull greenish gleba which has fallen away from the apex. 
Spores 3*5 x l # 8/x. 

On a rotten fallen log, Mount Wilson, N.S.W., June 1915. 
Also immature specimens on a trunk from Kurrajong: 
Heights, N.S.W., Oct. 

Jansia rugosa Lloyd (70), Cheel (27). Syn. J. truncata 
McAlp. in Lloyd (84). 

We have specimens in our collection from Rookwood, 
N.S.W., collected by Mr. A. G. Hamilton, which have been 
already recorded by one of us (E. 0.). These when fresh 
were noted to have a whitish receptacle slightly tinged 
pink, gradually deepening into crimson near the apex, with 
a band of purplish-coloured gleba about a quarter of an inch 
from the extreme tip. One of the specimens was photo- 
graphed when fresh by Mr. Hamilton (Plate XXV, h). This 
was reproduced by Lloyd (I.e.) who says (93): — "There is no 
real difference between J. truncata of McAlpine and J. 
rugosa on which a species may be based, but the Aus- 
tralian plant is so much larger and more robust and its 
truncate apex is so much more prominent that it is well 



204 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

^entitled to a name as a form." In addition to the Rookwood 
specimens, we have also collected examples of this species 
on several occasions in November and December, 1914, 
growing, after heavy rain, on a shady sloping bank near a 
watercourse at Mosman, Sydney. The spores measured 
3*4 X 1'5/x. 

Lysurus Gardneri Berk. (14, p. 535, t. xvii, f. 2). 

We have a fine series of specimens which we prefer to 
place under the above specific name, as the fine photographs 
together with notes ou the specimens examined and recorded 
by Lloyd (69 and 70) clearly show that this is a very vari- 
able species and will embrace all the Australian forms 
described under the following names: — Lysurus australi- 
ensis Cooke and Massee (35, p. 6), Oheel (28, p. 396); L. 
tenuis Bailey; Mutinus sulcatus Cooke and Massee (34); 
M. pentagonus Bailey (3, p. 35), and M. pentagonus var. 
Hardyi Bailey (8, p. 494). 

In October, 1906, two specimens were collected by one 
of us (E. C.) at Penshurst. The receptacles or columns 
were of a whitish colour and measured two and a half and 
three and a half inches long respectively, being about three 
quarters of an inch thick in the upper part and tapering 
slightly in the lower part. A complete volva was secured 
with one of the specimens which measured about 1 x 1 \ inch, 
opening at the apex by an irregular rupture and not into 
definite lobes as depicted in some of the published illustra- 
tions of Phalloids. The largest specimen had seven dis- 
tinctly free lobes and the smallest specimen had six lobes, 
also free, and in both specimens the inner sides of the 
lobes were covered with a gleba of a bronze-green colour 
containing the spores which measured 3 x 1/*. The outer 
parts of the lobes were more or less fluted or channelled and 
somewhat notched on the margins. Some specimens col- 
lected in the Botanic Gardens have the five arms or lobes 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 205 

free, while orie specimen from the same group of plants 
has six lobes, four of which are free and the other two 
united at the apex by a thin membrane, which gives the 
specimen a somewhat clathrate appearance. 

A solitary specimen has also been collected at Woolwich 
near Sydney, which has three free lobes, whilst the other 
two are consolidated at the apex as shown in the accom- 
panying Plate XXIV, (a). In a group of specimens collected 
at Killara, six volvas were clustered together, almost co- 
hering at their sides, five of which were expanded whilst 
the sixth was unopened. In examining the specimens it 
was found that three of the receptacles had six lobes, one 
of which had two lobes just united at the apex by a thin 
membrane, whilst one specimen had seven lobes, and two 
had five lobes quite free. The specimen with seven lobes 
was in the ud opened volva which was cut and photographed 
as shown in Plate XXIV, (b). A solitary large specimen 
collected at Wahroonga is fully four inches long and from 
three-quarters to one inch thick. This has five distinctly 
free lobes and three smaller ones consolidated somewhat 
at the margins but free at the apex. 

The spores of a specimen collected on the Hawkesbury 
River are elongated, 4 X 1'8/x. It is interesting to note 
in making a transverse section of one of the specimens 
collected at Killara, that the receptacle or stem is quite 
hollow or tubular in the centre, but is distinctly cellular in 
the outer part. In the fine series of specimens photographed 
by Lloyd (82, p. 407, fig. 243), a transverse section is shown 
with a single row of cells in the outer structure. In our 
specimens a drawing (Plate XXIV, c) made by Miss M. 
Flockton shows the structure to have at least two distinct 
rows of these cells. It is quite probable that in the 
smaller specimens the structure would contain a single 
row, whilst in the larger specimens two or even more rows 
of cells will be found. 



206 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

The following is a list of the collections of this species 
contained in the National Herbarium, Sydney: — 
Killara (H. Selkirk, March, 1905); 
Penshurst (E. Oheel, October, 1906); 
Wahroonga (Dr. Eric Sinclair, April, 1907); 
Botanic Gardens (W. F. Blakely, June, 1908); 

(W. Challis, April, 1910); 

(E. Bennett, 1911); 

Woolwich (F. Smith, June, 1908); 

Miison Island, Hawkesbury River (J. B. Oleland and 

E. Oheel, July, 1912); 
Oronulla Beach (E. Breakwell, 1912); 
Campsie (J. Nichol, April, 1912); 
Hawkesbury Agricultural College, Richmond (O. T. 

Musson, 1914); 
Neutral Bay (O. Thackeray, May, 1915). 

See Oooke (37, No. 1198), Oheel (26, p. 159 and 204) and 
Musson (106) for previous records. 

Anthurus Archeri. Syn. Lysurus Archeri Berk. (16, p. 264) 
figured in the same work on plate clxxxiv, as L. pen- 
tactinus; Anthurus aseroeformis Oheel (28, p. 607). 

The following also appear to belong to this species : — 
Aseroe lysuroides Fischer and Lysurus aseroeformis Oorda 
of Cooke (37, No. 1202); Anthurus Muellerianus Kalchb. 
var. aseroeformis Fischer (52, fig. 136, f. and g.); Anthurus 
aseroeformis McAlpine in Lloyd (70, fig. 46 and 83, fig. 
244); Pseudocolus Archeri Lloyd (94 and 95); ? Aseroe 
rubra var. pentactina Endl. 

In the National Herbarium collection there are specimens 
which when opened out of the unexpanded volva show the 
lobes slightly incurved and somewhat cohering at the 
apex but yet quite free and the tips of the five lobes very 
shortly bifid as shown in the figure of the original specimen 
figured by Berkely (I.e.). We have also a fully developed 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI, 207 

specimen which one of us recorded under the name Anthurus 
aseroeformis (28, p. 607) from Mount Royal near Scone. 
This specimen has five lobes, two of which are slightly 
united at the apex with a thin membrane, whilst the others 
are quite free, as shown in Plate XXV, (i). 

From Yarrowitch near Walcha, some line specimens were 
collected by Mr. G. W. Broughton which agree exactly 
with the description drawn up by Mr. D. McAlpine and 
published with a photograph by Mr. Lloyd (70, fig. 46 and 
82, fig. 244). 

We have carefully compared the above specimens, 
together with another for which no specific locality is given, 
but which was probably collected by Mr. A. Grant, with 
the photograph of the specimen collected in a garden at 
Melbourne, Victoria in April 1907 by Mr. C. French, and 
communicated to Mr. 0. G. Lloyd and referred to above, 
and have come to the conclusion that they all belong to the 
same species. The colour of our specimens was of a 
reddish tint. They were all five lobed, the lobes being 
more or less channelled on the outer side and convex on the 
inner side, and either entire and obtuse or very slightly 
bifid in one specimen at the apex. In addition to the above 
we have a sketch together with a description of a fungus 
collected at Squdgy Creek near Bulli Pass in October, 1903, 
by Mr. W. Benson, which seems to belong to this species. 

Mr. Benson's description is interesting and may be given 
in full as follows : — 

"It is what (if such a thing were possible) might be called a 
flowering fungus. Habitat, Squdgy Creek near Bulli Pass. 
Appearance a five-rayed starfish. Tips raw-meat-purple, paler 
pink towards the centre, and the tube nearly white. Down the 
centre of each ray, some brown slime which appeared to be part 
of the plant (but the whole place was muddy). Surface of the 
"flower," rough, like a sheep's tongue. On picking the "flower" 



208 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

it came away complete, leaving a cup in the ground. But the 
"flower" immediately collapsed and broke to pieces in my hand. 
Its substance was almost structureless jelly, nor could I see any 
pistil, stamens, or other organs. The rays were of the same 
thickness, perhaps one-eighth inch. The cup was like a puff-ball 
or young potato in colour, of a tough jelly consistency, and 
strengthened by internal perpendicular partitions; a thin skin 
peeling here and there enclosed the cup. From a pimple under- 
neath, two white threads of roots sprang. Unfortunately in 
scrambling out of the rough spot where I found it, it fell and got 
lost." 

The sketch drawn by Mr. Benson leaves no doubt in our 
minds that his plant belongs to this species, as it compares 
very well with a photograph (Plate XXIV, fig. i) taken from 
a specimen collected at Mount Royal Range, on the edge of 
a swamp at an elevation of about 4,500 feet above sea level, 
by Mr. H. V. Haynes, in April, 1910. A description of the 
specimen collected by Mr. Haynes may be given as follows: 
Volva H x 1 inch in diameter. Receptacle on a short stipe 
protruding about half an inch from the volva and then 
dividing into five lobes, each of which is about two and a 
quarter to two and a half inches long, and of a bright red 
colour towards the tips, getting gradually paler or almost 
white towards the base. Lobes coarsely reticulated, the 
reticulations or rugae very unequal. The inner parts of the 
lobes somewhat convex and more or less covered with the 
dark bronze or greenish coloured gleba, the outer part of 
the lobes concave. Spores somewhat cylindrical, 5 to 7 x 
2J to 3/x. Specimens have apparently been seen at Port 
Macquarie, as Mr. G. A. Waterhouse in a pencil sketch of 
a fungus seen by him there seems to indicate that it was 
this species. 

Aseroe rubra Labill. (63), Cooke (37, No. 1201), Cheer(26, 
p. 204). (See Plate XXIV, a and XXV, g and j) 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 209 

This interesting species was originally collected in Tas- 
mania by La Billardiere, who published a description 
together with a figure in the year 1798. 

Since this date there have been no less than ten species 
of the genus described, but it is very doubtful if more than 
three distinct species will stand when the whole of the 
material collected has been properly investigated and com- 
pared with fresh specimens. The following is a list of the 
names of those species which have been recorded for 
Australasia in addition to the original A. rubra: — A. 
actinobala Oorda; A. pentactina Endl.; A. Muelleriana 
Lloyd; A. lysuroldes; A. Hookeri Berk. = A. viridis Berk.; 
and A. poculiformis Bail. 

In addition to the above there are four species found in 
other countries, the names of which are as follow: — A. 
zealandica Berk., a native of Oeylon; A. junghuhnii, com- 
mon in Java; A. pallida, a native of New Caledonia, and 
A. arachnoida Fischer. 

The last mentioned species is a native of Cochin China 
and Java and seems to be quite distinct from any of the 
Australian forms. A. zealandiaa seems to be very little 
different from the Australian species and has been regarded 
as a variety of A. rubra by some authorities. 

In the National Herbarium of Sydney, there are five dried 
specimens collected in Tasmania near the type locality by 
R. C. Gunn, who has written the following remarks con- 
cerning them on the sheets with the specimens: — "Aseroe 
rubra? Labill. — I saw it abundantly, February 1851, growing 
in light decomposed vegetable matter in a dense forest of 
Fayus Cunningliamii. It bursts out of a ball like Ileo- 
dictyon. Colour very bright crimson, smells like tainted 
meat. The centre of each was full of blackish or brown 
slimy matter. Very brittle and not easily dried." 

N— August 4, 1915. 



210 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

Two of these specimens have nine bifid lobes, one has 
seven bifid lobes, and a fourth specimen is too imperfect 
for examination. On another sheet, a very large speci- 
men is mounted with the following remarks, also in Gunn's 
handwriting: — "Aseroe rubra? Labill. I annex observa- 
tions to the other specimens sent herewith. This genus is 
obviously closely allied in many points to Ileodictyon. La 
Billardiere's figure is so bad that it is not easy to identify 
the species by it, but as the country where he gathered 
his original specimen formed a dense Fagus forest, it is 
probably the same, yet he says in his Voyage, the whole 
surface of the Aseroe rubra is smooth, whereas this one is 
not. I send you specimens in spirits." Gunn's specimens 
were sent to Hooker who handed them over to Berkeley 
for determination. It is evident that this species has 
attracted the attention of several collectors in New South 
Wales also, for we find it frequently mentioned in Berkeley's 
early works on Fungi. It was collected near Sydney as 
far back as 1844 by Leichhardt, who forwarded specimens 
to Berkeley. Other collections were also made near Sydney 
as will be seen from the following observations by Berkeley 
who also published a figure (12): — 

"This singular fungus was found in the Government demesne 
by Lieut. Lynd, Barrack Master at Sydney, growing early in 
April on rotten wood, not fifteen yards from the seawards." 

Specimens recorded from other localities by Berkeley 
(18) are as follows: — Dandenong, Victoria (Boyle); New 
England, N.S. Wales (O. Stuart); Lake Gillies (J. Stuart). 
Berkeley published the following remarks concerning these 
latter specimens : — 

"Amongst rubbish left by river-floods. Very fugacious. In 
all these specimens the rays are bifid only at the very extremity; 
spores -0003 in. long. Dyes the fingers when fresh, but the colour 
is very fugacious." 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 211 

In the same paper, Berkeley mentions A. pentactina 
Endl. from New England, Timbarry (O.M.) and makes the 
following remarks : — 

" Hymenium distinctly rugose as stated by Corda ; but this is 
also the case in the Dandenong specimens which I at first thought 
might be distinct. R. Brown was inclined to an opinion that all 
the Australian specimens were referable to a single species." 

We have not seen this latter species but as the specific 
name pentactina implies that the specimen has five lobes, 
and Berkeley states that "the rays are bifid only at the 
very extremity, it would seem that this is nearer to the 
genus Anthurus than to Aseroe, and may possibly be the 
same as Anthurus Archeri. According to Lloyd (Myco- 
logical Notes, No. 32, p. 424) the species extends to New 
Zealand, as specimens are represented in the Museum at 
Upsala, which were collected there by G. von Scheele and 
Berggren. 

The most common form in New Zealand is one originally 
called Aseroe viridis by Berkeley who afterwards named 
it A. Hookeri. This appears to be a very small plant 
according to the descriptions and figures given by Berkeley 
and Lloyd, and is very similar to, if not identical with, a 
solitary specimen in our collection from Nundelong Road, 
Balmoral, collected by Mr. Bragg in June, 1902. The 
specimen is much smaller than the normal forms of A. 
rubra, and has six bifid rays, but unfortunately there are 
no colour notes with the specimen, so that we prefer to 
regard it at present as a form of A. rubra. 

In the National Herbarium there is a splendid collection 
of specimens, mostly preserved in alcohol or formalin. The 
following is a list of the localities where these were col- 
lected, together with the names of the collectors and date 
of collecting : — 



212 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

New South Wales — Byng, near the Canoblas (no collector 

given, July, 1893); 
Peakhurst (W. Buckingham, June, 1899); 
Turramurra (H. G. White, June, 1900); 
Clyde Pottery, Oamperdown (Mrs. McArthur, April, 

1903); 
Penshurst (E. Oheel, April, 1907); 
Killara (W. Benson, March, 1907); 
Woollahra (H. Waters, November, 1909); 
Raydon near Dural (R. Turner, January, 1911); 
Parramatta (A. Thompson); 
Chatswood (Booth, March, 1911, and Gilfillan); 
Lismore (Miss Rothwell, October, 1900); 
Rookwood (A. Spencer, July, 1910, photographed by 

Mr. A. G. Hamilton); 
W T eston (V. Davis, 1912); 
West Maitland (Miss Oranch, 1912); 
North Sydney (Dr. H. I. Jensen, 1912); 
Neutral Bay (J. B. Oleland, May, 1914). 

There is extreme variation in the size as well as in the 
general structure of the specimens as will be seen from the 
following remarks : — The specimens from Turramurra have 
eight lobes, all of which are bifurcate at the tips. There 
are two specimens from Lismore with six lobes, and one 
with seven lobes. Two specimens from Peakhurst have 
six lobes, and two are in the unopened egg or volva stage. 
The specimens from Clyde Pottery, Oamperdown, are 
especially interesting as there are six in a cluster, three of 
which are in the volva stage unopened, one with six bifur- 
cate lobes, one with four bifurcate lobes and the fifth lobe 
with three tentacles fused together in a clathrate manner 
at the centre but with four quite free tips. From Pens- 
hiirst there are four specimens altogether, one with six 
bifurcate lobes, one with six lobes — five of which are bifur- 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 213 

cate whilst the sixth lobe is quadrifurcate ; the other two 
specimens being in the volva stage. A solitary specimen 
from Woollahra has eight bifurcate lobes. The Dural 
specimen is exceptionally large, measuring five inches 
across from the tips of the rays, and four inches high, whilst 
the volva is two inches in diameter. In addition to the 
above localities, specimens have been recorded from Mul- 
lumbimby, Brunswick River by Kesteven (62), Richmond by 
Musson (106), Norfolk Island by Mueller (105) and Grant 
(53), and from New South Wales without specific locality 
by Turner (117). 

The following interesting particulars, together with a 
coloured sketch showing eight bifid rays, with specimens 
from Killara collected by Mr. W. Benson, are of special 
interest : — 

"A year or so ago I sent you a fungus which simulated a star- 
fish. I now send you one (or rather sketch of one) which is equally 
like a sea anemone, though I fear that, as before, I may be one 
hundred years too late to call it a novelty. It seems to be another 
Aseroe. It was found yesterday, in a drenched paddock at Killara, 
near another curious patch of fungi, resembling cauliflower coral. 
Covering a hollow, porous-looking, pink tube, about two inches 
high, is a thick mass of liver-coloured fungus matter which shapes 
itself into eight petal bases, and from each base spring a pair of 
tentacles, vermilion for about one quarter of an inch and then for 
another inch up to their tips bright orange, just like the tentacles 
of a sea anemone. The central mass, which may be one and a 
quarter inches across, having the throat of the tube in its midst, 
is rather tough in texture, 'nubbly' as regards surface, and very 
suggestive of 'protuberant proud flesh' round an abscess. Odour, 
putrescent. Down the tube for about half an inch, the inner 
surface is covered with little projecting points like miniature 
tubercles; these may be up to one-sixteenth of an inch long at the 
throat where they are largest. The section and rough sketch at 
foot may make my description clearer." 



214 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

The specimens from Rookwood were photographed by 
Mr. A. G. Hamilton, who sent a copy to Mr. C. G. Lloyd, 
who published the following remarks concerning it (90): — 

"Aseroe Muelleriana, the broad limbed form, cf? Phalloids of 
Australasia, p. 18. It is the first specimen of this form 1 have 
seen. Heretofore I have only known Kalchbrenner's figure." 

In a subsequent memo it is again referred to by Lloyd 
(93) under the name Aseroe Hookeri, and again by the 
same author (85), who reproduces Mr. Hamilton's photo- 
graph, under the name A, rubra. 

Pseudocolus rothae Lloyd (69, p. 20, fig. 21, and 70, p. 53, 
fig. 69). Syn. Clathrus triscapus Turp. in Cooke (37, 
No. 1191) and Bailey (10, p. 746, fig. 813); Colus rothae 
Fischer (50). 

According to Lloyd (I.e.) there are at the Royal Her- 
barium, Kew (England), two collections of this species, 
one from Miss Carter, Moonan Brook, N.S.W., and the other 
from Bailey, Brisbane. Bailey sent a sketch of this speci- 
men with the following notes: — 

"Divisions of the receptacle always three, arched, and joined 
at the apex, of a rich orange, and obtusely triangular, porous 
celled. The entire portion (stipe) very short or not extending 
beyond the volva." 

One of us (J. B. O.) collected some fine specimens at 
Bulli Pass, in April, 1914, which may be briefly described 
as follows: — Unexpanded specimens white, globose, half an 
inch in diameter. The receptacle from a short base at once 
divides into three, sometimes four, slightly arched columns 
which cohere at their apices, surrounding in their upper 
part the dark greyish-black slimy gleba. Out of eight 
specimens collected altogether, two had four columns and 
the others had three, but in one of these latter, one column 
was thicker and divided into two in its upper part. The 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 215 

columns were about one and a quarter inches high, alveolar 
on their inner surface, rugosely alveolate externally, hollow, 
orange coloured above, becoming cream coloured towards 
the base. Volva flbrously rooting in the rotten trunk on 
which the specimens were found. Smell slightly foetid. 
Spores rod-shaped with rounded ends, 3*5 x l*5/x. 

Clathrus pusillus Berk. (13), Oheel (26, p. 839 and 28, p. 
396). Syn. Clathrella pusilla Fischer (52, p. 284, f. 132c.) 

This is a bright ruby-red coloured fungus and is popularly 
known as the "Ruby Lace Fungus." It was originally 
collected at Swan River, W.A., and recorded by Berkeley 
(I.e.) who published a figure which has been reproduced by 
Lloyd (69, f. 24). It has also been recorded for Wide Bay, 
Queensland, by Cooke (37, No. 1192) as well as for Swan- 
brook near Inverell, N.S.W. by Oheel (I.e.). From Gilger- 
ring near York, W.A., we have received further specimens 
collected by Miss Bradley which were communicated by 
Mr. O. W. Sargent in August, 1909, and a solitary specimen 
was collected at Milson Island, Hawkesbury River, by J. 
B. Oleland and B. Oheel in July, 1912. The spores of the 
last mentioned specimen are colourless, elongated, 5*3x2^ 

Clathrus cibarius Fischer (Lace-ball Fungus). 

This species was originally discovered at Waitake, New 
Zealand, and described by Tulasne (116) under the name 
Ileodictyon cibarium. Tulasne proposed to separate the 
genus Ileodictyon from Clathrus on account of the meshes 
of the receptacle or net- work being larger, and the branches 
or arms of the net having a single hollow tube, whilst those 
of Clathrus proper are cellular or pluri- tubular. The species 
appears to be very common in New Zealand, and has also 
been found in Chile and South Africa. Some fine photo- 
graphs of the New Zealand plants are published by Lloyd 
(70, p. 60, fig. 78, and 83, p. 447, fig. 267 and 69, p. 20, fig. 



216 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

22). It is very variable in size, the receptacle ranging 
when fully expanded from two to, rarely, more than four 
inches in diameter. The arms or branches of the interstices 
also vary very considerably, those of the typical species 
being usually about two-fifths of an inch (1 cm.) wide. In 
the National Herbarium collection, we have specimens 
identical with those from New Zealand, from the following 
localities: — 

New South Wales — Arncliffe (W. Gayner, June, 1907); 

Gladesville (Miss M. Flockton, June, 1907); 

Mywye, Yarrangobilly (A. G. Watts, May, 1910). 

Sections of the arms or branches of the Arncliffe speci- 
mens show considerable variation, both as regards their 
width as well as their internal structure. In some speci- 
mens the diameter of the branches is from 5 to 10 mm. 
The branches have also been found to contain a single tube 
in some cases and two or three tubes in others, even in the 
same specimen. 

C. cibarlus var. gracilis Fischer. Syn. Ileodictyon gracile 
Berk. (11, p. 69, t. 2, fig. 8); Clathrus gracilis Schlect. 
(113, p. 166). 

This is much more common than the typical form and is 
even more variable, as the receptacle ranges in size from 
two to eight inches in diameter and the branches of the 
interstices are from half a line to one and a half lines thick 
in most specimens examined, but occasionally vary from 
one to two and a-half lines in the same plant. 

The internal structure of the branches is for the most 
part tubular but occasionally it is bi-tubular. Spores of 
the New South Wales specimens were colourless, elongated, 
4*5 to 7 x 2 to 2*5/*. This variety has a much wider dis- 
tribution than the typical form, having been recorded for 
all the Australian States except South Australia. One of 
us, however, found specimens of a white Clathrus on several 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 217 

occasions at Mount Lofty, in that State, and these were 

probably the form gracilis. We have a fine series of this 

variety in the National Herbarium collection as follows: — 

New South Wales — Botanic Gardens, Sydney (A. Grant, 

May, 1900); 

Centennial Park (E. Oheel, May, 1901); 

Botany (L. Abrahams, September, 1901); 

Mosman (A. N. Allen, June, 1913); 

Manly (Miss V. Gibbons, July, 1910); 

Artarmon (A. Cretin, August, 1907); 

Roseville (McMillan, June, 1913); 

Cheltenham (A. A. Hamilton, May, 1910); 

Concord (P. O. Lovegrove, January, 1909); 

Rookwood (A. Fathers, 1912); 

Parramatta (I. Grainger, March, 1898); 

Milson Island (J. B. Oleland and E. Oheel, 1913); 

Jerilderie (J. Dykes, August, 1908); 

Armidale (Miss M. Tindall); 

Gostwyck, Uralla (E. T. Bateson, May, 1908); 

Geeron, Forbes ( — Oarr, September, 1911); 

Clareval, Stroud (Miss E. M. Kealy, August, 1910); 

Ingleburn (A. R. Ward, 1913); 

Springbank, Widgiewoi Siding (Miss M. Mackinnon, 
July, 1913); 

Deepwater (N. S. Kellie, March, 1915); 

Moss Vale (W. Ohallis, June, 1910). 
Tasmania — Penginte (R. C. Gunu, No. 1792). 

List I. Phalloideae recorded for Australia by Cooke (37) 
with Lloyd's identification of each. 

1175 Dictyophora phalloidea Desv. = Phallus indusiatus. 

1176 „ tahitensis Schlecht = Phallus indusiatus. 

1177 „ speciosa Meyen = Phallus indusiatus. 

1178 ,, multicolor Berk. = Phallus multicolor. 

1179 ,, merulina Berk. = Clautriavia merulina. 



218 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

1180 Ithyphallus impudicus L. = Phallus impudicus. 

1181 ,, quadricolor Berk, and Br. = Phallus multicolor 

probably, which has lost its veil. 

1182 ,, calyptratus Berk. = Phallus sp., not determinable. 

1183 ,, aurantiacus M. = Phallus rubicundus. 

1184 ,, novce-hollandice Ca. = Phallus rubicundus (P. 

gracilis = P. aurantiacus, Lloyd). 

1185 „ retusus Kalchb. — Phallus rubicundus ( Phallus 

aurantiacus, Prof. Fischer). 

1186 ,, rubicundus Bose = Phallus rubicundus. 

1187 Mutinus (?) Watsoni Berk. = Nomen nudum. 

1188 ,, (?) curtus Berk. = Mutinus curtus. 

1189 ,, papuasius Kalchb. = Mutinus curtus probably 

(J.B.C. and E.O.). 

1190 ,, (?) discolor Kalchb. = Phallus (?) discolor (? a true 

species). 

1191 Clathrus triscapus Turp. = Pseudocolus rothce. 

1192 ,, pusillus Berk. = Clathrus pusillus. 

1193 ,, gracilis Schl. = Clathrus gracilis. 

1194 ,, albidus Becker = Clathrus gracilis. 

1195 ,, cibarius Fischer = Clathrus cibarius. 

1196 ,, crispus Turp. = Clathrus crispus. 

1197 Colus hirudinosus C. and S. = Colus hirudinosus. 

1198 Lysurus australiensis Cke. and Mass. = Lysurus Gardneri 

(J. B. C. and E. C.) 

1199 Anthurus Muellerianus Kalchb. = Anthurus Archeri (J.B.C. 

and E.C.) 

1200 „ Archeri Berk. = Anthurus Archeri, 

1201 Aseroe rubra Labill. = Aseroe rubra. 

„ „ var. pentactina Endl. = Aseroe pentactina. ' 

1202 ,, lysuroides Fischer = ? (probably wrongly figured). 

List II. In addition to the species given by Cooke, the 
following have been recorded for Australia: — 

Mutinus pentagonus (and M pentagonus var. Hardyi). Lloyd 
suggests that these may be young specimens of Lysurus 
australiensis (L. Gardneri), with which, as pointed out 
in our text, we agree. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 219 

Mutinus annulatus = Jansia annulata. 

Aseroe Muelleriana = A. rubra (J. B.C. and E.C.) 

,, lysuroides. Lloyd thinks that Corda's figure represents 
two different genera. 
Clathrus albidus = Glathrus albidus (?). 

List III. We give the following list, compiled from Lloyd's 
'Phalloids of Australia,' and his other works, to replace 
the twenty-eight species (Nos. 1175-1202) given in Cooke's 
'Handbook of Australian Fungi.' An asterisk indicates 
that we have specimens in our collections believed to belong 
to the species marked. 

1. Phallus rubicundus (and (or) as form gracilis*). 

2. ,, indusiatus* 

3. ,, multicolor (perhaps only a colour form of P. indusiatus)* 

4. „ ca^'c/irows (perhaps only a colour form of P. indusiatus). 

5. ,, (?) discolor (probably an incorrectly described species), 

6. Clautriavia merulina. 

7. Mutinus curtus* 

8. Jansia rugosa* 

9. ,, annulata. 

10. Lysurus Gardneri* 

11. Anthurus Archeri.* 

12. Aseroe rubra* 

13. ,, rubra var. pentactina. 

14. Pseudocolus rothce* 

15. Clathrus pusillus* 

16. ,, cibarius* 

17. ,, cibarius var. gracilis .* 

18. „ crispus (no Australian specimens known to exist). 

19. ,, albidus (described from Australia in a Swiss publi- 

cation thirty years ago). 

20. Colus hirudinosus (no Australian specimens known to exist). 



220 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

GEASTEBS. 

The fungi included in the genus Geaster are easily dis- 
tinguished from other species of the Lycoperdacese by the 
double peridia, the outer one of which splits into segments 
usually re volute away from the endoperidium, and finally 
becomes somewhat star-shaped, hence they are popularly 
called "earth-stars." The capillitium is mostly simple, 
and the spores globose and usually minutely warty or very 
rarely smooth. 

Twenty-two species have been recorded for Australia by 
Cooke (37) which are distributed in the different States as 
follows: — Queensland 12, Western Australia 9, Victoria 8, 
Tasmania 5, New South Wales 5, South Australia 3 species. 

Since the publication of Oooke's work, changes have 
been made in the nomenclature of many of the Australian 
fungi, and the Geasters have received special attention 
from Mr. C. G. Lloyd, who has had excellent opportunities 
for examining all the earlier collections of Australian species 
which are for the most part deposited in the Royal Her- 
barium, Kew, and the British Museum. A few collections 
have also been examined which are deposited in herbaria 
on the Continent of Europe, and as a result of this examin- 
ation it has been found necessary to change the names of 
many of the earlier collections. In the National Herbarium 
there are numerous collections of these interesting plants 
which have been carefully preserved by one of us (E.G.) 
during the past fifteen years. These have been carefully 
compared with the excellent illustrations given by Lloyd, 
and together with our private collections, form the subject 
of the present notes. 

Geaster simulans Lloyd (68, p. 17, fig. 11). Syn. G. hygro- 
metricus in Cooke (37, No. 1268) but probably not of 
Persoon. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 221 

We have a solitary specimen of this species collected 
near Adelaide, South Australia, by one of us (J.B.O.) in 
1898, which very closely resembles G. liygrometricus Pers. 
as already observed by Lloyd (I.e.). Our specimens agree 
very well with the figure given by Lloyd. The spores 
measure 4*3/* in diameter and are minutely warted. Lloyd 
gives the following particulars concerning this species: — 

"This plant from Drummond, Australia, I found in Museum at 
Paris, sent by Berkeley, labelled Geaster rufescens. And at Kew 
under the same label and also the same collection (Swan River 
174), labelled G. liygrometricus. It has no resemblance whatso- 
ever to G. rufescens as now understood, but it is so close to G. 
liygrometricus that I doubt if any ordinary observer can tell them 
apart, judging from external appearances. The spores readily 
distinguish it, being in this species the ordinary size of Geaster 
spores 4 — 5 mic. Geaster liygrometricus can always be recognised 
at once by having large rough spores 10-12 mic. in diameter, 
such as no other known species of Geaster has." 

Mueller (104, p. 119) records G. hygrometricus from 
Western Australia and Queensland, but as no mention is 
made of the Queensland specimens by Lloyd, and we have 
had no opportunity of examining specimens, we are not in 
a position to say whether the Queensland specimens are 
the same as our South Australian one, but it is quite evident 
that this species extends from South Australia to Western 
Australia. 

G. fioriformis Vitt. (118); Oooke (37, No. 1264); Lloyd (68, 
73, p. 143); Bailey (1, p. 83). 

Goulburn (E. Oheel, April, 1908); Bibbenluke (J. B. 
Oleland, March, 1913); Adelaide (July, 1914). 

According to Lloyd (I.e.) there are two collections of this 
species at Kew, England, from New South Wales and Vic- 
toria, both correctly determined. The spores according to 



222 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

Oooke (i.e.) are 3j-4/x in diameter, brownish, globose and 
echinulate. The spores of our specimens are 6 to 7/* in 
diameter, and minutely warty. It is recorded and figured 
by Lloyd (67, p. 11) Under the name G. delicatus, and the 
spore measurements are given as 5 to 6 mic, minutely 
warted. 

This appears to be one of our most common species, as 
specimens have been collected from various parts of Victoria 
and New South Wales as well as New Zealand, as will be 
seen by the records and names of collectors given by Lloyd 
in his printed letters (86, 87 and 88). It is also recorded 
for Queensland by Oooke (I.e.) 

G. argenteus in Oooke (37, No. 1271). 

Specimens of this species have been collected at Brisbane 
and are at Kew, England. According to Lloyd they appear 
to be a large form of G. fioriformis bleached by exposure. 
Oooke (37) also records it for Victoria, but these specimens 
are not mentioned by Lloyd. 

O. Drummondi Berk. (13, p. 63); Oooke (37, No. 1253). 

St. Marys (A. A. Hamilton, August, 1910); Rookwood 
(Miss A. Spencer, July, 1910). 

This species has previously been recorded for Western 
Australia and Victoria by Oooke (37) and also for Victoria 
by Lloyd (67 and 68) who gives the spore measurements as 
5 to 7/x. The spore measurements of the specimens in our 
collection are 5 to 6/*. 

It is a rather small plant, the specimens having a beautiful 
dark sulcate mouth. It very closely resembles G. striatulus 
Kalchb., which also has a sulcate mouth, and is recorded 
for Queensland and South Australia, but so far we have 
not found any specimens of the latter species. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 223 

G. plicatus Berk. 

This species according to Lloyd (67) is found at Madras, 
Banin Island, Ceylon and New Caledonia. It has also been 
recorded from Rookwood, N.S.W. by Lloyd (I.e.) and from 
Centennial Park, Olieel (26 and 27). 

We have a fine series of additional specimens from the 
following localities: — Sikes Gap, Tooloom Range (J. H. 
Maiden, December, 1909) ; Badgery's Lookout, Tallong 
(A. G. Hamilton, September, 1911); Gladesville (Miss M. 
Flockton, July, 1911); Parramatta (J. B. Oleland, July, 
1912). The spores of our specimens are finely warty and 
measure 4 to 5/* in diameter. 

G. tenuipes Berk.; (Cooke, 37, No. 1250). 

This species was originally recorded for Tasmania by 
Berkeley (16) who published a figure in the same work It 
has since been recorded from Byng near Oanoblas by one 
of us (27, p. 689). Lloyd (68) has examined the specimens 
at Kew (England) that are from Tasmania and New South 
Wales, and has expressed an opinion that it is an inter- 
mediate species between plicatus and pectinatus and 
suggests that it should be referred to G. pectinatus. We 
have a specimen collected by one of us (J.B.O.) in April 
1913, on the Hawkesbury River, the warty spores measuring 
4*3 to 5/x. 

G. Bryantii Berk.; Lloyd (67. p. 16). 

Hawkesbury River (J. B. Oleland, July 1912). 

A very large and remarkably handsome Geaster found on 
the Hawkesbury River under a rock seems certainly refer- 
able to this species. The lead-coloured pruinose covering 
of the peridium was very marked. The warty spores 
measured 7p in diameter. (Plate XXV, f.) 



224 J. B. CLKLAND AND E. CHEEL. 

G. Smithii Lloyd (67, p. 21, fig. 37 and 77). Syn. G. striatus 
Sm., Gard. Chron. 1873, p. 469, fig. 88 (Reproduced in 
Grevillea, Vol. 2, t. 16, fig. 1); Oooke (37, No. 1251), 
but probably not of DC. 

We have specimens of this species in the National Her- 
barium from Port Lincoln, South Australia, collected by 
Mr. W. Gill in December, 1906, and from near Adelaide by 
J. B. Oleland in 1898, and also from Overland Corner, S.A. 
(J.B.O.) in December, 1912. Spore measurements of our 
specimens are 3*8 to 4*3/*. Lloyd (I.e.) gives the spore 
measurements as 4 — 5 mic. and states that the spores are 
rough and apiculate. 

G. fomicatus Battarrea. 

Hallet's Cove near Adelaide (J. B. Oleland, July, 
1914). 

According to Lloyd (68) a single specimen of this species 
is at Kew (England) collected at Brisbane and labelled G. 
limbatus. The spores of our specimen are 5/* in diameter, 
warty and dark brown. 1 

G. Reacleri Cooke and Massee (39); Oooke (37, No. 1254, 
fig. 116); Lloyd (92). 

N.S. Wales— Hurstville (J. H. Oamfield, May, 1901); 
Gladesville (Miss M. Flockton, August, 1910); Dubbo 
(J. H. Maiden and Dr. J. B. Oleland); Gulgong (J. L. 
Boorman, April, 1901). South Australia — Overland 
Corner (J. B. Oleland, December, 1912). 

The spores, in the Dubbo and Overland Corner specimens, 
are 3*8 to 4*3/*, warted. This species is also recorded from 
Victoria by Oooke (37) and Lloyd (76, p. 246, figs. 89, 90, 91). 

1 Since this paper was read, we have received a specimen of this species 
from Casino, N.S.W., collected by Mr. D. J. McAuliffe. • 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 225 

G. minimus Schwein. 

Dubbo (J. L. Boorman, August, 1908). 

Previously recorded for all the States except Tasmania 
by Cooke (37) and for Victoria and Norwood, S.A. by 
Lloyd (68, fig. 21). See also Oheel (29, p. 13). 

G. saccatus Fr. (44, p. 16). 

This species is recorded for all the States except Victoria 
and South Australia by Oooke (37, No. 1261), but it has siuce 
been found to be common in Victoria (Lloyd, 68, fig. 75, a, 
b, c, and 8, 15, 17, 38). One of us (E.G., 26, p. 202) has 
also recorded it from Woy Woy, N.S.W. In addition to the 
above, we have specimens from the following localities: — 
Botanic Gardens, Sydney (several collectors); Mosman 
(A. N. Allen, April, 1912); Neutral Bay (J. B. Oleland, 
April, 1914); Milson Island (J. B. Oleland and E. Oheel, 
April, 1912); Mount Jellore (E. Oheel, April, 1912); Wil- 
loughby (E. Stack, May, 1904). The spores of several 
specimens examined are tuberculate, 4*2/*. 

G. vittatus Kalchb. (55, p. 3); Oooke (37, No. 1260); Oheel 
(26, p. 202). 

Oooke {I.e.) records this species for Australia without 
specifying any particular State. Lloyd (79, p. 310, fig. 145) 
has found it in Samoa, and considers it only a form of G. 
saccatus. The specimens recorded by Oheel (I.e.) were 
from the Botanic Gardens. In addition to the above, we 
have specimens from Neutral Bay (J. B. Oleland, June, 
1914), Beecroft (T. Steel, June, 1915) and Bowral (Rev. 
W. W. Watts, May, 1909). 

The spores are brown, and minutely echinulate varying 
from 3J to 5/*. Kalchbrenner (i.e.) gives the measurements 
as 0*003 mm. 

O— August 4, 1915. 



226 J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 

G. velutinus Morgan. 

Lloyd (68, p. 21) records this species from Pennant Hills 
near Parramatta (spelt Pawawetta) and from Gladesville. 
He has also recorded it for Samoa (67, p. 33). In the National 
Herbarium collection there are specimens from the follow- 
ing localities: — Waratah, near Newcastle (J. Gregson, May, 
1904); Gladesville (Miss Flockton, May, 1910); Rookwood 
(Miss A. Spencer, June, 1910); Lilyvale (A. A. Hamilton, 
June, 1910); Lake Illawarra (B. Oheel, April, 1912); Coorei 
(A. G. Hamilton, July, 1913); Wollongbar near Lismore, 
(collector not given, 1912). 

G. triplex Lloyd (67, p. 25 and 68, p. 23). 

We have specimens of this species collected by the Rev. 
W. W. Watts in July 1911, from Lord Howe Island, which 
we have compared with a specimen of G. triplex kindly 
forwarded to one of us by C. G. Lloyd. The spores are 
warty and 5/* in diameter. In our specimens, the expanse 
of the outer peridium was two and half inches, whilst the 
inner peridium on its pedicel was nearly an inch high and 
more than three-quarters of an inch broad. 

List IV. — The following is a list of the Australian species 
of Geaster recorded by Cooke (37), revised according to the 
investigations of Lloyd : — 

1250 Geaster tenuipes Berk. = G. tenuipes as a variety of G. 

pectinatus. 

1251 ,, striatus DC. = G. Smithii. 

1252 ,, striatulus Kalchb. = G. striatulus. 

1253 ,, Drummondi Berk. = G. Drummondi. 

1254 „ Readeri Oke. and Mass. = G. Readeri as a variety 

of G. rufescens. 

1255 „ subieulosus Cooke = G. mirabilis, of which G. 

subicidosus is a large form. 

1256 „ lignicola Berk. We have not found any reference 

to this in Lloyd's works. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 



227 



1257 Geaster 

1258 

1259 



1260 
1261 
1262 
1263 
1264 
1265 

1266 
1267 

1268 

1269 
1270 
1271 



minimus Schweinf. = G. minimus. 

fimbriatus Fr. = G. saccatus. 

australis Berk. = G. saccatus (approaching the 

fimbriatus type). 
vittatus Kalchb. = G. saccatus (as a form). 
saccatus Fr. = G. saccatus. 
lageniformis Vitt. = G. saccatus (as a form). 
Speggazinianus Toni = G. floriformis (probably). 
floriformis Vitt. = G. floriformis. 
pusillus Fr. Lloyd states that no type exists and 

nothing is known of it. 
rufescens Pers. = G. rufescens. 
lugubris = G. mammosus. 
hygrometricus Pers. Probably in mistake for G. 

simulans. 
dubins Berk. Probably young G. velutinus. 
Archeri Berk. = G. Archeri. 
argenteus Cooke = G. floriformis, large bleached 

forms. 



In addition to the above Geaster oxylobata Kalchb. is recorded 
for New South Wales by F. v. Mueller (104, p. 119). 

List V. — The following list, chiefly compiled from Lloyd's 
works, is given to replace Cooke's list: — 

1. Geaster Druinmondi. 

2. „ mammosus. 

3. ,, striatulus. 

4. ,, floriformis. 

5. ,, simulans. 

6. ,, plicatus. 

7. ,, pectinatus (var. tennipes). 

8. „ Bryantii. 

9. „ Schmidelii. 

10. ,, Smithii. 

11. ,, Archeri. 

12. ,, Berkeley i. 



228 J. B. CLELAND AND E. OHEEL. 



13. 


Geaster 


mirabilis. 


14. 


)j 


velutinus. 


15. 


35 


fornicatus. 


16. 


55 


minimus. 


17. 


„ 


rufescens (var. Readeri). 


18. 


55 


saccatus (and as the forms jimbriatus, lageniformis, 
and vittatus). 


19. 


55 


triplex. 


20. 
21. 


55 
55 


liqnicola | ^ , , . ~ . 
9 > Recorded in Cooke. 

pusillus i 



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NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 229 

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230 



J. B. CLELAND AND E. CHEEL. 



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NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 231 

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Schweinf— (114) Syn. Car. (1882) 327. 

Thuemen, Dr. see Kalchbrenner — (115). 

Tulasne, L. R. — (116) Annales Sciences naturelles Botanique, 

tome 11 (1844) 114. 
Turner, F.— (117) Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., Vol. 2 (1891) 

289. 
Yittadini — (118) Monog. Lye. t. 1, fig. 7. 
Wood, J. E. Tenison- and F. M. Bailey— (120) Pro. Linn. Soc. 

N.S.W. (1880) pp. 77, 79. 



232 j. b. cleland and e. cheel. 

Explanation of Plates. 
Plate XXIV. 

a. Aseroe rubra. A group of plants showing three specimens in 

egg-stage, two fully developed and an empty volva. 

b. Lysurus Gardneri (L. australiensis). Specimen in egg-stage 

opened at the apex to show the seven incurved free lobes 
with the gleba inside, and an empty volva. 

c. Lysurus Gardneri (L. australiensis). Sketch of a transverse 

section of receptacle, to show cellular structure. 

d. Lysurus Gardneri (L. australiensis). Showing two of the 

lobes united at the tips. 

e. Lysurus Gardneri (L. australiensis). Fully developed plant 

with five free lobes. 

Plate XXV. 
/. Geaster Bryantii. 

g. Aseroe rubra. Fully developed plant with volva at base. 

h. Jansia rugosa. Fully developed plant and an undeveloped 
plant in the egg-stage. 

t. Anthurus Archeri. Fully developed plant showing two lobes 
united at the tips with a thin membrane. 

;*. Aseroe rubra. Showing upper rugose surface of the receptacle. 
* * * * * * 

We would like to express our indebtedness to Mr. A. G. 
Hamilton for the photographs of Aseroe rubra, Plate XXIV (a), 
and Plate XXV (g) and (j); of Lysurus Gardneri, Pl.te XXIV 
(b) and (e), and of Jansia rugosa, Plate XXV (h). 



Journal Royal Society of'N.S. W., Vol. XL1X, 1915. Plate XXIV, 





Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XL1X., 1915. 



Plate XXV. 




AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN BLOOD- 
SUCKING FLIES BELONGING TO THE 
FAMILY LEPTID^. 

By Eustace W. Ferguson, m.b., ch.M. 
(From the Microbiological Laboratory, Department of Public 

Health.) 

(Communicated by Dr. J. B. Clbland.) 
[With Plate XXVI.] 



[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. Wales, August 4, 1915,'] 



The existence of blood- sucking Leptid flies in Australia 
was first discovered by Dr. Cleland in June, 1911, on a 
branch of Middle Harbour, Sydney. Specimens taken on 
this occasion were forwarded to Mr. E. E. Austen of the 
British Museum, who found that they belonged to the 
Leptidse and represented two (apparently) undescribed 
species. Subsequently specimens were obtained from 
Helensburgh, (Dr. Cox), and also from the Hawkesbury 
River. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few from 
the Hawkesbury River the laboratory collection does not 
now contain any of these specimens. 

In 1914, Arthur White in his paper on the Diptera- 
Brachycera of Tasmania, described a species from Freycinet 
Peninsula, Tasmania, and named the genus Spaniopsis. 
His species — S. tabaniformis White, is however, different 
from any we have met in New South Wales. 

In March, 1915, 1 obtained specimens of one species from 
the Hawkesbury River, on the heights surrounding the 
dam on the mainland from which the water supply of 
Milson and Rabbit Islands is derived. This proved to be 
the same as the specimens already in the collection from 



234 E. W. FERGUSON. 

the same locality. Further specimens of this species had 
been received in January from Mount Irvine, (Mr. Darnell 
Smith), and in March a specimen was received from Went- 
wortli Falls, (Miss Smith). A second species was discovered 
on Milson Island, Hawkesbury River on April 10th. It 
was present in considerable numbers though not noticed 
on the week ends immediately preceding and following this 
date. On May 24th Dr. Oleland met with two further 
species on the Mangrove Mount Road near Gosford. A 
single specimen of one of these was taken by myself at 
Milson Island on June 3rd, while the other was met with 
by Dr. Oleland near Mount Wilson on June 5th. With the 
exception of S. clelandi which occurs on the mountains in 
summer, all the species are autumn or winter species and 
possibly only come out for a limited period. They are all 
bush flies and are found on the sandstone ridges and not in 
the gullies. 

The discovery of a genus of Leptidse whose members all, 
so far as known, possess the blood-sucking habit, is of 
interest, not only from the potentialities of the species for 
conveying disease, but also because blood-sucking flies 
belonging to this family are extremely rare in other parts 
of the world. According to Austen there are four blood- 
sucking species belonging to three genera. Of these, 
Symphoromyia is an American species, Leptis scolopacea 
and L. strigosa are found in France and appear only occas- 
ionally to suck blood, while the fourth species — Tricho- 
palpus obscurus — is a Chilian species. 

Only female specimens of Spaniopsis have so far been 
obtained, and the blood-sucking habit appears to be con- 
fined to this sex. Austen states that both sexes of L. 
scolopacea are said to have been observed to bite in France, 
though neither has been known to do so in the British 
Isles. When attacking for the purpose of blood-sucking, 



AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 235 

the flies hover principally around the head, although they 
will settle on any portion of tlie body. When flying around 
the head they do so much in the same manner as the com- 
mon bush fly Musca vetnstissima, but it was noted, both by 
Dr. Oleland and myself, that when flying in front where 
they can be seen, the action is much more like that of a 
mosquito. I allowed several specimens of S. vexans to 
settle on my hands and watched the act of biting. The body 
of the fly was kept parallel to the surface of the hand, the 
proboscis being vertical, witli the labellse spread apart* 
The fly in no case continued long at a meal, even when 
undisturbed, but did not seem to have been repleted. The 
"bite" was felt as a sharp prick, but left no smarting nor 
itching afterwards, and no lump was formed as the result 
of the bite. If the manner of feeding of these flies is an 
interrupted one, as my observations on S. vexans seem to 
indicate, they may prove to be of considerable importance 
as mechanical transmitters of disease. Several specimens 
of S. vexans were noticed on a calf which was confined in 
an open pen on Milson Island. They invariably selected 
the moist surface of the nose and lips to settle on; after 
remaining motionless, apparently biting, for a short time, 
a fly would crawl about the surface and then settle down 
again. When disturbed they flew away, and the mosquito- 
like action was distinctly observed. Several specimens of 
Stegomyia atripes Skuse were biting at the same time and 
also selected the same portion of the nose and lips, and in 
flying, unless they are clearly seen, it was often hard to 
distinguish between the mosquito and the Leptid. 

Very probably these flies will prove to have a wide dis- 
tribution, at any rate along the coastal districts of eastern 
Australia, but so far they have not been met with west of 
the mountains. It has been suggested that these flies may 
have a causal connection with Bung Eye. I do not, how- 
ever, think that this is likely. Bung Eye is more prevalent 



236 E. W. FERGUSON. 

in the inland parts than on the coast; it is also almost, if 
not entirely, confined to the summer months. Spaniopsis 
on the other hand is, so far as known, a coastal and moun- 
tain genus, and also seems to appear during the winter 
months. I have reason to think, however, that Bung Eye 
is probably more prevalent in the neighbourhood of Sydney 
than is generally thought. Over sixty cases occurred 
among the patients at Rydalmere Hospital for the Insane 
during three months in the beginning of the summer of 
1912-13. I have also been informed that Bung Eye was 
exceedingly common among the men engaged in building 
the dam on the Hawkesbury River, on the mainland opposite 
Milson Island, in a locality where these flies have been 
taken on several occasions. Bung Eye also occurs at 
Mount Irvine in the Mount Wilson district, a locality 
whence these flies have been obtained. 

The four species now to be described are all closely allied 
inter se and to S. tabaniformis, but can readily be dis- 
tinguished by difference in size, length of arista and colour- 
ation of legs and of the ventral surface. They all exhibit 
the generic characters described by White in the antennae 
and wing venation. 

The term arista applied to the process of the third 
antennal joint seems to my mind somewhat misleading; it 
is rather a prolongation of the third joint itself. Its length 
varies in different species and reaches its greatest develop- 
ment in S. longicornis. In S. vexans and S. rnarginipennis, 
the discal cell varies in different specimens or on the two 
wings of the same specimen; in some there is a distinct 
angulation below, in others this is rounded off; in some the 
third veinlet is present as a very short stump, in others it 
is absent and the angulation from which it arises is rounded 
off. The minute veinlet inside the cell at the lower angu- 
lation described by White, was also noted in some of my 



AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 237 

specimens. S. clelandi and S. longicornis differ from the 
other species in always having the third veinlet present, 
extending nearly or quite half way to the wing margin; the 
angulation below is also variable in these species. 

In S. tabaniformis, White figures the anal cell as closed 
in the wing margin; in all the species before me, the anal 
cell is closed just before the margin to which it is united 
by a short stem. 

In one particular all the new species differ from White's 
description of the genus. The tibiae are described as not 
having distinct spurs, although in White's description of 
the family Lepticlse the posterior 1 tibiae are stated to be 
spurred. In all the species herein described the middle 
tibiae possess two distinct spurs, one of them slightly larger 
than the other. 

The following table should enable the known species to 
be readily differentiated. 

Table of Species. 

a. Legs yellow, venter yellowish. 
b. Wings hyaline. 

c. Large species (5 mm,) = S. tabaniformis White. 
cc. Small species (3 mm.) = S. vexans, n.sp. 
bb. Wings with anterior margin infuscate in outer half 

= S. marginipennis, n.sp. 
aa. Legs bicolorus; venter dark grey. 

d. Size medium (4 mm.), arista of moderate length (4 mm.) 

= S. clelandi, n.sp. 
dd Size large (5*5 mm.), arista long (-8 mm.) 

= S. longicornis n.sp. 

The types of the new species are in the collection of the 
Microbiological Laboratory, Department of Public Health. 

1 It is possible that "posterior" is here a misprint for "middle," as 
WilHston places spurred middle tibiae among the characters of the family. 



238 E. W. FERGUSON. 

Cotypes have been deposited in the Australian Museum. 
I am indebted to Miss Phyllis F. Clarke for the drawings 
which accompany this paper. 

Spaniopsis tabaniformis, White. 

Plate XXVI, fig. 11. 

White, Royal Society of Tasmania: Papers and Proceedings, 
1914, p. 44, fig. 2. 

For an opportunity of examining a co-type of White's 
species, I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Rainbow of the Aus- 
tralian Museum. 

The species is closely allied to the other members of the 
genus, and most closely to S. vexans. The colour of the 
ventral surface is not mentioned by White, but in the 
specimen before me, is of a greyish-yellow. This, in com- 
bination with the yellow legs, brings it close to S. vexans, 
from which it can be readily distinguished by its much 
larger size. The wings in this specimen appear slightly 
clouded along some of the veins, much as in some specimens 
of S. clelandi. This may not be constant; it is always 
slight in amount and seen only from certain directions. 
The anal cell is closed immediately before the wing margin 
to which it is united by a short stem. The intermediate 
tibiae are spurred as in the other species. 

Spaniopsis vexans, n. sp. 

Plate XXVI, figs. 6, 10. 

? Resembling S. tabaniformis but considerably smaller. 
Thorax brownish with three darker longitudinal lines; 
abdomen dark brown with narrow paler apical bands ; venter 
yellow; legs yellow; tarsi infuscate. 

Face light grey, front dark brown. Proboscis black. Palpi 
yellow. Antennae black; first and second joints short, the 
second joint rather shorter than the first, third joint 



AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 239 

broadened, almost as wide as long, somewhat concave on 
its inner surface, produced into a short stout arista, not 
quite as long as the rest of the antenna. Thorax yellowish- 
brown, sides and anterior margin with a greyish bloom, 
with three darker longitudinal lines, not quite reaching 
base, the median line slightly narrower and not extending 
quite as far as the others. Abdomen dark brown, the basal 
segment lighter, each segment with a narrow light yel- 
lowish-brown apical border, the apical segment almost 
entirely of this colour. Ventral surface yellow. Legs 
pale yellow, tarsi with first joint infuscate at apex, the 
other joints dark, intermediate tibiae with two apical spurs. 
Wings with venation characteristic of genus, the third 
veinlet very short or absent, the angulation below variable; 
hyaline, veins and stigma dark brown. Length 3 mm.; 
antennae *55 mm., third joint '17 X *14 mm., arista *26 mm. 

Hab. New South Wales, Milson Island (Hawkesbury R.) 

This species was taken on two successive days, April 
10th and 11th, and was not noticed a week previous or a 
week after this date. It is the smallest species known, 
and can readily be distinguished by the combination of 
small size, yellow legs and yellow venter. The species 
was fairly abundant when taken and was noticed to be 
attacking cattle on the island. About thirty specimens 
were taken, but unfortunately almost all turned black after 
being pinned. 

Spaniopsis marginipennis, n. sp. 

Plate XXVI, figs. 2, 4, 8. 

? Similar to 8. tabaniformis, but with wings infuscate 
along outer portion of anterior margin. Thorax brownish 
with three darker longitudinal lines; abdomen dark, with 
paler apical bands; venter yellow; legs yellow, tarsi 
infuscate. 



240 E. W. FERGUSON. 

Face light grey, front dark brown. Proboscis black. 
Palpi yellow. Antennae black; first and second joints 
small, third joint broadened, longer than wide, terminating 
in a long thick arista, not quite twice as long as rest of 
antenna. Prothorax brown, with a somewhat yellowish 
tint, sides and apex with a greyish bloom; with three 
darker longitudinal lines, not quite reaching base, the 
median the narrower. Scutellum brown. Abdominal 
segments dark brown, bordered apically with a moderately 
broad greyish-yellow band interrupted in the middle, apical 
segment greyish-yellow with a median dark spot. Venter 
light greyish-yellow, sides similarly coloured. Legs pale 
yellow, tarsi with first joint infuscate at apex, the other 
joints dark; intermediate tibiae with two apical spurs. 
Wings with characteristic venation, the third veinlet very 
short or absent, the angulation below variable; deeply 
infuscate along anterior margin from inner end of stigma 
to apex of wing; stigma dark brown or black, veins dark 
brown, yellowish at base. Length 4*5 mm., antennae *97mm. 
third joint *22 x *15 mm.; arista '6 mm. 

Hab. New South Wales, Gosford, (J. B. Oleland, 24/5/15), 
Milson Island (E. W. Ferguson, 3/6/15). 

This species may be readily identified by the dark anterior 
margin of the wings. The dark portion is moderately broad 
and fades away below, but its lower border is fairly sharply 
defined. The arista is considerably longer than in S. vexans, 
to which it is most nearly related in its yellow venter and 
legs. The specimens were taken by Dr. Oleland in company 
with S. longicornis on the Mangrove Mountain Road behind 
Gosford, and were captured while trying to bite. 

Spaniopsis clelandi, n. sp. 
Plate XXVI, fig. 5, 9. 
? Of medium size. Thorax brown with three darker 
longitudinal lines; abdomen dark brown with lighter apical 
bands; venter darker grey; legs bicolorous. 



AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 241 

Face grey; front dark brown. Proboscis black. Palpi 
dark brown. Antennae black; basal joints short, third 
joint broadened, arista about as long as rest of antenna, 
the whole antenna about the same length as the arista in 
S. longicornis. Thorax dark brown with a greyish bloom 
at apex and on sides, with three darker longitudinal lines, 
the median notreaching base. Scutellum brown. Abdominal 
segments dark brown with moderately broad, greyish apical 
bands, somewhat undulate but not interrupted in the 
middle, basal segment almost entirely greyish, the two 
apical segments greyish with a median basal dark spot. 
Venter and sides dark grey. Legs bicolorous; tibiae light 
yellowish-brown, apex darker; tarsi with first segment 
yellowish-brown, darker at apex, other joints dark. Wings 
with characteristic venation; third veinlet constantly 
present, moderately long, reaching about one-third of the 
way to the costal margin; anal cell closed immediately 
before margin; hyaline, veins and stigma dark, a very 
faint infuscation traceable along the course of the veins in 
some specimens. Length 4 mm.; antennae *87 mm.; third 
joint '26 x *19 mm.; arista *43 mm. 

Hab. New South Wales, Hawkesbury River (March), 
Mount Irvine (January), Wentworth Falls (March). 

Allied to S. longicornis, but with shorter antennae and 
shorter arista; the third joint is also differently shaped. 
This species may be separated from the other members of 
the genus by the colour of the legs. 

Several specimens without locality label and in a bad 
condition are in the collection — some of these may be from 
Middle Harbour or Helensburgh, but I think they are all 
Hawkesbury River specimens. The Blue Mountain speci- 
mens are also in bad condition, having turned black, but I 
have no doubt they are referable to this species. The 
slight infuscation along the veins is very faint and difficult 

P— August 4. 1915. 



242 E. W. FERGUSON. 

to trace — it seems absent in some specimens. One speci- 
men without locality, in the collection, has the veins much 
lighter, almost yellowish in colour ; it is possibly distinct, 
but is an old specimen and may have faded; unfortunately 
both antennae are broken. 

I have much pleasure in naming this species after Dr. 
J. B. Oleland who was the first to discover these flies. 

Spaniopsis longicornis, u. sp. 
Plate XXVI, figs. 1, 3, 7. 
? Size comparatively large for the genus; most nearly 
allied to S. clelandi. Antennae with long thick terminal 
arista; thorax dark greyish-brown with three longitudinal 
darker lines, and an interrupted dark line at sides ; abdomen 
dark brown with paler apical bands to segments; venter 
darker grey; legs bicolorous; wings hyaline. 

Pace light grey; front dark brown. Proboscis black. 
Palpi yellow. Antennae black, very long, basal joints short, 
third joint twice as long as wide, terminating in a long 
thickened arista, not quite twice as long as the rest of the 
antenna. Thorax greyish-brown with three darker longi- 
tudinal lines, the median narrower than the others, the 
two submedian apparently connected at the base, also with 
an interrupted dark line near side, connected across with 
submedian line at apex and at level of transverse suture. 
Scutellum brown. Abdomen dark brown with a broad 
greyish band at apex of segments, interrupted in middle, 
basal and apical segments greyish. Venter and sides dark 
grey. Legs bicolorous; femora brown, the anterior pair 
almost black, with the base and apex of a lighter more 
yellowish colour; tibiae yellowish, slightly darkened at 
apex; tarsi with basal joints yellowish, infuscate at apex, 
the other joints dark. Wings hyaline, veins black, stigma 
brownish; venation as in genus, third veinlet always 
present, longer than in S. tabaniformis, reaching almost 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate XX VI. 





11 10 



AUSTRALIAN BLOOD SUCKING FLIES. 243 

or quite half way to wing margin; anal cell closed immedi- 
ately before wing margin. Length 5*5 mm.; antennae 
1*35 mm., third joint *32 x '16 mm., arista *87 mm. 

Hab. New South Wales, Gosford, Mount Wilson (Dr. J. B. 
Oleland). 

Specimens were taken by Dr. Oleland on May 24th, 1914, 
in company with S. marginipennis on the Mangrove Moun- 
tain road near Gosford. Additional specimens were also 
procured on the Mount Wilson-Mount Irvine road about 
two miles from the former place (6/6/1915). Both Mount 
Wilson and Mount Irvine have basaltic caps with corres- 
ponding brush formation — the specimens were however 
taken on the sandstone formation which outcrops on the 
road, and none were seen in the bush. 

It is probably this species or S. marginipennis or possibly 
both, to which Mr. Gallard of the Agriculture Department 
alluded in a communication to Dr. Oleland in 1911. Mr. 
Gallard met with them at Ourimbah (Gosford district) in 
June, and says: — "They frequent the scrubby land where 
the wallabies are generally found, and we call them wallaby 
flies. If you bare any part of you, they attack you like a 
mosquito, and their bite is far worse." S. longicomis is 
closely related to S. clelandi, but the larger size and longer 
antenna should prevent the two species being confused. 
Explanation of Plate XXVI. 



1. Symniopsis longicomis, n. sp. <? 

2. ,, marginipennis, n. sp. $ 

3. ,, longicomis, n. sp. Wing. 

4. ,, marginipennis, n.sp. Wing. 

5. „ clelandi, n. sp. Wing. 

6. ,, vexans, n. sp. Wing. 

7. „ longicomis, n. sp. Antenna. 

8. ,, marginipennis, n. sp. Antenna. 

9. ,, clelandi, n. sp. Antenna. 

10. ,, vexans, n. sp. Antenna. 

11. ,, tabaniformis White. Antenna. 



244 L. F. HARPER. 



THE AGE OP THE SOUTHERN COAL FIELD 
TABLELAND BASALTS. 

By L. F. Harper, f.g.s., 

Geological Surveyor, Department of Mines. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, September J, 1915. ,] 

As far as the writer is aware it has been generally taken 
for granted that the basalt occurrences found on the 
Robertson and Sassafras tablelands are of Tertiary age* 
It is intended in this paper to bring forward evidence which 
it is thought points strongly to their having resulted from 
a later period of volcanic activity. The grounds for this 
opinion may be summarised as follows: — 

1. Palseontological evidence, in the form of plant remains 
obtained from the sediments under the basalts, points to as 
great an affinity to Pleistocene as to Pliocene forms. 

Consequently these beds may be assigned to a period of 
deposition not older than late Pliocene. 

2. The uplift which resulted in the formation of the 
tableland areas took place in Pleistocene time. 

3. The uplift gave rise to the faulting found in the 
northern portion of the Southern Coal Field. 

4. Subsequent to the faulting, volcanic intrusions took 
place and the resultant igneous rocks bear a most striking 
chemical and petrographical affinity to the tableland 
basalts. 

5. The physiographic disposition of the tableland basalts 
points to their having in many instances welled over areas 
of country with drainage channels almost identical with 
those of the present day, showing but little discrepancy as 
to stages of maturity in land surfaces. 



THE SOUTHERN COAL FIELD TABLELAND BASALTS. 245 

The evidence in support of the foregoing is as follows: — 

1. Palceontological. 

In the Wingello District, beds underlying the areas of 
basalt contain fossil plant impressions which have been 
identified and described by Mr. H. Deane. The forms are 
considered by Mr. W. S. Dun to belong to a late Tertiary 
or possibly Post Tertiary period, so that palseontological 
evidence points to the sedimentary rocks immediately 
underlying the basalt representing, at the very oldest, a 
period of late Tertiary deposition. 

2. Age of the uplift. 

These late Tertiary deposits are found at an average 
altitude of over 2,000 feet above sea level, but their com- 
paratively low altitude at the time of deposition is indicated 
by the absence of any evidence as to contemporaneous 
precipitous river valleys, and the fine grained nature of 
most of the sediment. Hence we may assume that the 
uplift took place during transition to the Post Tertiary 
period. 

3. Faulting follows uplift. 

The uplift is confined to the central portion of the area 
under review, and north from a line projected through 
Kiama and Robertson, the land surface not only sagged 
behind, but also merged into an area of subsidence. Similar 
conditions pertain at the southern end of the uplifted area, 
and the movement gradually dies away south from Termeil. 

The faulting found in the Southern Goal Field is confined 
to the areas which sagged behind during the uplift, and 
consequently underwent severe straining and fracturing. 

It is in these areas that evidence of volcanic activity 
is most pronounced. 

4. Faulting preceded volcanic intrusions. 

There is abundant evidence that the faulting preceded 
the volcanic intrusion, but only two instances need be cited. 



246 



L. F. HARPER. 



In the colliery workings at Coal Oliff the following 
instances were noted. 



CoaJ Cliff Colliery 




(a) A dyke ten inches wide intersects the Bulli coal seam 
vertically, and on reaching the roof spreads out horizontally 
as a sill, eight inches thick, having failed to pass into the 
sandstone roof. 

About eight feet from the dyke, a fault with a downthrow 
of eleven feet has thrown the sandstone roof opposite the 
coal seam, thus preventing the sill from extending beyond 
the coal. On the downthrow side of the fault the coal is 
unaltered, and no sill rock is present. 

(b) In another portion of the same colliery, a dyke five 
inches wide is seen occupying a fault plane, the amount of 
displacement caused by the fault being twenty-one feet. 

(c) In the Metropolitan Colliery, a fault with a displace- 
ment of over two hundred feet has been proved, which 
resulted in No. 4 coal seam being thrown opposite No. 1. 

No. 1 seam consists of about twelve feet of coal absolutely 
unaffected by volcanic agencies, whereas No. 4 is almost 
totally destroyed by a sill up to seven feet in thickness, and 
which has been driven on for approximately half a mile. 



THE SOUTHERN COAL FIELD TABLELAND BASALTS. 247 

The sill ends up abruptly at the fault, and the volcanic 
material has been forced along the plane for a few feet. 
Minor faulting leading to displacement of under two feet 
followed, and finally further volcanic activity led to the 
sill being intersected by several dykes. 

The geological phenomena which have been mentioned 
appear to have occurred in the following order: — 

1. Deposition of fossiliferous sediments, late Tertiary age. 

2. Uplift, Transition period. 

3. Faulting, Post Tertiary age. 

4. Intrusion of sills and dykes, Post Tertiary age. 

5. Further slight faulting, Post Tertiary age. 

6. Intrusion of later dykes, Post Tertiary age. 

The tectonic forces indicated must have occupied a con- 
siderable time, for the uplift was gradual, otherwise very 
heavy faulting would have taken place. Such is not the 
case, however, for the maximum amount of displacement 
by any individual fault is only about 230 feet, as agaiust an 
uplift of 2,000 feet. 

It is recognised that no great lapse of time was necessary 
for the four latter phenomena to have taken place, but it 
was by no means abrupt. The very fact of the uplift indi- 
cates a change of epoch, and it is thought that the evidence 
points to the dykes and sills having been injected during 
Pleistocene epoch. 

Chemical and petrographical work indicate a marked 
affinity between the dykes and sills and the basalts found 
capping the tableland areas, and a common magma basin 
and period of vulcanicity is evidenced. 

No vents were found from which the surface basalts 
could have emanated, and it is thought that they represent 
a portion of the volcanic product which welled over the 
earth's surface from fissures induced by the uplift. 



248 



L. F. HARPER. 



A further point in favour of a Post Tertiary age being 
assigned to the tableland basalts is their physiographic 
disposition. In many instances they are found to have 
accumulated over areas of country with drainage channels 
corresponding in a marked degree with those of the present 
day, thus indicating practically no topographic changes. 

Two instances of this feature may be cited. The follow- 
ing section, published in the Iron Ore Deposits of New 
South Wales, by Mr. J. B. Jaquet, Chief Inspector of Mines* 
indicates the amount of erosion which had taken place in 
the late Tertiary beds prior to the outpouring of the basalt. 
It also shows how closely Post Tertiary drainage channels 
agree with those of the present day. 

Wmgello District 



Tertiary 




Dsubun? ?000 ft above sea. level 



The second instance occurs in the valley of the Cordeaux 
River, where the following section was obtained. 



Cordeaxix River 



M^KemblcL 




It will be noticed from this section how the basalt sheet 
occupies slopes identical with those of the present day land 
surface, and how an outlier of the Triassic rocks forms an 
"island" now as it did at the time the basalt was outpoured. 



THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VISCOSITY OF GASES. 249 



A NOTE on the RELATION BETWEEN the THERMAL 
CONDUCTIVITY and the VISCOSITY OF GASES 
WITH REFERENCE to MOLECULAR COMPLEXITY- 

By J. A. Pollock, d.sc, 

Professor of Physics in the University of Sydney. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, October 6, 1915.'] 



In the equation k = fyc v , expressing the thermal con- 
ductivity of a gas in terms of the viscosity and specific 
heat, the coefficient f is a numerical factor which is approx- 
imately constant for gases of the same atomicity. Such 
a fact suggests the probability of a relationship between f 
and 7, the ratio of the specific heats. But long before 
the result, just mentioned, was fully established, the prob- 
ability of f being a function of 7 was recognised, though it 
was not generally appreciated. As early as 1876 Boltz- 
mann, 1 from theoretical considerations, obtained the 
expression f = 3 f(y - 1)/2, where f is the constant for 
monatomic gases. It has been known for some time that 
the equation is physically inaccurate, but the matter does 
not seem to have been followed further. 

Recently new results for the thermal conductivities of a 
number of gases have been published by Eucken. 2 In con- 
nection with these measures, Eucken discusses the depend- 
ence of f, not only on the properties of the molecule, but 
also on the temperature. As possibly lying outside the 
main lines of his investigation, he does not consider the 
relationship of f to 7, but, from the zero temperature 

' Boltzmann, Fogg". Ann., 157, p. 457, 1S76; see also Schleierrnacher, 
Wied. Ann., 36, p. 346, 1889, and Chapman, Trans. Eoy. Soc, 211, A, p. 
433, 1912. 

2 Eucken, Phys. Zeitschr., 14, p. 324, 1913. 



250 



J. A. POLLOCK. 



values of the thermal conductivities and viscosities given 
by him, a relation appears to exist between the two factors 
which can be expressed by an equation of the form 
f _ a (y-1) 

where a and n are constants. The precise arithmetical 
adjustment of these constants may well await further 
measures; in the meantime, with numerical simplicity as 
well as physical accuracy in view, the equation may be 
written ^ 7*32 (y-1) 



f 



,1-3 



If, in the original expression, n, the power of y, is put 
equal to unity, the equation, with an appropriate value of 
the constant, quite well represents the experimental results 
with the exception of those for the monatomic gases. This 
leads, in the case of perfect gases, to the simple relation 

^^-° = constant, 

where m is the molecular mass. 

In the following table, with the zero temperature 
measures of k and ^, taken from Eucken's paper, I give, for 
the calculation of f , the experimental results for c p and y 
instead of the values of c v . The figures given for f in column 
2 of Table II, deduced from the equation k = fvc v /y, are 
thus wholly dependent on the results of experiment. 

Table I. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Molecule. 


ra 


& o xl0 6 


^ o xl0 6 


c v 


y 


He 


4 


336 


187-6 


1-260* 


1-63 


A 


40 


390 


210-2 


0-123 


1-667 


H, 


2 


397 


85 


3-422f 


l-402f 


N 2 


28 


56-6 


167-6 


0-2429f 


l-412f 


o 2 


32 


57-0 


192-2 


0-2173f 


l-402f 


Air 


29 


56-6 


171 


0-2376f 


1-4051 


01, 


71 


18-29 


123-7 


0-115 


1-3231 


CO 


28 


54-25 


167-2 


0-2502* 


1-401 


NO 


30 


555 


179-4 


0-232 


1-394 



THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VISCOSITY OF GASES. 



251 



Table I — continued. 
3 4 



Molecule. 


TO 


k o x\0° 


^ o xl0 6 


Cp 


7 


H 2 S 


34 


30-45 


118-4 


0-245 


1-340 


co 2 


44 


33-7 


138 


0-2010 


1-300 


N 2 


44 


35-15 


136-2 


0-213 


1-324 


so 2 


64 


19-5 


118-3 


0-1544| 


1-256 


cs 2 


76 


16-15 


92-4 


0-160 


1-239 


M 3 


17 


51-35 


92-6 


0-520 


1-336 


C 2 H 2 


26 


44-0 


94-3 




1-26 


CH 4 


16 


71-45 


102-9 


0-591 


1-313 


C 2 H 4 


28 


40-7 


90-66 


0-404 


1-264 


C 2 H 6 


30 


42-6 


85-5 




1-22 



* Scheel and Heuse, Ann. d. Physik, 40, 3, p. 473, 1913. f Escher, 
Ann. d. Physik, 42, 4, p. 761, 1913. J Landolt-Bornstein Tabellen. All 
other values in columns 5 and 6, from Kaye and Laby's Tables. 

Table II. 

12 3 4 



Molecule. 


/obs. 


/cal. 


myk 


7^o 


7-32 (y-1) 




VoCP 


yl'S 


He 


2-32 


2-45 


11-6 


A 


2-51 


2-51 


12-4 


H 3 


1-91 


1-90 


13-2 


N 2 


1-96 


1-93 


13-4 


o 2 


1-91 


1-90 


13-3 


Air 


1-96 


1-91 


13-5 


ci. 


1-70 


1-63 


13-8 


CO 


1-82 


1-89 


12-7 


NO 


1-90 


1-87 


12-9 


H 2 S 


1-41 


1-70 


11-7 


co 2 


1-58 


1-56 


14-0 


N 2 


1-60 


1-65 


15-0 


so 2 


1-35 


1-39 


13-3 


cs 2 


1-35 


1-32 


16-5 


NH 3 


1-79 


1-69 


12-6 


C 2 H 2 






15-3 


CH 4 


1-52 


1-61 


14-6 


C 2 H 4 


1-40 


1-43 


15-9 


C 2 H 6 






18-3 



252 J. A. POLLOCK. 

In this second table, the values of f, derived from the 
expression f = 7*32 (y - l)/y 13 , are entered in column 3. 
An idea of the physical accuracy of the calculated results 
may, therefore, be obtained from a comparisou of these 
figures with those in column 2. There are certainly large 
differences between the calculated and observed values for 
some gases, but the experimental determinations cannot 
be considered in all cases as final. 

The last column of Table II contains the values of 
wiyJcJr} o . As prevously mentioned, with the present experi- 
mental results, constancy of the value of the ratio is only 
to be expected in the case of perfect gases with molecules 
of an atomicity greater than 2. The approximate similarity 
of the figures in some number of instances is, therefore, 
perhaps more remarkable than the divergencies in the 
other cases. 

It is interesting to note the rise that has taken place in 
the values of the thermal conductivities. For many years 
the determinations of f for diatomic gases were cited in 
support of Meyer's well known theoretical deduction, f = 
1*6027. Now, from Eucken's measures of the thermal con- 
ductivities, the value of f for these gases is 1*9. 



WAVE-LENGTH ON STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR. 253 



The WAVE-LENGTH op the ELECTRICAL VIBRA- 
TION ASSOCIATED with a THIN STRAIGHT 
TERMINATED CONDUCTOR. 

By J. A. Pollock, d.Sc, 

Professor of Physics in the University of Sydney. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, October 6, 1915.~\ 



To a first approximation, Abraham 1 and other writers 
conclude from theoretical considerations that the wave- 
length of the disturbance in free ether due to the gravest 
electrical vibration on a thin straight terminated con- 
ductor is equal to twice the length of the rod. This result 
is very definitely supported by Lord Rayleigh 2 in opposition 
to the calculation of Macdonald 3 which makes the wave- 
length 2*53 times the length of the conductor. 

Some years ago I published an account 4 of an experi- 
mental comparison, by a resonance method, of the periods 
of the electrical vibrations associated with simple circuits. 
In discussing the results, I assumed that the wave-length 
of the oscillation connected with a narrow rectangular 
circuit was equal to the perimeter of the rectangle, and 
was led to think that the measurements supported 
Macdonald's theoretical deduction as to the wave-length 
of the vibration on a straight rod. The assumption, which 
affects the discussion only, is, however, quite unjustifiable, 
as the wave-length depends on the ratio of length to breadth 
as well as on the perimeter of the circuit. Contrary to the 
opinion I then expressed, the experimental results cannot 
be taken as supporting Macdonald's theory. 

1 Abraham, Ann. der Physik, 66, p. 435, 1898. 

2 Kayleigh, Phil. Mag., 8, p. 105, 1904; Phil. Mag., 25, p. 1, 1913. 

3 Macdonald, Electric Waves, p. Ill, 1902. 

4 Pollock, Jour, and Proc. Koy. Soc. N.S. Wales, 37, p. 198, 1903; Phil. 



254 J. A. POLLOCK. 

More recently several values of the ratio of wave-length 
to length of conductor, determined from interference 
experiments, have been given in accounts of measurements 
of electric waves from linear oscillators of small dimensions. 
Writing A. = kl, where I is the length of the conductor, 
Wiliard and Woodman 1 deduce for k the value 2*48; Oole, 2 
2*52; Blake and Fountain, 3 2*47, and Webb and Woodman, 4 
2*3. Finally Ives, 5 using a very high resistance receiver 
with an interferometer arrangement, finds 2*04 as the value 
of k for certain linear oscillators varying in length from 
5 to 10 centimetres. 

At the meeting of the British Association in Sydney, in 
1914, I mentioned that the interference experiments had 
recently been repeated by students in the Physical Labora- 
tory of the University, with results completely confirming 
those of Ives. I now give a summary of the measurements. 

In the interferometer experiments Ives' general arrange- 
ment has been followed, but a coherer was used as a 
receiver instead of one involving a thermo-electric junction. 
At each observation the coherer was isolated during the 
passage of the waves, being connected to the galvanometer 
circuit, by moveable conductors working in mercury cups, 
only after sparking had ceased. A coherer used in this 
way is unaffected by disturbances not in its immediate 
neighbourhood. 

The positions of the nodes of the stationary wave system, 
formed by the reflection of an incident beam at a plane zinc 
mirror, have also been determined with the same coherer 
arrangement. The results exactly agree with those found 
with the interferometer. 

1 Wiliard and Woodman, Phys. Rev., 18, p. 1, 1904. 

2 Cole, Phys. Rev., 20, p. 268, 1905. 

3 Blake and Fountain, Phys. Rev., 23, p. 256, 1906. 

4 Webb and Woodman, Phys. Rev., 29, p. 89, 1909. 

5 Ives, Phys. Rev., 30, p. 199, 1910 ; 31, p. 185, 1910. 



WAVE-LENGTH ON STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR. 



255 



For these and the interferometer measurements, the 
oscillator, sparking in paraffin, was placed at the focus of 
a cylindrical parabolic mirror, the focal length being an 
odd multiple of a quarter of the wave-length to be expected. 
Experiments have been made with mirrors whose focal 
lengths were calculated from the lengths of the oscillators 
on the basis of both Abraham's and Macdonald's theories. 
Ives' conclusion that the focal length of the oscillator mirror 
has a negligible effect on the wave-length has been verified. 

The various values which have been found are set out in 
the following table, together with the names of the experi- 
menters who carried out the considerable practical work 
involved in the determinations. To make the evidence 
complete, I have included the results of Ives' measurements. 
The other measures, previously mentioned, are not given 
in the table as the earlier experiments are open to the 
criticism that the influence of the receivers was not entirely 
eliminated. Ives' use of a very high resistance in the 
receiver circuit quite obviates an error of this kind. In 
the experiments in this laboratory, coherers of very dis- 



Experimenters. 


Length of 
Oscillator 


A 

observed. 


A 

calculated 


k 

observ'd 


k 

calcul'd. 


Experi- 
mental 
Method. 


Number 
of nodes 
deter- 
mined. 


Approxi- 
mate dis- 
tance from 
plane 
mirror. 


"*Ives 


4-93 


10-42 


10-12 


211 


2-05 


Interfero- 
meter. 








7-49 


15-24 


15-30 


2-03 


2-04 


:j 








9-85 


19-86 


20-06 


2-02 


2-04 


)i 






T£ooth&Tidd y 


5-06 


1040 


10-30 


2-06 


2-06 


j> 


3 




»? 


j> 


10-54 


ji 


2-08 


>» 


Stationary 
Waves. 


4 


100A. 


j) 


j< 


10-46 


jj 


2-07 


j> 


,, 


4 


jj 


)) 


5» 


10-40 


') 


2-06 


5* 


JJ 


3 


5A. 


}? 


18-84 


38-47 


38-38 


2-05 


2-03 


JJ 


11 


20A. 


% Anderson and 


!) 


38-00 


?j 


2-01 


5» 


J> 


5 


5A. 


Hcarr 



















Ives, loc. cit.. f E. H. Booth, H. P. Tiddy. + E. C. Anderson, J.H. A. Scarr 



256 J. A. POLLOCK. 

similar dimensions were employed in verifying the results, 
and it was definitely proved that the measurements were 
wholly independent of any characteristic of the receiving 
circuits. 

In his theoretical discussion of this subject Abraham 1 
considers the vibration about a perfect conductor in the 
form of an elongated ellipsoid of revolution. When the 
minor axis (2b) becomes negligibly small in comparison witli 
the major axis (I), the wave-length in free ether of the 
disturbance due to the fundamental vibration is equal to 21. 
In a second approximation Abraham obtains the following 
expression for this wave-length: — 

A = 21 (1 + 5*6€ 2 ) 
where 1/c == 4 log e l/b. , 

In the table, under the heading c A. calculated,' are given 
the wave-lengths deduced from this equation, and under 4 fc 
calculated,' the ratio of these wave-lengths to the lengths 
of the oscillators. 

A consideration of the evidence shows that Abraham's 
expression gives a result for the wave-length which agrees 
with the measured value within the present limits of 
experimental error. This was Ives' conclusion in 1910, 
and the results now published add to his statement but the 
weight attached to confirmation from independent work. 
The physical accuracy of Abraham's deduction is now 
sufficiently well established for linear oscillators of known 
dimensions to be used as standards in connection with the 
measurement of short electric waves. 

These results completely support Lord Rayleigh's 2 view 
of the value of the wave-length of the vibration on a thin 
straight terminated rod, and at least imply the experi- 
mental verification of his contention " that the difference 

1 Abraham, loc. cit. 2 Eayleigh, loc. cit. 



WAVE-LENGTH ON STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR. 257 

between the half wave-length of the gravest vibration 
and the length (I) of the rod (of uniform section) tends to 
vanish relatively when the section is reduced without 
limit." 

The experiments lend no support to Macdonald's calcula- 
tion which requires that the numbers in the table under the 
heading * k observed ' should be 2*5. It would appear, then, 
that Sarasin and De la Rive's well known experiments 
which, hitherto, have only been quantitatively described in 
terms of Macdonald's theory, still await their explanation. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Akt. V. — Continued ... ... ... ... ... .,. ... 145 

Art. VI. — On the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Smithii, from 
various forms of growth. By H. G. Smith, e.c.s. [With 
Plates XIII - XXIII^L 158 

Art. VII. — On the Composition of Human Milk in Australia, 

Parti. By H. S. H. Wardlaw, bsc... 169 

Art. VIII. — Notes on Australian Fungi, No. II., Phalloids and 
Geasters. By J. B. Cleland, m.d., ch.m., and E. Cheel. 
[With Plates XXIV, XXV."] 199 

Art. IX. — Descriptions of New Australian Blood-Sucking Plies 
belonging to the Family Leptidse. By Eustace W. Fer- 
guson, m.b., ch.m. (Communicated by Dr. J. B. Cleland.) 
[With Plate XXVI.'] ... ... ' 233 

Art. X.— The age of the Southern Coal Field Tableland Basalts, 

By L. F. Harper, f.g.s 244 

Art. XI. — A Note on the Eelation between the Thermal Conduc- 
tivity and the Viscosity of Gases, with reference to 
Molecular Complexity. By Professor J. A. Pollock, d.sc... 249 

Art. XII. — The Wave-length of the Electrical Vibration associ- 
ated with a Thin Straight Terminated Conductor By 
Professor J. A. Pollock, d.sc 253 



ISSUED APRIL 28th, 1916. 



Vol. XLIX. 



Part III. 



JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



1915 



PART II., (pp. 257-525). 

Containing Papers bead in 

NOVEMBER and DECEMBER. 

WITH THIRTY-SIX PLATES. 

(Plates xxvii - xlii.) 




SYDNEY : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH STREET NORTH, SYDNEY. 

LONDON AGENTS i 

GEORGE ROBERTSON & Co., PROPRIETARY LIMITED, 

17 Warwick Square, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 

1915. 



F. "WHITE Typ.. 344 Kent Street Sydney. 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 257 

between the half wave-length of the gravest vibration 
and the length (I) of the rod (of uniform section) tends to 
vanish relatively when the section is reduced without 
limit." 

The experiments lend no support to Macdonald's calcula- 
tion which requires that the numbers in the table under the 
heading ' k observed ' should be 2*5. It would appear, then, 
that Sarasin and De la Rive's well known experiments 
which, hitherto, have only been quantitatively described in 
terms of Macdonald's theory, still await their explanation. 



THE AUSTRALIAN "GREY MANGROVE," 

(Avicennia officinalis, Linn.) 

By R. T. Baker, f.l.s., 

Curator, Technological Museum, Sydney. 

With Plates XXVII -XLVI. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, November 3, 1915.'] 



1. Introduction. 

2. Description of Species. 

3. Synonymy. 

4. Systematic position of this Australian Mangrove. 

5. The Leaves. 

6. The Breathing Roots. X^ QlXm ,fl *^4^ 

7. The Seed. Ar n niC 

8. Timber:— (a) Economics. Ify OCT 2"' 

(b) Analysis of the Ash. \ k* « N 

(c) Macroscopical Characters. v^^O/JrI WiV)^" 

(d) Histology. 

(e) Fibres. 

9. Bark. 

10. Concentric "Rings," and their relation to the age of the tree. 

11. Illustrations. 

Q— November 3, 1915. 



258 R. T. BAKER. 

1. Introduction. 
Several species of plants are commonly known under the 
name of "Mangrove,'' — belonging, however, to different 
Natural Orders, the term being given by the layman to 
those trees found growing in muddy, saline, foreshores. 
Botanically, it is generally restricted to those species 
assigned to the Natural Order Rhizophore^, but the 
reason for such restriction is not clear. Indeed, I am in 
favour of its being applied only to those trees which have 
one common characteristic, i.e., the curious property of 
having breathing roots or pneumatophores, such as Avi- 
cennia, Laguncularia, Sonneratia, etc. As it is probably 
impossible now to alter the common application of the term, 
the name "Grey Mangrove" is associated in this paper 
with the genus Avicennia, N.O. Verbenace^e, the species 
being A. officinalis, Linn., and as this is one of Linnaeus' 
species, its systematic position dates back a long way in 
botanical works. 

I would like to take this opportunity of acknowledging 
my great indebtedness to Mr. T. O. Roughley, of the 
Scientific Staff of the Technological Museum, for the photo- 
graphs and sections illustrating this paper ; to Mr. J. H. 
Maiden, and Prof. A. J. Ewart for the loan of literature 
bearing on the subject, and also to Mr.T. Dick for specimens 
and local information. 

2, Description of the Species. 

The plant upon which the research is made may be 
described as a species attaining full tree size, with a pate 
coloured comparatively smooth, very thin exterior bark, 
not much more than one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness 
on the tallest trees. Branchlets angular, leaves opposite, 
ovate to occasionally lanceolate, mostly acute, petiole 
about half an inch long, margins slightly recurved, length 
about three inches and under, breadth varying up to one 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 259 

and a half inches, shining on the upper side, clothed with 
a short tomentum on the lower. Oymes in capitate heads 
on fairly long peduncles in the upper axils; bracts and 
bracteoles small, hirsute with brown hairs, same as calyx, 
which is five partite, segments ovate, imbricate, the two 
within smaller than the other three. Corolla tube turbinate 
{top shaped), lower half glabrous outside, lobes concave, 
hirsute, anthers not exserted. Pistil short, bifurcated, 
hidden except the stigma in the straight erect hairs at the 
top of the ovary, which is glabrous and shining below this 
tuft of hairs. Ovary imperfectly four celled with four pen- 
dulous ovules. Capsule flattened, yellowish, dehiscing by 
two thick valves, one seeded. Seed erect, hypocotyl villous, 
but the hairs have not barbed tips. 

In this connection it may not be out of place perhaps to 
mention that Robert Brown in Prod. PI. Nov. Holl., 1882-5, 
p. 374, states: — "Embryonis radicula barbata." A feature 
recently claimed to have been discovered by Karsten, 
are the anchoring hairs of the hypocotyl of Avicennia 
officinalis, but no traces of such could be found on the 
specimen examined by me. 

3. Synonymy. 

It was not until trying to specifically place the botanical 
material for this research that the confusion surrounding 
this species of the genus became apparent. The Index 
Kewensis gives fourteen species in all, and of these twelve 
are synonymised under A. officinalis, the other A. nitida, 
standing as the only other valid species. When the genus 
is monographed I should not be surprised if the greater 
number of these were found to be good species. 

To me, it seems scarcely possible that one species, A. 
officinalis should have such an extensive range as the 
synonyms (ante) would indicate. 



260 R. T. BAKER. 

The descriptions of the species are scattered through 
much botanical literature, and consequently great difficulty 
was experienced in trying to trace Linnaeus' description 
of A. officinalis, and even now I am not sure of my 
ground, as all the descriptions of this tree, within the last 
fifty years are no doubt composite ones, and include 
several good species. As far as I have been able to pene- 
trate the subject, I consider at least A. tomentosa and A. 
alba as distinct from what I regard as A. officinalis. The 
nearest description of the species of this paper is that 
published in Kirk's "New Zealand Flora," p. 271. Porster 
originally named this A. resinifera, but it has since been 
shown he was in error in ascribing a resinous exudation to 
his New Zealand Mangrove. The resin found in the mud 
amongst the New Zealand Mangrove was the Kauri resin 
now well known, and did not come from this mangrove. The 
New Zealand Mangrove appears to be identical in some 
respects with the Australian, and further evidence may 
show a close connection with the Indian and American 
species. 

As far as I have been able to ascertain, no plate of 
Linnseus' A. officinalis is extant, and most of the illustra- 
tions going under the name are either A. tomentosa or A. 
alba, or another synonymised species, but in order to more 
definitely systematically place the species, a full description 
is given above, in which will be found differences from those 
descriptions and figures in Wight's Ic. t. 1481, under the 
name of A. alba and A, tomentosa, now synonymised as 
A. officinalis. The leaves also figured (Joe. cit.) differ from 
those of this species. 

4. Systematic Position of this Australian Mangrove. 

Most of the descriptions of A. officinalis give the leaves 
as "obovate, cuneate, obtuse" which does not apply to this 
species, nor can it be A. tomentosa, figured by Wight Ic* 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 261 

PI. Ind., 1481-2, which has quite a different shaped leaf, 
stamens, ovary and pistil from those of the Australian 
plant. It more nearly approaches in its organs the figures 
of A. alba, which is recorded as a small tree or shrub as 
against the large sized tree of the Australian Avicennia. 

Linnaeus, himself, later reduced his A. officinalis under 
A. tomentosa a name now restricted to the American tree, 
an action which seems rather to have confused matters, 
and in opposition to this I propose to restore Linnaeus' 
original name until a correct description is available, as 
well as an original specimen for comparison. 

In order that the species may be more definitely placed 
in future, features other than morphological have been 
investigated, especially the microscopical structure of its 
several parts or organs, such as leaves, pneumatophores, 
timber, bark, and germination of the seed. 

5. Leaves. 

These trees as a rule have a most luxuriant growth of 
leaves, and this is what might be expected in view of the 
fact that the ash of the wood contains a high percentage 
of potassium salts (infra). 

(a) Histology. — A transverse section, (Plate XXVII, 
figure 1) shows the structure of this organ to be quite 
unique. Except for one row of epidermal cells the upper 
half is composed entirely of a delicately walled material of 
irregularly shaped cells, evidently for water-storing — the 
*' water tissue" as now understood, the larger cells being 
towards the middle of the leaf. This structure is succeeded 
in the lower half from the central axis of the blade by three, 
sometimes four rows of palisade parenchyma, which occupy 
the slightly larger part of this half of the leaf, and is 
followed by thin-walled loose parenchyma cells, or spongy 
mesophyll. Throughout the structure are scattered trachea 



262 R. T. BAKER. 

vessels of the ordinary type. In the younger leaf the 
central bundle or mid-rib is surrounded by a band of pro- 
toxylem which in the more mature leaf becomes wood fibres. 
This is backed by loose parenchyma, probably water storing 
cells (Plate XXVIII, figure 2). 

The tomentum, microscopically examined, is seen to 
consist of cup-shaped, peltate, closely packed hairs, which 
in outline rather resemble a shallow vase or tazza, or even 
some forms of fungus, like Stereum, with mostly a two- 
celled stem almost as broad as the cup at the top, the 
lower cell being the smaller and often filled with a dark 
substance, probably manganese compound.. 

Scattered on the upper surface of the leaf were numer- 
ous depressions, (Plate XXIX, figure 3) these in section, 
were found to be quite different morphologically from what 
obtains generally in stomata, which they were thought to 
be when examining the leaf by a pocket lens. The cuticle 
cells of the leaf were found to continue around the side and 
bottom of this depression, and no opening or guard cells 
were detected in the specimens examined. A kind of 
44 anchor cell" was found at the base with one cell running 
into the depression. It may be that this acts as a clamp 
to close the aperture leading to the water tissue if such is 
required. Possibly they are air pores, but more probably 
contrivances for increasing the area of the cuticle, and 
the "clamp" to strengthen it during expansion or con- 
traction. 

(b) Function. — The stomata evidently being few and 
very minute, (I was unable to detect any in my sections), 
and the tissue of the leaf quite anomalous, efforts were next 
made to find out what functions other than those which 
usually obtain with leaves, are performed by those of this 
mangrove. Studying the trees carefully in their native 
habitat it was noticed that the stems almost invariably 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 263 

were inclined at an angle (more or less acute) with the 
foreshore. It was at first thought to be due to prevailing 
winds, but this, however, was found not to be the cause. 
Next, it was observed that the leaves of all the trees were 
disposed towards the north, — a case of heliotropism appar- 
ently, and the question naturally arose, why ? The answer 
came in the observation, that by such an orientation, the 
pneumatophores were in shade, and so it worked out that 
the directing influence was to shade these breathing organs, 
and in order to get this protection, the stem, but more 
often the branches, grew in whatever direction this shade 
was obtainable. It was also noted that wherever the 
breathing roots became exposed for a length of time to 
the sun's rays, they perished, and then the branches on 
that side of the tree died and fell off, — a truly botanical 
sympathy. Judging from the structure, the storage of a 
large amount of water is also an important function of 
these leaves. 

The knowledge of this necessity for the natural shading 
of the pneumatophores can now be turned to some economic 
purpose. These breathing roots are of great value to 
the oyster cultivator, as the crop of oysters to be obtained 
from them is greater than from any material used, such as 
slates, stone, etc., and consequently great efforts are made 
to cultivate this mangrove, but it has always been found 
difficult to start a plantation on a treeless shore, the youug 
plants soon dying or putting on such slow growth as to 
be almost useless. Since discovering that shade is requisite 
for the growth of these organs, action is about to be com- 
menced to introduce artificial shade until trees attain some 
size, or at least sufficient foliage to make its own shade 
protection, and these efforts will be watched with much 
interest by the commercial people concerned in oyster 
culture. 

(c) Economics. — Cattle eat the leaves with great relish. 



264 R. T. BAKER. 

6. Breathing Roots. 
These may be divided into two portions for descriptive 
purposes, viz. — (1) that part embedded in the mud, and (2) 
the portion projecting into the air when not submerged by 
the tides. 

(1) This section shows that the root is surrounded by a 

broad loose aerenchyma, composed of cells which seen 
transversely have three arms, and longitudinally 
appear like a pile of round edged discs. The epidermal 
and hypodermal layers are persistent in the specimens 
examined in the field, and so the ventilating system 
is thus apparently not brought into direct contact 
with the water of the surrounding mud. (Plates XXX, 
XXXI, figures 4 and 5.) 

(2) The portion of the breathing roots exposed to tide and 

air, presents, however, some interesting and distinct 
features from the part embedded in the mud. 

In transverse sections (Plates XXXII, XXXIII figures 6 
and 7) it is seen that these organs are composed of distinct 
concentric groups or structure. The root proper, or inner 
one, is bounded by a continuous ring of phloem cells surround- 
ing the xylem of the bundles which have the usual proxylem 
and a stele of thin walled vessels and parenchymatous 
cells. In this part of the plant there appears to be quite 
an absence of sclerenchymatous cells, as obtains in the 
concentric rings of the wood. The intermediate circle of 
peripheral water tissue, — aerenchyma repesenting a pri- 
mary cortex, is composed of two kinds of cells which go to 
make up this structure, — spongy mesophyll, loose in the 
middle but most compact, with smaller cells towards the 
outer e6ge, whilst interspersed throughout is found a cell 
of. unusual structure, which transversely shows strengthen- 
ing bars and perforations, whilst on a longitudinal section 
appear thick- walled cells often compressed and twinned, 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 



265 



and these can be easily traced on the plates of these roots 
showing transverse and longitudinal structure* From the 
nature of this arrangement it is evidently in this portion 
of the pneumatophore much photosynthesis of the tree is 
carried out. 

The epidermis or outer ring is composed of irregularly 
shaped thin-walled cells with a tomentum identical in 
structure with that on the underside of the leaf, but much 
smaller. In this cuticle, formed by a bulging out of the 
epidermis and hypodermal layers, are found fairly numerous 
papillose projections, or special pneumathodes, a section 
showing these layers of cells to be raised over what is a 
vacant cavity or air space in direct communication with 
the ventilating system. 

Externally, these appear like so many raised black spots 
scattered over the surface, with a circular depression on 
the summit, and supporting what looks to be a circular 
valve or disc, which from above is apparently made up of 
three or four concentric growths or rings, but these are 
lost in a cross section, which shows continuous cells with 
but yet differentiated from, the contiguous epidermis and 
hypodermal cells. A section through one of these, when 
this cap is removed, is not unlike the air pore found in 
Marchantia. It may be that these discs act like a clack 
valve of a steam engine, and close the orifice when the tide 
rises and submerges the root, and receding when the air 
plays round it. But this requires further investigation, as 
similar markings occur on the serial roots found on the 
stem six or ten feet above high water mark. Apparently 
then, these are pneumathodes or they may be secondary 
organs of ventilation, of the same nature or function as 
lenticels. 

The tip (Plate XXXIV, figure 8) of this portion of the root 
is composed of thin walled nucleated parenchymatous cells 



266 R. T. BAKER. 

which gradually increase in size as they differentiate into 
the separate structures of the root. The extreme tip is 
quite closed, nor is there any root cap as obtains in ordin- 
ary roots as shown in text books on the anatomy of the 
phanerogams. The tip of the aerial root found on the 
trunks high above water mark differs from these in that it 
has a projection as described above. 

7. The Seed. 

(a) Germination (Plate XXXV, figure 9).— The fruit 
dropping on the ground quickly sheds its pericarp and the 
hypocotyl soon begins to grow beyond the bunch of simple 
hairs or blunt ending, from which roots are sent at varying 
angles. At their earliest stages of growth they are found 
to have sufficient power to anchor the cotyledons, as it is 
only a matter of a short time before a miniature plant 
appears. 

(b) Seed as a food. — The aborigines ate freely of the 
prolific crop of fruits which they roasted before eating. 

8. The Timber. 

(a) Economics. — With such a synonymy associated with 
this species, it is only to be expected that different accounts 
are recorded as to the quality of its wood, in fact, varying 
from "worthless" to "very hard and durable." 

The following will give some idea of the confusion sur- 
rounding the timber knowledge of the species, and so 
naturally opinions vary concerning the nature of the wood 
of Avicennia officinalis, Linn., as shown by these extracts: 

"The wood of Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, is white, straight 
in the grain, tough, and elastic, but very perishable. — (The Forest 
Flora of New Zealand, p. 270,— T. Kirk.). 

"It is very brittle; used in India for firewood. Major Ford 
says it is used for mills for husking paddy, rice pounders, and oil 
mills in the Andamans." — ( Dictionary of the Economic Products 
of India, Vol. I, p. 361,— Watt.) 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 



267 



"The wood is valued on account of its durability under water, 
and as a fuel for heating furnaces. It is preferred to other kinds 
of wood on the West Coast of India." — ( Pharmographia Indica, 
Vol. in, p. 82,— Dymock). 

"Timber said to be durable as poles and in other places used 
for ship-building, etc." — (The Forests and Forest Cape Colony, p. 
287,— Sim). 

"In New South Wales, the wood is valued for stone-mason's 
mallets, on account of its toughness." — The Treasury of Botany " 
Vol. I, p. 112,— Lindley and Moore). 

The timber of the Australian tree may be described as a 
pale coloured, very hard, heavy, cross laminated timber, 
inclined to slightly darken on exposure. It has several 
characteristics that easily differentiate it from any other 
timber known to me, and these are here described in 
sequence (infra). It is used in New South Wales for knee 
boats, crooks, and generally in boat-building when strength 
is required. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. J. Swain, b.a., b.Sc , Lecturer, 
Mechanical Bngineeering Department, Sydney Technical 
College, for the following tests: — 



No. 


Material. 


Size. 


Area of 

Cross 

Section. 


Breaking 

Load in 

lbs. per 

sq. in. 


Modulus of 

rupture in 

lbs. per 

sq. in. 


Modulus of 
elasticity in 

lbs. per 
square inch. 


Bate of 
Load in 
lbs. per 
minute. 


1 


Grey 
Mangrove 


3-03" 

X 

3-03" 

X 

36" 


9-18sq.in. 


6610 


12850 


168000 


3860 


2 


Grey 
Mangrove 


3-02" 

X 

3-03" 

X 

36" 


915 „ 


6620 


12900 


169000 


4000 


3 


Grey 
Mangrove 


3-02" 

X 

3-03" 

X 

36" 


9-15 „ 


7070 


13800 


172500 


4000 



For comparison the averages of three specimens were — Ironbark 
9000; Blue Gum 5000; Burma Teak 6000; Colonial Teak 8000. 



268 



R. T. BAKER. 



(b) Analysis of the ash. — An analysis made by my col- 
league Mr. H. G. Smith, F.O.S., gave the following results: — 

The ash was used by early settlers at Port Macquarie in 
the manufacture of soap, in preference to that of all the 
other trees in the district. It was probably by empirical 
means that such a use was found for it, although the 
practice was quite a common one elsewhere. The per- 
centage of soda as carbonate being so large, it is readily 
seen how useful such material could be ma<Je for such a 
purpose. 

The large amount of alkalis renders the ash easily fusible, 
and some difficulty was experienced in preparing it in a fit 
state for analysis; it was necessary to dissolve out the 
alkalis before all the carbon could be removed. 

The percentage of ash calculated on the anhydrous wood 
was 2*43 per cent. There were no sulphates remaining in 
the insoluble portion, nor were phosphates detected in the 
soluble. The amount of silica was very small, and only a 
trace of iron was present. Manganese w T as detected, but 
only in minute traces. The silver precipitates were 
decomposed by zinc, and in the filtrate bromine was 
detected but not iodine. 

The composition of the ash was determined as follows: — 



Potassium sulphate 


2*26 


per 


cent 


Potassium chloride... 


19*58 


?? 


Sodium chloride 


. 7'60 




ji 


Sodium carbonate ... 


. 41*61 




»i 


Calcium phosphate ... 


. 7*01 




»i 


Calcium carbonate ... 


. 9*94 




»? 


Magnesium carbonate 


11-73 




>» 


Silica ... 


0*13 




i 


Loss and undetermined 


0*14 




» 




100*00 





THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 269 

(c) Macroseopical. — -Viewing a transverse section of a 
mature tree, (Plates XXXVI, XXXVII, figures 10 and 11) 
the annual "rings" as obtains in ordinary dicotyledonous 
stems might be said to be well defined, but with this differ- 
ence, that the "rings " are not continuous, the break being 
caused by an intrusion of another "ring," and thus the 
complete circle is broken. 

By forcing the "rings" apart tangentially a good view 
is obtained of the disposition of the fibres. Each ring of 
fibres is seen to be at quite a different angle to that in 
juxta-position to it. Sometimes they run perpendicularly 
but more often at varying angles to each opposing ring, 
(Plate XXXVIII, figure 12). 

Dr. Prain's remarks in his "Flora of the Sandabans," 
1903, apply equally well to this Australian Mangrove: — 

" The structure of the wood is peculiar, in that the fibres of 
any particular ring of growth do not pass vertically upwards, but 
instead diverge 'herring-bone fashion" from an indistinct vertical 
linear raphe, which appears to correspond to the plane of an 
original branch, at an angle of about 15°, their upper ends blend- 
ing in a much less definite raphe mid-way between two raphes of 
divergence. The raphes of divergence of the ring of growth next 
above and next below any particular ring alternate, so that in 
weathered trunks, and to a less extent in freshly cut sound logs, 
a lace-work arrangement of the fibres of the various rings of growth 
presents itself." 

The structure of the timber much resembles what is to-day 
on the markets as three, four, or five-ply veneer, which 
can now be shown to be only a copy of nature, for in the 
manufactured article the fibres of each sheet of wood are 
at right angles to one another instead of at oblique angles, 
as obtains in nature, which, is the main reason for the 
difficulty in splitting. 



270 R. T. BAKER. 

There is another remarkable feature about this wood, 
and that is its resistance to splitting radially, for it is 
impossible to so split a log say three feet or more in length. 
Tangentially it is much more fissile, and in this direction 
it is more easily split than any other timber known to me. 
The aborigines were cognisant of this character, as shown 
by their preference for it for shield making. 

(d) Histology — Primary or Early, and Secondary T^ood. 
Many sections were made for examination, and from these, 
typical samples showing the structure during different 
periods of growth are here figured and described. 

Primary or Early Wood. 

(a) This is a transverse section of ultimate branchlet 

measuring 2*5 mm. in diameter. (Plate XXXIX, 
figure 13.) 

(b) A larger twig than (a) measuring 4*5 mm. (Plate 

XL, figure 14). 

(c) Showing older growth than the two previous ones, 

measuring 6 mm. in diameter. (Plate XLI, figure 
15). 

(a) Figure 13. This may be described as almost quadri- 
lateral in transverse section, the bundles being parallel 
to the shape of the outer edge of cortex in a continuous 
line removed from it about one-third of the diameter, 
and enclosing the central mass of thin wall structure 
(hexagonal in section). The space between the cortex and 
the bundles is composed of a smaller irregularly shaped 
structure of loose parenchyma, most of the cells near the 
edge containing a substance not determined, and forming 
the pro-cortex. 

(b) Figure 14. This section shows an advanced stage of 
growth upon that of (a). The central mass of vessels, etc. 
forms a much less proportion of the whole, the bundles are 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 271 

well defined, the xylem and proxylem well pronounced, and 
the phloem coloured purple by hsematoxylon being backed 
by what is gradually becoming a distinct ring of stone or 
sclerenchymatous cells, is followed by thin-walled wood 
parenchyma cells enclosed the whole way round by a narrow 
ring of original phloem, and this is subtended by a broader 
band of cortex. Pores may be noted occurring in the 
radial lines of the xylem. The whole is composed of a 
perfect regularity of structure. 

(c) Figure 15. This shows a centre made up of vessels 
and a few sclerenchymatous stone cells (in section) and 
parenchyma, the whole bounded by a complete ring of 
bundles, with numerous pores in the xylem (red) with 
interfascicular rays, the phloem (purple) backed by short 
sclerenchymatous cells followed by a band of wood paren- 
chyma. Now this structure is repeated in a regular manner 
outwards to the fourth ring, and then is noticed an intrusion 
of another "ring" which breaks the continuity of the fifth 
ring. This section is of particular interest because it shows 
how, even in the early stages of growth, the rays are 
restricted or limited to the space between the two walls 
of sclerenchymatous cells, and so are not strictly medullary 
rays as generally understood ; this feature obtains through- 
out all the secondary wood in the species, and is more 
fully illustrated in figure 16, (infra). Up to this stage, the 
rings are entire and evidently annual, but from this out, 
they become broken. 

Secondary Wood — Transverse Section. — (Plate XLII, 
figure 16) In this section is seen a bifurcated band of thick 
walled cells forming the barrier to the progress of the rays 
to continue beyond the limits of each "ring." This wall 
of sclerenchymatous cells is bounded on either side by wood 
parenchyma with thin walls, and between these are the 
wood fibres with small lumen. 



272 R. T. BAKER. 

In the wood parenchyma are seen groups of (apparently) 
broken cells. Tracing these back from a two or three 
years' old twig, they are seen to be the phloem cells of the 
bundles and stain purple, with haematoxylon, as with other 
phloems. They are composed of thin walled bast paren- 
chyma and bast stone cells, the latter showing the long 
axis in the longitudinal section, and with comparatively 
thin walls, both being filled with what is probably a tannin 
substance. Combined they make up the remarkable 
"dottings" on the outer edge of each concentric "ring," 
which continue to appear almost regularly as the tree 
attains maturity, and macroscopically examining a piece 
of timber they appear as rows of pin pricks. I believe 
these perform all the functions of the ordinary bark of a 
dicotyledonous plant, as injury to the outer cortex has no 
effect on the life of the tree. 

Tangential Section. — In this view, (Plate XLIII, figure 
17) are clearly brought out the different angles or planes 
in which the fibres run, and the sclerenchymatous cells are 
seen to be exactly the same shape as in the transverse 
section, showing that they are short, isodiametric bodies 
and not elongated. It is due to this particular form that 
the timber splits so readily tangentially, there not being a 
length of fibre to give an interlocking strength, or in other 
words no cross structure such as would occur if the rays 
ran through and held together the annual "rings." The 
phloem cells with the broken content (supra) are here seen 
longitudinally. 

Radial Section (Plate XLIV, figure 18). — Owing to the 
twisting of the wood fibres, it is almost impossible to get a 
section showing the full height of a ray, which vary from 
uniseriate to multiseriate, such as are seen in figure 17, 
which shows conclusively how completely the vertical 
sclerenchymatous ring of cells restricts them to the width 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 273 

of a "ring" only. In such a case, it seems to me hardly 
correct to call them medullary rays, for they do not come 
from the middle of the stem. The phloem of the broken cell 
contents is as conspicuous as in other sections. 

Fibres. — These are distinctly seen in the various sections 
shown, and microscopically examined are found to belong to 
the simple variety, the walls being relatively thick, and 
in the lumen are seen oblique slits. The length is over 
1 mm., and these make up 30 per cent, of the wood by 
nitric acid method. 

Results of these Histological Investigations 

(a) Practically no true medullary rays, as obtain in 
secondary wood of dicotyledons, are found in the structure, 
for what must certainly be classed as "rays" yet are not 
medullary, as they do not extend from the middle to the 
outer cortex, being quite restricted in their length to the 
width of each "ring." 

(b) Bands of vertical walls of sclerenchymatous cells 
of the round or polygonal or short variety limit the 
length of the rays,— a feature quite absent in any timber 
as far as I have been able to ascertain. 

(c) The phloem cells in regular clusters on the outer 
edge of each ring, appear to perform the function of 
ordinary exterior bark, as shown when the tree is ring- 
barked. 

(d) The remarkable disposition of the wood fibres. 

(e) The work of cambium being performed apparently by 
the wood parenchyma between the wood fibres and the 
stone cells. 

(f.) There is nothing in the wood which corresponds with 
the spring and autumn growths of other dicotyledonous 
trees. 

E— November 3, 1915. 



274 R. T. BAKER. 

9. Bark. 

This investigation goes to show that all previous pub- 
lished information (infra) stating that the bark is used 
for tanning does not apply to the Australian species, as the 
outer bark on very young and fully matured trees is so 
thin and the quantity so small that it would never pay to 
use it for tanning purposes. The tannin which it con- 
tains does not amount to more than 7 per cent, according 
to an analysis made by Mr. H. G. Smith. This goes to 
show conclusively that, when it is spoken of — and it often 
is— as a valuable tannin bark, several species must have 
been or are included under the specific name. In fact, this 
one feature alone seems to prove that we have here a dis- 
tinct and very probably an unnamed species. 

Evidently the following data, appearing under the name 
of Avicennia officinalis, do not apply to the Australian 
species: — 

"The bark is astringent and is used by tanners." — ( Pharmaco- 
graphia Indica," Vol. ill, p. 82, — Dymock). 

"The bark is used as a tanning agent." — ( Birdwood, Bombay, 
Prod.) 

"In Rio de Janeiro, the barks of various species of Avicennia 
are used in tanning leather." — (Dictionary of the Economic Pro- 
ducts of India," Vol. I, p. 361,— Watt). 

"The next important group are the Mangroves, that grow in 
the tidal creeks, which are said to make most durable sole leather, 
even better than oak, but there appears to be a prejudice against 
this tannin in England." — (Tropical Agriculturalist, Colombo," 
1903-4, p. 2). 

"Fair percentage of tannin in this bark." — (New Plants in 
Natal," 1905, Sims). 

"The bark is used in tanning." — (The Forests and Forest Flora 
of Cape Colony, p. 287, — Sims). 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 275 

"Bark used for tanning," — Birdwood, (Products of India,, p. 
361,— Watt). 

"Bark used in Rio de Janeiro for tanning," — (Surgeon H. W. 
Hill). 

"Bark astringent," (Surgeon Major W. Dymock, Bombay). 

A noticeable feature about this tree is that it is impos- 
sible to kill it by ring-barking, for trees are to be seen in 
the Port Macquarie district that have not suffered in the 
least by such treatment, but are in just as flourishing a 
condition as if they had never been touched by the axe- 
man. This tree then is an exception to the rule. The fact 
that this mangrove should live on in spite of this general 
method of killing trees is, in my opinion, due to each 
"ring" being in itself a fascicular bundle, consisting of the 
elements or factors that go to make up such a combination 
of phloem, xylem, etc. Cutting away then what is regarded 
as the bark is really only depriving the tree of a ring of 
an outer cortex, and further the remaining numerous 
phloem streaks in the individual rings are quite able to 
carry on the function of that injured on the outside, and 
so the tree lives, — a character unique as far as my know- 
ledge goes in the botanical world. 

10. Concentric Rings and their relation to the age of the tree. 
When carrying out an investigation on the fibres of 
Australian trees, I was particularly attracted by the 
peculiar disposition of those of this tree, they being quite 
unlike anything I had previously met with. 

Mr. T. Dick of Port Macquarie, N.S.W., who was much 
interested in the subject of the manufacture of shields from 
this tree by the aborigines, also drew my attention to the 
fact that it was most difficult to split this mangrove timber 
radially. It was these features which caused me to make 
an investigation of the histology of the timber (supra). 



276 R. T. BAKER. 

Searching for literature in regard to the matter, I 
found that Mr. A. W. Lushington had drawn attention to 
the "concentric rings" of Avieennia officinalis, as to 
whether they were annual or not, in the "Indian Forester" 
for 1893, Vol. xix, p. 104, to which the Hon. Editor adds a 
foot note to the effect that these "rings" are not annual, 
and gives a picture of a section of Avieennia wood after 
Nordlinger, not mentioned in Solereder — the originals of 
which I am unable to trace. This was followed by a letter 
in the same journal, Vol. xxiii, p. 413, by Mr. J. S. Gamble, 
who, whilst giving a list of so-called mangroves, makes a 
plea for some one to investigate the wood rings of A. 
officinalis, and to ascertain how far, if at all, the curious 
structure of the wood is caused by periodical phenomena, 
such as tides, etc. 

Mr. A. W. Lushington, of Masulipatum, in the same 
journal, Vol. xxiv, p. 56, writes in reference to Mr. Gamble's 
letter (supra), and takes exception to that gentleman's 
statement that " the rings of Avieennia are obviously in 
ho way periodical, for they are not concentric, but run 
into each other," and on account of those characteristics 
periodicity cannot possibly exist. He then goes on to 
attribute this break in the concentric rings to forest fires. 
Further, he propounds the theory that, possibly, the 
monthly difference of the tides might have something to 
do with these rings, owing to the trees being more flushed 
with water at one part of the month than at another. 
He next records how he experimented with Avieennia, and 
found twenty-five of these spurious rings after two (2) 
trees had been cut twenty-five months, and in another 
thirty-five rings after thirty-five months. 

The editor adds a foot-note to the effect that a section 
may show a different layer of tissue, probably bark, between 
each layer of wood. 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 277 

The Madras Report for 1895-96, states: — "It was found 
in the Kistna District that the annual growth in diameter 
of the mangrove (Avicennia) amounts to nearly an inch, 
and from one to two feet in height. It is considered the 
spurious rings are monthly, and are probably due to the 
different conditions of nutrition caused by the spring and 
neap tides." 

Perhaps the tropical temperatures may cause such rapid 
growth, but such a rate does not hold for the New South 
Wales plants. Mr. Dick is a keen observer of nature, so 
that his data should not be despised, and having visited the 
locality and examined the tree in situ, I think he is correct 
in his decisions (infra). 

From observations made by Mr. Dick on the species 
occurring at Port Macquare, the monthly rate of growth 
obtained by Mr. Lushiogton does not hold in Australia, in 
fact, it appears that a very slow rate of growth obtains in 
this country. 

Port Macquarie in New South Wales is an important 
centre of oyster cultivation, and this particular mangrove 
is much used in the culture of that mollusc, so that the tree 
has necessarily been under close observation by many 
people for a long time. Mr. Dick writes me in this con- 
nection : — 

" I have been for a number of years on this river, and working 
amongst the Mangrove, and I am in a position after my experience 
of twenty-five years to state that this tree has a very slow rate of 
growth. Other people, who have been for sixty years in the same 
locality, also state that the tree has a very slow growth, and that 
it is not noticeable, being *so very, very slow. I, to-day, went 
to certain trees that had been marked in reference to the fixing of 
the boundaries of certain of our oyster leases, this marking having 
been done in 1897 ; one tree had the broad arrow cut in it, the 
number of the lease also. Now on examination to-day, the marks 
are not much altered, and are not overgrown in any way. A 



278 



R. T. BAKER. 



barbed wire fence was attached to a Mangrove in 1895, prior to 
our taking up the lease, this wire being stapled to the tree ; this 
was found to be covered with the new growth of timber and to a 
depth of 1 inch. The tree is certainly a long while in the growth, 
and will live to an enormous age. As regards the side to the 
water being softer, I find the Mangrove the same as other trees, 
affected on the side exposed to the sun." 

Mr. Dick also informs me in a later letter : — 

" I duly received your letter re the age and rate of growth of 
what I call the ' Grey Mangrove.' In reference to the rate of 
growth, I can only state as before, and that is, that the tree as 
far as we have found it to grow on this river, is slow in its growth. 
I planted a large quantity, or should say transplanted them, in a 
very suitable piece of bottom, and I am going to photograph the 
rows of trees for you, and will send them down. The trees so far 
have not averaged one foot per year in height. I have asked a 
number of people about the growth, and they all say the same — 
very slow, practically not noticeable. Since starting to write, I 
have ascertained that it is seven years that the trees have been 
growing." (Plate XLV, figure 19.) 

These data certainly illustrate a much slower growth 
than that recorded for Indian species, and certainly give 
colour to my contention that here we have a distinct species 
from that one. I have visited this locality and examined 
the latter trees above mentioned, and endorse all Mr. Dick's 
remarks as regards them. I found that they measured five 
feet in height and three inches in diameter at the base. — 
a great disappointment to the oyster cultivator, who 
planted them as a help in the industry. I have also 
examined a large number of trees fipm which the aborigines 
cut their shields very many years ago, and in every 
instance only the very slightest growth had taken place 
wherever shields had been cut, in fact, except that the 
face from which the shields had been taken, was a little 
weathered, the actual size of the shield would probably 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 279 

about fit the space now left, judging from the dimensions 
of an original shield. 

Conclusions. 

Reviewing some of Mr. Lushing ton's theories (supra) of 
the remarkable growth of this tree, my investigations 
show (a) that forest fires do not play the part he assigns 
to them, and that the break of concentricity is not due to 
that cause, as fires are not known to have occurred where 
the trees abound, and yet breaks occur in the ring, and 
then the stems are so regularly built up by these rings that 
traces of retardation of growth are rarely perceptible, such 
as one finds in other trees that have suffered from artificial 
or natural causes. My correspondent, who has watched 
hundreds of trees for many years, dismisses this theory as 
applied to New South Wales trees, as bush fires rarely if 
ever occur amongst them, and my own personal examination 
of the trees in this and other districts does not support this 
theory. It is in the fifth or sixth year of the age of the 
tree that these breaks in the rings begin to develop. 

(b) Neither is there evidence forthcoming to support this 
gentleman's suggestion that each ring or portion of a ring 
represents a tide, if I understand his idea rightly, for during 
the known age of certain trees, far more tides must have 
passed round the tree than are represented by the rings. 
Sections were made from a tree planted seven years ago, 
and the number of rings correspond to this number, and 
(c) Mr. Lushington's experiment of finding the number of 
spurious rings to correspond to the number of months proves 
that the growth of trees must be very much faster in 
India than in Australia, for the data given above under the 
seven years old trees are indisputable. 

Finally, I can only say that after giving much thought 
and attention to the subject, I am unable to advance any 
definite explanation to account for this remarkable struc- 



280 



R. T. BAKER. 



ture of the timber. I have thought of several, but the most 
feasible seem to me to be (1) the attaining of a maximum 
amount of strength with a minimum amount of weight by 
the disposition of the fibres and breaks in the "rings" 
required by the large quantity of foliage carried by the tree, 
and (2) strength to resist river currents and tides. Further, 
I believe, that each individual "ring" represents a year in 
the age of the tree, and this is supported at least by 
authenticated trees planted during the last six or seven 
years, whilst evidences certainly favour the theory that 
these trees grow to a great age. 

(3) The sine que non of the life of the tree is a shading of 
the roots, consequently trees are often found overhanging 
the water at an angle that would be dangerous to the life 
of an ordinary tree, and yet this inclined stem, carrying a 
great weight of foliage and branches for the shading of the 
pneumatophores, flourishes. In some instances stems are 
almost parallel with the mud or water, hence the necessity 
for great strength in the timber. (Plate XL VI, fig. 20.) 

(4) Then, again, the great vitality of the tree is assured by 
the collective structure of each "ring," and so whatever 
accident may happen to a part of the tree, there is always 
left sufficient independent material to carry on the work 
of leaf formation to procure shade for the pneumatophores, 
so essential to the life of the tree. 

If these are not the reasons for such phenomena of wood 
structure and growth, then I am afraid it is a case of 
knowledge without understanding. 

Note: — In the discussion which followed the reading of the 
paper, Mr. J.Nangle, f.r.a.s., explained that this strong and 
especially built timber failed in reaching the testing figures 
of the "Ironbark," owing to want of interlocking fibres 
between each "ring," there being nothing to prevent a 
sliding of the surfaces. In the case of beams, architects 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XLIX, 1915 



Plate XXVII. 




Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate XX VIIL 




T. C. Rougliley, Photo. 



Fig. 2. — Transverse section of a portion of leaf showing a depression on the 
upper surface. x 50. Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S.W., Vol XLIX., J 915. 



Plate XXIX. 




Journal Royal Society o/N.S.W., Vol. XLIX.,1915. 



Plate XXX. 




T. C. Roughley, Photo. 
Fig. 4. — Transverse section through a pneumatophore below the mud surface, 
x 30. Avicennia officialis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate XXXI. 




T. C. Roughley, Photo. 

Fig. 5. — Longitudinal section of primary cortex portion of a pneuinato- 
phore below the mud surface, x 15. Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W. y Vol. XL1X, 1915. Plate XXXII. 




T. C. Eoughley, Photo. 

Fig. 6. — Transverse section near tip of exposed portion of a pneumatophore, 
but cutting central root, x 30. Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. 



Plate XXXIII. 




u. *>. *. v. A 



F ' 



*:m^ 



FIG 7. TRANSVERSE SECTION NEAR THE TOP OF EXPOSED PORTION ABOVE THE MUD OP A 

PNEUMATOPHORE, BUT CUTTING CENTRAL ROOT LOWER DOWN THAN THAT SHOWN 

IN FIG 4. ON THE LEFT IS PORTION OF A PNEUMATHODE IN SECTION X 30. 

AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS, LlNN. 



Journal Boyal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XL1X., 1915. Plate XXXIV. 




r-.^(PRr^ 



i&ir+;' 



m 




a.1. 



f -$ 



FIG. 8 LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH TIP OF A PNEUMATOPHORE, X 3C. 
AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS. LlNN. 



Uburnal Royal Society of N.8.W.,Vol XLIX, 1915. 



Plate XXX V 




T. C. Koughley, Plioto. 
Fig. 9. — Series showing germination of seed (natural size). Avicennia officinalis, Linn, 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XL1X, 1915. 



Plate XXXVI 




T. C. Eoughley, Photo. 
Fig. 10.— Transverse section of trunk of tree (reduced). Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W. t XLIX., 1915. 



Plate XXXVII. 




T. C Roughley. 

Fig. 11. — Portion of transverse section of trunk of tree enlarged from Fig. 10. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate XXX VIII. 



r mj'j, mvm 




T. C. Roughley, Photo. 

Fig. 12.— Section of wood split tangentially, showing disposition of fibres. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W. % Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate XXXIX. 







FIG. 13. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF PRIMARY GROWTH. X 30. 

AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS, LlNN 



Journal Royal Society of lV.S. W. t Vol. XLIX., 1015. 



Plate XL. 







T. C. Eougliley, Photo. 
Fig. 14. — Transverse section of later growth than Fig. 13. x 100. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. TV., Vol XL1X , 1915. 



Plate XL I. 



V 






* ■ '...1 :•"#> 
■neb*- * ■** ^i vis* 







. • ' ■■ . ..v 



^■S«:*' 




FIG 15. TRANSVERSE SECTION FROM A 6 YEARS OLD STEM. X 15. 
AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS, LlNN. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W '., Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate XLI1 




T. C Eoughley, Photo. 

Fig. 16. — Transverse section of secondary wood. x 35. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XL IX., 1915. Plate XLIII. 




T. C. Rougliley. Photo 
Fig. 17.— Tangential section of secondary wood. x 35. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate XL1 




T. C. Eoug-hley, Photo. 
Fig. 18.— Radical section of secondary wood. x 35. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society of ' ]Si ,S. W ., Vol. XLIX , 1915. 



Plate XL V 




T. Dick, Tboto. 
Fig. 19. — Seven year's old Grey Mangrove trees, five feet high. Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX. t 1915. 



Plate XL VI. 




T. Dick, Photo. 
Fig. 20. — Grey Mangrove outspreading over exposed portion of breathing roots. 
Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 



THE AUSTRALIAN GREY MANGROVE. 281 

overcame this defect by placing keys between them, and 
thus preventing a shearing upon each other when subjected 
to a great weight. 

Explanation of Plates XXVII - XLVI. 

Fig. 1. Transverse section of a portion of leaf showing central 
bundle, and neighbouring tissue. x 150. 

„ 2. Transverse section of a portion of a leaf showing a depres- 
sion on the upper surface. x 50. 

,, 3. Higher magnification of Fig. 2, showing structure of 
depression and surrounding tissue. x 150. 

„ 4. Transverse section of breathing root below mud surface. 
x 30. 

„ 5. Longitudinal section of breathing root below mud sur- 
face, x 15. 

„ 6. Transverse section near the tip of air and tide exposed por- 
tion of a pneumatophore, but cutting central root, x 30. 

.,, *7. Transverse section near the tip of air and tide exposed 
portion of a pneumatophore, but cutting central root 
lower down than Fig. 6. x 30. f 

„ *8. Longitudinal section through tip of a pneumatophore. 
x 30. 

„ 9. Series showing germination of seed (natural size). 

„ 10. Transverse section of a trunk of a tree (reduced.) 

,, 11. Transverse section of trunk of tree (enlarged from 10). 

„ 12. Tangential view of split wood showing disposition of fibres. 

,,*13. Transverse section of primary growth. x 30. 

„ 14. Transverse section of later growth. x 100. 

,,*15. Transverse section of G years old wood. x 15. 

,, 16. Transverse section of secondary wood, x 35. 

„ 17. Tangential section of secondary wood, x 35. 

,, 18. Radial section of secondary wood. x 35. 

,, 19. Seven years' old " Grey Mangrove" trees, 5 feet high. 

,, 20. "Grey Mangrove" out-spreading over air and tide exposed 
portion of breathing roots. 

* Coloured Plates. 

t Plate XXXIII read Fig. 6 instead of Pig. 4. 



282 T. DICK. 



ORIGIN OP THE HELIMAN OR SHIELD OF THE NEW 
SOUTH WALES COAST ABORIGINES. 

c 

By Thomas Dick. 

(Communicated by Mr. R. T. Baker, f.l.s.) 

[With Plates XLVII - LI.] 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, November 3, 1915 '„] 



Introduction. 
The heliman or shield was a weapon of defense, perhaps 
the principal one, of the natives of this continent. It had 
different names, according to the locality of origin, but 
heliman was the most common ; nor was its shape restricted 
to one special form. The wood from which it was made 
had to possess certain qualities, such as hardness and 
strength, and what was of great importance to these men 
of the Stone Age, it had to come away readily from the 
parent tree. 

The observations recorded in this paper show that the 
wood of the Grey Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, Linn, 
possessed these qualities in a marked degree, and so this 
tree was selected above all others by the aborigines for 
the manufacture of their shields, as can now be seen by 
the scars on the living trees of the Port Macquarie District. 
A very limited number of other trees appear to have been 
employed for this special article, for only one or two are 
known along the coast, viz., the Fig, (Ficus sp.), and the 
" Stinging Tree," (Laportea gigas). But these trees do not 
appear to have been used when a suitable Avicennia was 
near at hand, in fact, from my observations, I should say 
that probably only when this Mangrove had been worked 
out, did the natives turn to other sources of supply. The 



ORIGIN OF THE HELIMAN OR SHIELD. 283 

evidence of shield-cutting from this timber is so well 
defined that the writer is puzzled to know how this im- 
portant part of the work of the stone age has been over- 
looked by previous writers. 

On investigating the result of the work of the stone axe 
on the Grey Mangrove, a vast field was opened up, as not 
only was the work done by the stone axe revealed, but 
there was also brought to light, the method and locality 
where these axes were made. To those who may follow 
up the investigation, it will be found that by thoroughly 
examining this mangrove reclamation where the aborigine 
at one time roamed and worked to get his shield, stone 
ehippings, broken axes, broken wedges, hammers and shell- 
fish form a large proportion of these deposits. Many of 
these areas are now covered by such alluviums in many 
places, and to a great depth; this, combined with other 
facts, goes to prove that this part of the coast was inhabited 
at a much earlier date than is usually allowed for. 

In the Stone Period the shields were cut with stone 
implements only, and this period must have extended over 
a very long time, as shown by the variety of shapes of the 
axes and cutting stones found at the bases of the trees, 
from very crude unground stones with cutting edges made 
by splitting only, to the ground edged implements. The 
former are actually the shivers off water worn boulders, 
weighing over 100 lbs., and in many cases so many shivers 
have been taken from the original stones that the unused 
part now only weighs a few pounds. 

With the arrival of the white man, the Iron Age was 
introduced into Australia, and the native naturally took 
early to the use of the iron axe, and marks on the trees 
easily distinguish the shields obtained by its means from 
those of the stone axe. 



284 T. DICK. 

The late John Stuart Dick of Port Macquarie had often 
seen the natives removing the shields in the early days of 
the settlement by stone tools only. As the natives learned 
to value the steel axe very readily, it was only a short 
time when many of them had steel tomahawks, and Mr. 
Dick saw many shields removed by steel tools as well. It 
was the information given by this Mr. Dick that led to the 
search amongst the trees, as he often drew my attention 
to those which were marked. 

Mr. Ernest Harold Dick, also of Port Macquarie, gave 
the following interesting account : — 

"I was walking pasta mangrove swamp, and saw a full blooded 
native, one that I knew from Rollands Plains, in the act of 
removing a shield from a tree. The tree was a grey mangrove, 
and the native had cut the rabbet with a steel tomahawk and was 
driving bluff wedges of wood into the rabbet, and after driving a 
number of the wedges, the shield eventually came off." 

This shows that what was done with stone was continued 
with iron, for the native soon realised the superiority of 
the white man's iron axe over his stone one. 

My own observations, towards which I have been helped 
by a daily occupation on the waters of Port Macquarie, 
have now extended over a period of twenty-five years. 
Method of Cutting the Shield. 

From the evidence available, it would appear that the 
tree generally selected from which to remove a shield was 
one of even growth, as will be seen in the plates given in 
this paper. That the native was familiar with the pecu- 
liarities of this particular species of timber must now be 
accepted, also that he was aware at the same time of the 
lifting power of the wedge, and further he made these 
stone wedges a certain shape, in order to get this lifting 
power. The modus operandi was as follows: — Having 
marked out the piece to be removed, by placing the shield 



ORIGIN OF THE HELIMAN OR SHIELD. > 285 

carried by the native against the tree, the rabbet was next 
cut. This rabbet was most remarkable, and goes to show 
the resourceful ingenuity of the aborigine. The wedge 
used was of special stone found in the district, and 
shaped similarly to a gad used for bursting stone, only 
the point was not made fine, but on the contrary, it was 
blunt and would not enter timber. The rabbet was cut to 
take the point of this wedge, and to allow the wedge to be 
driven into it, and so derive great lifting power. The 
rabbet would be cut for a depth of two or three inches, and 
would be about one and a half inches wide at the surface r 
and half an inch at the bottom. This rabbet was cut right 
round the shield, and besides being used to drive the wedges 
in, it also cut the rings of the timber of the tree, and so 
allowed the piece to come away readily. Eight or nine 
wedges were driven into the rabbet, and when the tree 
was hard, there would be a number of wedges destroyed 
and dropped, and these can be found at the present time 
by digging round old trees. To get the lifting power the 
wedges were made practically double the width of the 
rabbet into which they were to be driven. 

The shield, having been removed, would be carried to the 
camp, where with smaller wedges and cutting stones its 
manufacture would soon be finished. As the tree had 
peculiar rings in the timber, the native simply drove small 
wedges into the rings and so trimmed the shield down to 
the required thickness. 

In this district almost every Grey Mangrove tree of 
suitable size has been made to yield a shield, and in many 
cases more than one shield has been taken from the same 
trunk. The tree also sent up shoots which eventually were 
also cut, this new growth even after woundings lived to a 
great age, so that there are clumps of trees showing the 
work of several generations. On one tree nine different 



286 T. DICK. 

shield marks were counted, the tree being sixteen feet in 
girth. The manner in which the wounds had distorted the 
tree was most interesting. Judging by other shield marks 
and a knowledge of this species of tree, it was estimated 
that some of the shields had been removed over five hun- 
dred years ago. 

In cutting the rabbet, two kinds of stones were evidently 
used, one of them was a shaped and ground axe made from 
stone, and another was formed to fit the hand, and was not 
ground, the edge being kept keen by chipping the blade. 
In several instances ground stone axes from which part of 
the face had jumped out, were found at the foot of the 
trees. As most of the other species of trees that the native 
had at his disposal were not suitable for getting shields, 
this mangrove tree of this district was in the greatest 
demand, and when the supply was exhausted, the native 
had to resort to the Fig, for several fine specimens, showing 
shield scars, have been procured. On investigating it was 
found, however, that it was very seldom that other than 
mangrove was used. 

Reasons for Selecting this Tree. 

In the introduction, reference is made to the preference 
for this tree over all others by the aborigines, and from 
my investigation into the subject, I think there can be little 
doubt that it was owing to the fact that its timber splits 
tangentially more readily in this direction than that of any 
other tree in the bush, and indeed this timber is almost 
impossible to split radially, a feature that would be a great 
desideratum in material for the construction of a shield. 
Description of Plates. 

Plate XLVII. — An aboriginal heliman or shield, now in 
the possession of Mr. T. Dick. It is made from the Grey 
Mangrove with stone implements and is twenty-nine inches 
in length and eleven inches in width at the centre, being 



ORIGIN OF THE HELIMAN OR SHIELD. 287 

three-quarters of an inch in thickness and tapering to three- 
eighths of an inch at the edges. Although very old, the 
timber is in good preservation and very strong. 

It was used as a means of self defence from attack by 
spears and boomerangs. These shields were known by 
various names, in the interior mostly "elamong," on the 
coast "heliman," and in Queensland "valaman." 

Two holes were cut in the centre of the shield, and a 
vine twisted and worked in as a handle, — the vine was 
called " Whipi," Malaisia tortuosa, Blanco, which was also 
used for the purpose of climbing trees. Some shields, 
especially those made in Queensland, had the handle worked 
out of the wood used in making the shield. 

Plate XLVIII. — A group of Grey Mangroves at the 
present time. No description is necessary with this picture, 
the shield mark being so defined on the tree on the left as 
to leave no room for argument. It will be seen that a 
similar mark is carried out on the tree on the right, and 
that the shield has been cut much earlier, the piece being 
decayed completely out. In the rear are a number of 
trees with shield marks going back to a long period. Both 
of the trees in the foreground have had two shields removed, 
but are not visible. The picture was taken in a group of 
many hundreds of trees so marked. Both of the two trees 
shown illustrate the method of how the tree survives this 
wounding, and how successive generations may secure 
their shields from the same tree. It will be noticed 
that each tree has a decided lean to the left, and immedi- 
ately above the shield mark will be seen a new growth. 
Round the wound is also a new growth which is nourishing 
the new shoots the tree has sent out. This new growth 
round the wound heals very evenly, as shown on the left, 
and continues until eventually the head of the tree decays 
and falls off. In time the new tree is again attacked by 



288 T. DICK. 

the Dative (probably the descendant of the previous oper- 
ator), hence the most remarkable results as shown on some 
of the trees. When shields had been cut right at the 
bottom, peculiar results were brought about, and where 
two or more shields had been removed the trees were found 
to have completely split open, so that where there was one 
tree there are now three or four. 

Plate XLIX. — The rabbet having been properly cut to the 
required depth (this being about three inches) the two 
natives are now engaged driving the peculiar bluff wedges 
into the special rabbet, and the man on the left is handing 
up the wedges to the native on the right, who is driving 
them in with a stone hammer or maul. Several of the 
wedges have broken, others chipped; these are dropped as 
shown, and to-day are the specimens found in all areas 
where this work has been done. 

Plate L. — Having been successful in getting the wedges 
to draw in the rabbet the shield has been forced off, 
and the native is lifting the piece away from the tree. 
The thickness of the piece can be seen in this picture, also 
the defined mark left on the tree. This mark is what has 
been traced right through the mangrove areas in this 
district. It will be seen that no fragments of timber are 
clinging to the shield, and that it has come away from the 
tree clean of all splinters. 

Plate LI. — A fine specimen of the work of the stone 
age, which by appearance was done about one hundred 
years ago. The mark of the shield which was removed 
is well defined, and part of the rabbet is still showing 
at the bottom. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate XL VII. 




T. C. Koughley, Photo. 
Original Heliman or Shield made from "Grey Mangrove," Avicennia officinalis, L. 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. 



Plate XL VIII. 




T. Dick, Photo. 
Group of Grey Mangroves. Almost all the trees show evidences of shield-cutting. 



Journal Boyal Society of N.8. TV., Vol. XL1X., 1915. 



Plate XL IX. 




T. Dick, Photo. 
Driving original stone wedges into the rabbet. Grey Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, L. 



Journal ttoyal Society of N.S. tV., Vol XLlX., 1915. Plate L. 




T. Dick, Photo. 
Aborigines removing a shield from a Grey Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, L. 



Journal Royal Society of N 8. W., Vol. XL1X., 1915. Plate LI. 




T. Dick. Photo. 
A fine example of a shield-scar in a living tree. 
Grey Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, L. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 289 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS PROM BROKEN HILL, NEW 
SOUTH WALES AND MULDIVA, QUEENSLAND. 

By O. Anderson, m.a., d.Sc, (Edin.) 

Mineralogist to the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

(Contribution from the Australian Museum.) 

With Plates LII - LIV, and Six Text-figures. 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, November 3, 1915.] 



Cerussite prom Broken Hill. 

Of the mineral species found in the oxidised zone of the 
Broken Hill lodes none are better developed or more 
characteristic than cerussite; indeed anyone with a little 
experience can at once distinguish the cerussite of Broken 
Hill from that of any other locality. Short descriptions of 
the mineral have been published by Miigge, 1 and Spencer, 2 
and a fairly detailed account by Marsh. 3 Some years ago, 
a paper in which crystals of cerussite from Broken Hill 
were described, appeared in the Records of the Australian 
Museum, 4 but since that time the Trustees have acquired 
some fine specimens in the collection of Mr. George Smith 
and from the Dixson (formerly the Aldridge) collection, 
and I am now in a position to supplement the previous 
account, and to clear up some points which were formerly 
obscure. In the interval I have obtained from the authors 
reprints of the important papers by Goldschmidt on the 
cerussite of Mapimi, Mexico, 5 and by Hubrecht on the 
cerussite of Sardinia, 6 and am therefore able to compare 

1 Miigge, N. Jahrb. Min. n, 1897, p. 78. 

2 Spencer, Min. Mag., xiii, 1901, p. 39, f.n. 

3 Marsh, Trans. Austr. Inst. Min. Eng., iv, 1897, pp. 141 - 147. 

4 Anderson, Rec. Austr. Mus., vi, 1907, pp. 407-410. 

5 Goldschmidt, N. Jahrb. Min. Beil.-Bd. xv, 1902, pp. 562 - 593. 

6 Hubrecht, Zeits. Kryst., xl, 1905, pp. 147 - 188. 

S— November 3, 1915. 



290 C. ANDERSON. 

the crystallographic features and the complicated twinniug 
of the three occurrences. The cerussite was found on the 
roof, sides, and floor of vughs in the ore masses, associated 
with manganic iron oxide, anglesite, smithsonite (zinc 
carbonate), embolite, and galena; in some specimens small 
crystals of galena are seated on the cerussite, indicating 
that the former results in these cases from secondary 
deposition. In habit the crystals vary somewhat. Simple 
crystals are rare, twins being the rule with r (130), or m 
(110) as twin plane. When doublets occur they are, so far 
as I know, always twinned on the r law and the crystals are 
either of arrow-head shape (Plate LIV, fig. I), 1 or pris- 
matic along the vertical axis. 2 A group of arrow-head 
twins scattered on a matrix of oxide of iron (Plate LIV, 
fig. 4) forms a specimen of rare beauty; it will be observed 
that the crystals are generally attached to the matrix by 
the point of the 'arrow.' The reticulated or dendritic 
groups, which are the commonest of all, and which may be 
described as tabular on b and elongated parallel to the a 
axis (Plate LIV, fig. 2) are combinations of twins on r 
and on m, and may consist of a dozen or more individuals, 
forming a polyet 3 of a complicated nature. The present 
paper is mainly concerned with the elucidation of the 
interesting features presented by these polyets. 

Measurements were made on a Goldschmidt two-circle 
goniometer, which is well adapted for the investigation of 
complicated groups such as are here described. Measure- 
ment is greatly facilitated by the fact that the vertical 
axes of the several individuals (segments) composing the 
polyet are parallel, so that all necessary angular determin- 
ations can be readily made with one mounting of the group 

1 Anderson, loc. cit., pi. lxxvii, figs. 1, 2. 8 Id., ibid., pi. lxxvi, fig-. 3. 

3 I am not certain whether this term has previously been used for a 
group of several twinned crystals, but an English equivalent for the 
German 'vielling' is necessary, and polyet seems a suitable word. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 291 

on the goniometer. To discover the twin relations of two 
or more segments it is sufficient to determine the relative 
positions of the zone [cb] in the various segments; this 
zone is fortunately the best developed, and, in most cases 
an average of several measurements can be obtained. The 
orientation is most conveniently given by fixing the relative 
positions of the normals to o in each segment, that is by 
comparing <f> of the individuals with reference to a * first 
meridian.' 

For twins on m the angle between the b pinacoids is 
62° 46' or 117° 14' (180° - 62° 46'), for twins on r, 57° 18' 
or 122° 42'. It will be noticed that these angles approach 
60°, the means being 60° 2' and 119° 58' respectively. Now 
Ooldschmidt and Hubrecht found (loc. cit.) that the angles 
between the twinned segments do not in every case con- 
form to the theoretical requirements, but show a slight 
divergence, so that the angle between the two segments 
approaches more nearly to 60°, that is the angle between 
w doublets decreases and between r doublets increases. 
Goldschmidt sees in this a proof that the zone planes are 
planes of force (Kraftebene), and the face-normals directions 
of force (Kraftrichtungen), which endeavour to place 
themselves in parallelism much as the magnetic needle 
places itself in the magnetic meridian. Thus Goldschmidt 
says (loc. cit., p. 583): — "By mutual diversion the meridians 
[c b] of the separate individuals of a polyet approach the 
positions 0°, + 60°, + 120°, + 180°. The group approxi- 
mates to hexagonal symmetry." Hubrecht (loc. cit., p. 149) 
puts the matter very clearly and concisely, "This diver- 
gence [Ablenkung] was regarded as an argument in favour 
of the view that face-normals are directions of force which 
bind the particles together and unite crystals in parallel or 
twin position, that moreover zone planes are to be regarded 
as planes of force, and that such directions of force and 
planes of force influence one another when they have nearly 



292 



C. ANDERSON. 



the same direction and that in this case they endeavour 
to take a middle position." Goldschmidt then, and follow- 
ing him Hubrecht consider that twinning is to be explained 
by the tendency of lines and planes of force in the two 
individuals to place themselves parallel. In Text Fig. 1, 



8557 90° 



iswn 




f/9 






z&zg 



58W' *v: 



m i nv z 



Q0° 
Fig. 1. 

we have a stereographic projection of a cerussite crystal 
I in the conventional position, showing the poles of the pina- 
coids and the m and r prisms, the corresponding normals 
being drawn in full lines, with, on the right, the same poles 
and normals (long-dashed lines) of a crystal II twinned to I 
on m (110), and, on the left, the poles and normals (short- 
dashed lines) of a crystal III twinned to I on r (130). The 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 293 

vertical axes, that is the normals to the c pinacoids, have 
placed themselves parallel in the three segments and in II 
one zone plane [c w] and normals in that zone are ranged 
parallel to the corresponding plane and normals in I, while 
in the r twin III one zone plane [c r] and its normals have 
placed themselves parallel to the corresponding plane and 
normals of I, whence the twin relations result. It is 
apparent that if II and III be rotated slightly cum-clock- 
wise, the normals to b 2 and Wi r 2 and r l9 m 2 and bi, a 2 and 
r x and r 2 and d, also r 3 and a u b 3 and Wi, m 3 and bi, a 3 and 
r l9 m 3 and wii, respectively, will be brought closer together. 
This will have the effect of bringing b 2 closer to bi and 
separating b 3 and bi more widely, that is the angle bi A b 2 
becomes less than the precise 62° 46' and bi a b 3 greater 
than 57° 18'. In each case therefore the angle b x A becomes 
nearer to the value 60°. In general none of the axes will 
coincide but will take a 'middle position.' 

Although the existence of 'planes of force' and 'direc- 
tions of force ' in the zone planes and face-normals is more 
or less an assumption, there is no doubt that crystals do 
possess a directive force by virtue of which the crystal 
particles, whatever these may be, are marshalled into a 
regular formation; this is proved by the existence of liquid 
crystals. Moreover there is nothing unorthodox in speak- 
ing of parallelism of axes or directions which are not 
crystallographically equivalent, for we know that crystals 
do exhibit parallel growths of this kind ; we may cite 
Goldschmidt's 'hetero- twins,' in which inequivalent but 
similar and similarly directed axes place themselves 
parallel or nearly parallel. 1 

Whether Goldschmidt's hypothesis is valid or not it is 
important to discover whether a similar divergence to that 

1 Goldschmidt, Zeits. Kryst., xliii, 1907, pp. 582-586 ; Goldschmidt 
and Paul, 16., xlvi, 1909, p. 471; Ford, Amer. Journ. Sci. xxx, 1910, pp. 
16-23. 



294 C. ANDERSON. 

observed by him and by Hubrecht is shown by cerussite 
from other localities. In my former paper (loc. cit., p. 409) 
I gave the result of measurement made on two groups of 
four crystals twinned in pairs on r. "Denoting the four 
segments by I, II, III, IV, we have I and II, likewise III 
and IV twinned on r, but although the orientation of III and 
IV relative to I and II is nearly the same in the two groups, 
I have not been able to prove it due to twinning on any 
known face. Appended are the angles obtained between 
the b pinacoids of the four segments. 

(1) b 2 a b 2 = 57° 13' (calculated for r-twin 57° 18°) 
6i A b 3 = 61 26 (calculated for m-twin 62° 46') 
bi a b 4 = 4 4 

(2) b 2 A b 2 = 57 18 
bx A b 3 = 61 54 
b Ab = 4 38" 

At the time this was written I had not seen the papers 
by Goldschmidt and Hubrecht and was not aware that these 
cry s tall ographers had observed divergences of the same 
order, and it is one of the objects of this paper, now that 
better material is available, to extend the investigation in 
order to see if possible whether any general rule covering 
these anomalies applies to the cerussite of Broken Hill and 
Muldiva, where similar polyets are found. It may be 
remarked that a departure from the exact angle demanded 
by the twin law has been observed in other minerals than 
cerussite; thus Des Cloizeaux 1 found that in albite twins 
faces theoretically parallel may be inclined to one another 
at an angle varying from 40' to 1° 40', and Miers 2 observed 
a similar variation in twins of proustite and pyrargyrite. 
Description of Groups. 

Group I. (Plate LIV, figs. 5, 6). — This specimen from 
Block 14, is a triplet on r, II and III being twinned to I ; 

1 Des Cloizeaux, Man. de Mineralogie, i, p. 520. 
2 Miers, Min. Mag., vni, 1888, pp. 74—76. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 



295 



it is too large for measurement on the reflecting goniometer, 
I, which is elongated parallel to b, being 9 cm. long by 5 cm. 
in depth, but approximate measurements with a contact 
goniometer leaves little doubt as to the relations of the 
three segments. In Fig. 6 I is represented as lying on the 
b pinacoid, but in all other similar figures in this paper the 
crystals are placed with the vertical axis perpendicular to 
the plane of the paper as this is the best position for show- 
ing the orientation. On I is a small arrow-head twin the 
exact relation of which to the larger segments could not 
be determined; a little plumose galena is crystallised on 
the cerussite. 

Group II (Plate III, fig. 1, Text Fig. 2).— This and 
the succeeding three groups from the Proprietary Mine 
are off a large specimen consisting of crystals elongated 
parallel to the vertical axis, and measuring to about 7 by 
1 cm.; the matrix is stalactitic limonite and short tapering 
crystals of smithsonite are attached to the cerussite. The 
group consists of four segments twinned in pairs on r, the 
forms present being b (010), m (110), r (130), x (012), k (011), 
i (021), v (031), y (102), p (111). The faces in the prism 
zone are strongly striated vertically, but the terminal faces 

i8o°b 
rrflo'o 75*0*14 




Fi< 



296 



C. ANDERSON. 



are mostly smooth and brilliant, giving good reflections. 
In the following and succeeding tables the best measure- 
ments, suitably weighted, are used to fix the position of the 
b pinacoid and in the accompanying text figures the orien- 
tation of the various twin segments is indicated by the 
position of the normal to b ; V c is the mean of the actual 
goniometric readings, </> gives the angular distance from 
the first meridian (position of segment I). 



Segment. 


v . 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


4>o 


I 

II 

III 

IV 


117° 18 
174 28 
235 51 
293 10 


117° 16 - 117° 22 
174 17 - 174 32 
235 44 - 235 56 
293 10 - 293 11 


3 

5 
3 
2 


0° 

57 11 

118 33 

175 52 



Thus we have the following angular relations: — 
lAlI-57° 11' (r-twin 57° 18'). IaIII = 61° 27(m-twin 62°46'). 
Ill a IV = 57° 18'. IIaIV = 61°19 / . 

II a 111=61° 22. 

The divergence therefore from the position of an w-twin is 
in the sense demanded by Goldschmidt's hypothesis. In 
Text Fig. 2 the orientation is shown in stereographic pro- 
jection, it being assumed that I and II and III and IV are 
inclined to one another at the precise angle of twinning; 
the position which the poles of III and IV would occupy if 
these segments were twinned on m to I and II respectively 
are indicated by the angular values enclosed in parentheses. 
This projection shows clearly that the chief zones are 
brought more nearly into parallelism than they would be 
if the exact angle b \b were maintained ; for example r x 
(r 2 ), a 3 are practically coincident as are a 4 and r a , r 3 and Oi, 
a 2 and r 4 . Indeed one might describe III and IV as hetero- 
twins to I and II in which the vertical axes and the zones 
[c a] and [c r] are parallel. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 



297 



Group III. — This is very similar to Group II and does 
not require particular description. The orientation is as 
follows : — 



Segment. 


v c 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


+. 


I 

II 

III 

IV 


351° 

48 19 
109 5 
166 14 


350°59'- 351° 2 

48 14 - 48 26 

108 59 - 109 6 

166 11 - 166 17 


5 
6 
5 

2 


o° d 

57 19 
118 5 
175 14 



Thus I is twinned to II on r (meas. 57° 19', calc. 57° 18') 
and III to IV on r (meas. 57° 9) while bi A b 3 = 61° 55' and 
b 2 a b 4 = 62° 5'. The direction of divergence is the same as 
before and is in accordance with Goldschmidt's hypothesis. 

Group IV (Plate LIT, fig. 4, Text Fig. 3).— This is 
essentially similar to the two preceding groups, but the 
segments are united in a different manner. 



Segment. 


v 


Limit. 


Number of 
Observations. 


<£o 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

(V 


72° 52 
130 7 
250 41 
128 


72° 48 - 72° 56 
130 5 - 130 9 
250 34 - 250 46 
127 56 - 128 4 


4 

7 
7 
7 


o / 


57 15 

177 49 
55 8 

117 14) 



vrtti* 




I do' 



Fig. 3. 



298 



C. ANDERSON. 



V is a hypothetical segment twinned to I on m; to assume 
its existence is permissible as the position is a possible and 
probable one. We then have the following relations: — 



I A II = 57' 
III a IV = 57 

III a II = 59 

IV A V = 62 
III A V = 60 



15'} 

19 

26 ) 

06 

35 



r-twin 57° 18' 
ra-twin 62° 46'. 



Here again the two r-twins I and II, III and IV conform 
very closely to the theoretical angle, while III to II and 
III and IV to the assumed segment V (twinned to I on m) 
show the required divergence. 

Group V. — In this the segments are unequally developed, 
I and II being much larger than III and IV. 



Segment. 


v„ 


Limit. 


Number of 
Observations. 


</>o 


I 

II 

III 

IV 


164° 21 
221 39 

286 58 
281 30 


164° 19 - 164° 23 
221 33 - 221 42 

286 56 - 287 
281 29 - 281 30 


3 

7 
2 

2 


/ 



57 18 

122 37 

117 9 



In this group, therefore, I is twinned to II and to III on 
r (angles 57° 18' and 57° 23', calc. 57° 18'), and I is twinned 
to III on m at an angle of 62° 51' (calc. 62° 46'), the varia- 
tion from the calculated angles being within the limits of 
observational error. 

Group VI (Plate LII, fig. 2, Text Fig. 4).— This consists 
of thirteen segments twinned on r and extended in the 
direction of the vertical axis to form a columnar aggregate 
measuring about 8 by 2 cm.; the edges formed by the r 
faces project horizontally, radiating from the central part 
of the column. The group may be described as a polyet of 
arrow-head twins on r elongated parallel to the vertical 
axis and united by the points of the arrows. Reflections 
are moderately good, but for some of the segments the 
measurements were rather meagre, and a high degree of 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 



299 



accuracy for the orientation is not claimed. The chief 
forms present are b (010), r (130), y (102), k (Oil), x (012), 
the two last much striated; i (021), o (112), and p (111) 
are also represented, and m appears as striae in r. 











Fig. 4. 






Segment. 


Vo 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


</>o 


I 


316° 58 


316° 51 - 317 3 


4 


o / 




II 


14 18 


14 8 - 14 28 


5 


57 20 


III 


70 30 


70 25 - 70 33 


5 


113 32 


IV 


19 12 


18 48 - 19 24 


5 


62 14 


V 


76 24 


76 2 - 76 40 


4 


119 26 


VI 


77 31 




1 


120 33 


VII 


134 52 


134 42 - 135 3 


7 


177 54 


VIII 


192 8 


192 5 - 192 11 


2 


55 10 


IX 


320 19 




1 


3 21 


X 


17 36 


17 35 - 17 36 


2 


60 38 


XI 


24 32 


24 23 - 24 40 


5 


67 34 


XII 


81 48 




1 


124 20 



Calc. for r-twin 

57° 18'. 



The r-twins can be easily distinguished as those tabulated 
below : — 

Segments. Meas. b a b 

I, II 57° 20' 

IV, V 57 12 

VI, VII 57 21 

VII, VIII 57 15 

IX, X 57 17 

XI, XII 57 16 



300 



C. ANDERSON. 



From inspection one would be led to think that II is 
twinned to III on r, forming a triplet with I similar to the 
triplet VI, VII, VIII, but the angle between II and III is 
only 56° 12'; the angles between the others agree well with 
requirements. Of possible m-twins we have the following: 

Segments. Meas. b a b Gale, for m-twins. 

IV, XII 62° 36' "" 62° 46' 

VI, IX 117 12 117 14 

VII, X 117 16 117 14 

It should be remarked that here as in other cases all the 
twinned pairs are not independent; if VI and VII and IX 
and X respectively are twinned on r, and if VI is twinned 
to IX on m, then VII and X must be twinned on m. 

There are also a number of individuals which approximate 
to twin position : — 

Segments. Meas. b a b. 

n' l y 62° X q } 0alc ' for m " twin 62 ° 46 ' 



V, VII 58 28 

IV, VI 58 19 

X, V 58 48 f 

X, VI 59 55 J 



' Calc. for r-twin 57° 18' 



ix 1 ; v iii Si 29 ] 0alc - for *- twin 122 ° 42 ' 

All these diverging angles show the required variation 
except the angle between II and III, but where so many 
segments are concerned, the mutual relations are not so 
clear as in simpler groups; one cannot see the wood for the 
trees as it were. The text figure brings into prominence 
the fact that the crystals group themselves round directions 
at about 60° apart, namely 0° 25' (mean position of I, VII, IX), 
60° 35' (mean position of VII, II, X, IV, XI), and 119° 35' 
(mean position of III, V, VI, XII). We shall see later that 
this orientation, which shows that the grouping is not 
haphazard, is characteristic. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 



301 



Group VII (Plate LII, fig. 3).— This and Groups VIII 
and IX are all portions of one large specimen, and they 
naturally show some family resemblance; they beloug to 
the reticulated type, the crystals being short in the direc- 
tion of the vertical axis, tabular on b and elongated parallel 
to the a axis. Group VII consists of seven individuals 
twinned on wand r, the angular relations conforming fairly 
well to the requirements of the two laws. Segment I, 5 cm. 
long, is larger than the others, II and III are fairly large, 
the others comparatively small ; there are a number of still 
smaller individuals whose position could not be ascertained 
and which have been omitted. The whole group is very 
fragile and most of the terminations are wanting. The 
commonest faces belong to the forms c (010), m (110), r (130), 
fc (011); x (012), i (021), v (031), y (102), p (111) and w (211) 
were also recognised. In spite of frequent striation the 
signals were on the whole good and the orientation of the 
crystals is well established. In the figure the crystals are 
idealised but their relative dimensions and positions are 
preserved. Segments which are parallel though not in 
contact are numbered alike and the measurements obtained 
from them are combined to find the mean angles given in 
the subjoined table. 



Segment. 


v 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


<f>o 


I 


206° 53 


206° 45 - 207 10 


11 


o / 




II 


329 32 


329 26 - 329 35 


7 


122 39 


III 


212 21 


212 13 - 212 35 


8 


5 28 


IV 


324 9 


323 59 - 324 14 


8 


117 16 


V 


269 29 


269 24 - 269 34 


4 


62 36 


VI 


274 56 


274 50 - 275 2 


3 


68 3 


VII 


332 4 


332 2 - 332 6 


3 


125 11 



The twins may now be readily recognised : — 
Segments. Meas. b \ b 

I, II 57° 21' ) 

III, V 57 8 Calc. for f-twins 57 

VI, VII 57 8 ) 



8' 



302 C. ANDERSON. 

Segments. Meas. b a b 

I, IV 62 44 "\ 

II' IH 62 49 f 0alc - for ^-twiiis 62° 16' 

V, VII 62 35 ) 

Thus all the segments are united by the two laws and 
the deviation from the exact angle of twinning is nowhere 
more than 11'. 

Group VIII (Plate LIV, fig. 3, Plate til, fig. 5, Text 
Fig. 5). — This instructive group consists of thirteen 
individuals, some of which are represented by several 
crystals in parallel position, and finely illustrates the com- 
plicated twinning and reticulated or dendritic structure of 
the mineral. It also exemplifies well the manner in which 
'secondary' and 'tertiary' twins are apt to form in the 
re-entrant angle of the 'primary' twins and so to fill up 
this angle. The individuals I, II and III are much larger 
than the others, I having a length of about 5^ cm.; these 
three may be described as 'paragenic' twins, that is they 
formed an embryonal triplet and grew up together, while 
the others are 'metagenic' twins which came into existence 
after I, II and III had attained some size. A small, typical 
arrow-head twin IV and V is planted on I; it has the forms 
b (010), r (130), x (012), k (011), y (102), p (111), s (121). 
This r-twin pair is not in any exact relation to the main 
group except that the direction of its vertical axis is the 
same. Two small crystals VII and XII, which are not 
exactly twinned to one another (angle 63° 14', calc. 62° 46'), 
are attached to the IV and V pair, but, like the latter, 
these are not in any precise twin relation to any of the 
others, although VII is very nearly parallel to IX and XII 
to VIII; the other twin relations are well established. 
The drawing (Plate LII, fig. 5) is partly diagrammatic; 
the stippled portion in the bottom left corner of the figure 
belongs to a twin group whose vertical axis is not parallel 
to that of Group VII. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 303 







Segment. 


v 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


</>o 


I 


286° 9 


286° i - 286° 10 


5 


0° 


II 


343 30 


343 22 - 343 37 


4 


57 21 


III 


43 24 


43 20 - 43 29 


7 


117 15 


IV 


353 16 


353 11 - 353 28 


8 


67 7 


v 


50 43 


50 36 - 50 53 


6 


124 34 


VI 


48 53 


48 52 - 48 53 


3 


122 44 


VII 


51 30 


51 14 - 51 46 


2 


125 21 


VIII 


348 58 


348 52 - 349 6 


5 


62 49 


IX 


51 51 


51 47 - 51 59 


5 


125 42 


X 


37 59 


37 49 - 38 7 


3 


111 40 


XI 


100 49 


100 43 - 101 4 


4 


174 40 


XII 


348 16 


348 13 - 348 19 


2 


62 7 


XIII 


340 30 


340 30 


2 


54 21 



Disentangling the twins we have the following results: — 



Oalc. for r-twin 57° 18'. 



Segments. 


Meas. b 


A b 


I, II 


57° 21' 


I, VI 


57 16 




III, XI 


57 25 


^Oa] 


IV, V 


57 27 




X, XIII 


57 19 j 




I, III 


62 45 v 
62 49 

62 41 lOal 


I, VIII 


II, XI 


/III, IX 


62 53 Ua 


III, XIII 


62 54 




X, XI 


63 00 





^Oalc. for m-twin 62° 46' 



304 



C. ANDERSON. 



The irregularities in this list are not large and several 
are in the wrong direction, if support for Goldschmidt's 
view is sought. Of pairs which are doubtfully in twin 
position we have the following: — 
Segments. Meas. b \ b 

V, XII 62° 27' 

VII, VIII 62 32 

V, VIII 61 45 

Here the divergence from the theoretical angle is in the 
right direction, but we cannot lay much stress on it. 

Group IX (Plate LIII, fig. 1). — The small group, \\ cm. 
approximately in length, has a general resemblance to the 
last described. Here I and V, and perhaps II, are para- 
genic twins, the others metagenic. The forms represented 
are b (010), m (110), r (130), x (012), k (011), i (021), v (031), 
y (102), p (111). 



Segment. 


v 


I 


329° 9 


II 


32 1 


III 


143 38 


IV 


94 48 


V 


26 27 


VI 


86 42 



Limits. 



329 6 
31 56 

143 37 
94 43 
26 24 
86 41 



11 

7 



329 
32 

143 40 
94 53 
26 31 
86 42 



Number of 
Observations. 



5 
5 
3 

10 

2 





62 52 

174 29 

125 

57 
117 



39 
18 
33 



Twin relations: — 

Segments. Meas. b A b 



I, v 


57° 18' 


I, II 


62 52 


I, YI 


62 28 


II, IV 


62 47 


II, V 


62 49 



Gale, for r-twin 57° 18'. 



Gale, for m-twin 62° 46' 



The segment VI is the only one which shows a notice- 
able departure from the true twin position; unfortunately 
only scanty measurements were obtained but the signals 
were good and 18' is too great a discrepancy to be attributed 
to observational error. Crystal VI, if twinned at all, is 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 



305 



evidently twinned to I, and its position lends support to 
Goldschmidt's contention. 

Group X (Plate LIII, fig. 4, Text Fig. 6).— This group, 
which is about 3i cm. in greatest diameter, was attached 
to a limonitous matrix ; in general appearance it resembles 
Groups VII, VIII, IX. The forms identified are c (001), 
b (010), m (110), x (012), fc (011), i (021), v (031), y (102), 
p (111), o (112), s (121); in addition a face which may belong 
to q (023) was observed once (p meas. 25° 48', calc. 25° 44). 
A possible new dome (059) gave a single measurement 
(p meas. 22° 0', calc. 21° 53'), but it requires confirmation. 




*m* 



Fig. 6. 



Segment. 


v 


Limits. 


Number of 
Observations. 


<£o 


I 


116° 3 


116° 7 - 116° 25 


10 


O 1 




II 


121 37 


121 28 - 121 44 


8 


5 24 


III 


176 3 


176 1-176 5 


3 


59 50 


IV 


184 18 


184 11 - 184 24 


8 


68 5 


V 


238 46 


238 41 - 238 54 


11 


122 33 


VI 


241 35 


241 32 - 241 37 


4 


125 22 


VII 


170 30 


170 29 t 170 30 


2 


54 17 


VIII 


178 56 


178 48 - 179 6 


12 


62 43 


IX 


233 15 


233 3 - 233 27 


11 


117 2 


X 


236 2 


236 1-236 2 


2 


119 49 


XI 


247 12 


247 9 - 247 16 


2 


130 59 



T— November 3, 1915. 



306 





C. ANDERSON. 


rin relations : — 




Segments. 


Meas. b \ b 


I, v 


57° 27' | 


II, VIII 
III, IX 


57 12 | Calc ' for r - twin 57 ° 18 '- 


IV, VI 


57 17) 


I, VIII 


62 43 . 


11, IV 


62 41 1 


IV, XI 


62 54 lOalc. for m-twins 62° 46 


VI, VIII 


62 39 


VII, IX 


62 45 J 



The only crystal unaccounted for in the above scheme is 
X; it approximates to the position of an r twin to VIII 
(meas. b A b 57° 6), which would make it a witness against 
Goldschmidt's supposition. A small arrowhead twin is 
planted on I and II, one segment being parallel to II, the 
other with VIII ; an embryonal r-twin has settled on II, 
one segment of the twin placing itself paralled to II. 

Oerussite from Muldiva. 

In the Australian Museum collection there are two 
specimens of azurite from the Paisley Shaft, Muldiva, 
Chillagoe District, Queensland ; the azurite, finely crystal- 
lised, 1 is on a limonite matrix, and seated on the azurite 
are small crystals of cerussite, many of them twinned. The 
cerussite groups are scarcely larger than a pin's head, but 
the faces give good reflections in the main, and four groups 
were measured with the following results. 

Description of Groups. 

Group I (Plate LIII, fig. 5). This is a triplet of a type 
common with cerussite and aragonite. The faces, idealised 
in the drawing, belong to the forms c (001), a (100), b (010), 
m (110), r (130), y (102), p (111). The value of <£ for the 
three segments is 0° 0', 62° 41' and 117° 18' respectively, 

1 Anderson, Rec. Austr. Mus., vn, 1909, p. 278. 



CERUSSITE CRYSTALS FROM BROKEN HILL AND MULDIVA. 307 

which shows that I is twinned to II and to III on m (calc. 
angles 62° 46' and 117° 14). 

Group II (Plate LIII, fig. 2). Here the r law pre- 
dominates, the group consisting of two arrow-head twins 
united by their points ; measurement however reveals that 
while I is twinned to II on r it is twinned to III on m, hence 
also IV is twinned to II on m, so that here we have a fine 
example of four individuals united by the two laws. The 
faces in the prism zone are so strongly striated that their 
readings barely suffice for identification, but the faces of p 
and y give good readings, so that the orientation can be 
relied upon to within a few minutes. The value of <£ for 
I, II, III, IV respectively is 0° 0', 57° 9', 62° 30', 119° 42 
and we have the following relations: — 

Segments. Meas. b a b 

III' IV 57 12 } Calc ' for r " twin 57 ° 18 

i' III 62 30 ) n , . , . AO o 4a , 

-q xy 62 qq J Calc. for m-twin 62 46 

This result does not throw much light on the general 
question as the variations in the r-twins are away from 60° 
and in the w-twins towards 60°; in any case the measure- 
ments are too few. 

Group III (Plate LIII, fig. 3). — This group, which is 
rather more complicated than the preceding two, has the 
forms a (100), o (010), m (110), r (130), k (011), y (102), 
p (111); the prism zone is striated vertically, b and r inter- 
oscillating, while m is very narrow. 

Orientation. 

I II III IV V 

V o 102° 55' 160° 12' 165° 33' 228° 16' 225° 45' 

</> 57 17 62 38 125 21 122 50. 
The twinning is therefore as follows: — 



308 


C. ANDERSON. 


Segments. 


Meas. b a b 


I, II 
I, v 


57° 17' * 

57 10 fCalc. for r-twin 57 18 


I, III 
III, IV 


62 38 jCalc. for m-twin 62° 46' 
62 43 J 


and there is no 


marked divergence from the true twin 


position. 





Conclusion, 

Generally speaking the variations from the true twin 
position are in the same direction as in the crystals inves- 
tigated by Goldschmidt and Hubrecht, but this is not 
always the case, and it is doubtful whether any far- 
reaching conclusion can be drawn on the basis of these 
observations. 



Journal Royal Society N.S. W., Vol. XLIX.,1915. 



Plate LI I. 




C. Anderson, del., Austr. Mits. 



Journal Roy ml Society of 'N.S. W., Vol.XLIX.,1915. 

I 



Plate LIU. 




C. Anderson, del., Austr. Mus. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLlX.,1915. Plate LlV. 




C. Cluttou, photo., Ausfcr. Mus. 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 309 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS (WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OP NEW SPECIES) No. IV. 

By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, November 3, 1915.'] 



The proposed new species are : — 

1. E. Dundasi, 

2. E. Sheathiana, 

3. E. Websteriana, 

4. E. Flocktonice, 

5. E. conftuens (W.V.P.) Maiden, 

6. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. 

1. E. Dundasi, n. sp. 

Arbor silvas formans, "Blackbutt" vocata. Foliis pedunculatis, 
angusto-lanceolatis, acuminatis, plerumque apice falcata, niten- 
tibus, coriaceis, venis obscuris. Petioliis 1-1*5 cm. longis, foliis 
8-9 cm.., minus 1 cm. latis. Alabastris perfecte apertis non 
visis, sessilibis vel pedicello brevissimo, petiolo communi paullo 
piano et circa 1 cm. longo. Cupula circa *5 cm. longa, gracile, 
in apicem angustata. Operculo acuminato, conico et dimidio 
cupulse sequilongo. Antheris paralleliter aperientibus, dorso 
glandula magna juxta apicem. Fructibus cylindroideis, medio 
paullo constrictis, *7 cm. longis et circa "4 cm. latis orificio. Val 
varum apicibus non super orificium. 

This is a tree of which Dr. L. Diels gave me a few leaves, 
buds and fruits (all entirely glabrous) in the year 1901, 
together with the following particulars. It is his No. 5454, 
and is "a tall tree forming forests," in the neighbourhood 
of Dundas, W.A., where it goes under the name of "Black- 
butt." 

I may say that the name of "Blackbutt" is, in Western 
Australia, usually applied to E. patens, Benth. of the well- 



310 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



watered South West, but, in the later settled arid goldfiekte 
area, the name is given more or less loosely to several 
(perhaps many) species, as it is a common character of 
trees of that region to have somewhat smooth trunks, with 
more or less dark flaky bark on the butt, and these are 
called " Blackbutts." 

The Dundas specimens may be described as follows : 
Juvenile leaves not available. 

Mature leaves. — Only eleven leaves were received. They 
are pedunculate, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, usually 
with a hooked tip, shiny, equally green on both sides, 
moderately rich in oil, venation scarcely visible, margin 
thickened, midrib the only obvious vein, lateral veins 
roughly parallel and acutely attached to the midrib. 
Petioles 1 — 1*5 cm., length of leaves 8-9 cm., breadth 
under 1 cm. 

Flowers. — Buds not fully developed are alone available. 
Brownish-black in colour, sessile or with a very short 
pedicel, the common petiole slightly flattened and about 
1 cm. long. The calyx-tube about '5 cm. long, slender, and 
tapering very gradually; the operculum pointed, conical* 
and about half the length of the calyx-tube. The anthers 
are immature but they open in parallel slits and have a 
large gland at the back near the top. 

Fruits. — Three fruits are available, picked off the ground 
and somewhat weather-worn. Oylindroid, slightly con- 
stricted in the middle, with some indistinct ribs, in very 
low relief below the constriction. '7 cm. long, and about 
'4 cm. broad at the orifice. Tips of the valves not appear- 
ing above the orifice. 

Habitat. — The village of Dundas, Western Australia* 
after which the species is named, is situated fifteen miles 
south of Norseman, on the Esperance road, and was the 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 311 

centre of the early mining operations on the Norseman 

field. 

Afflinities. 

I have not obtained additional material although I have 
tried, at intervals extending over a number of years. I 
cannot identify it with any described species and I think it 
should be given a name. A figure of such material as is 
available will be given in my "Critical Revision" in due 
course. 

A species cannot be satisfactorily defined unless its 
affinities are indicated, and if the material and data (e.g., 
concerning the timber) fall short of completeness, the 
suggestions as to affinities must of necessity be tentative. 

The present is one of the narrow hook-leaved species of 
which there are not a few more or less uncinate, e.g., E. 
uncinata, Turcz. (in which the hooks were thought to be 
characteristic of the species); E. oleosa, F.v.M. (especially 
some of its narrow-leaved forms); E. angustissima, F.v.M.; 
E. calyeogona, Turcz. var. gracilis, Maiden ; E. cnerifolia, 
DC; E. Moorei, Maiden and Cambage. 

1. With E. Clelandi, Maiden. This is another goldfields 
"Blackbutt," and it is depicted at Part XVI of my "Critical 
Revision." The species are quite distinct, E. Clelandi 
being glaucous, with dull foliage, ribbed buds (particularly 
the opercula). The fruits of E. Clelandi are nearer than 
the buds to those of E. Dundasi, but the former are not con- 
stricted in the middle and otherwise differ somewhat in 
shape. The buds of E. Clelandi are immature, and the im- 
mature anthers are, in that state, not dissimilar to the 
immature anthers of E. Dundasi. 

2. With E. oleosa F.v.M. At Plate 66, fig. 2 of this work 
a narrow-leaved form of this species is depicted, which 
displays considerable superficial resemblance to the present 
form. It is an aberrant form of E. oleosa but one hesitates 



312 J. H. MAIDEN. 

to give it a varietal name. It differs from E. Dundasi in 
the anthers and also in the buds and fruits. 

2. E. Sheathiana, n. sp. 

Arbuscula gracilis nunc 1 feet alta, erecta, cortice longis tenu- 
ibus lamellis secedente. Ramulis glaucis, plerumque subteretibus 
sed ultimis ramulis angulatiusculis. Foliis maturis obscuro- 
viridibus, rigidissimis petiolatis (petiolis 1-1*5 cm.) lanceolatis, 
paullo falcatis usque ad 8 cm. longis et 2 vel 3 cm. altis. Venis 
lateralibus patentibus. Venis haud prominentibus. Foliis valde 
oleosis. Floribus plurimis. Umbellis usque ad 7 capitulo, pedun- 
culis 1 cm. pedicellis dimidio sequilongis. Operculo fere hemi- 
sphaerico, umbonato, plus dimidio cupula sequilongo. Cupula 
conoidea plerumque 2-angulata. Antheris amplis, paralleliter 
aperientibus, glandula dorsum fere adhaerente. Fructibus sub- 
cylindroideis, maturis non visis. 

A specimine culta solum nota. 

A slender young tree, 10 feet or more high, at the present 
time, erect in habit, the bark falling off in long thin flakes 
(ribbons). 

Glaucous, branchlets generally round, though ultimate 
branchlets somewhat angular. 

Juvenile leaves not available. 

Mature leaves. — Dull green of the same colour on both 
sides, rather rigid, petiolate, (petioles 1 - 1*5 cm.), lanceo- 
late, only slightly falcate, up to 8 cm. long and 2 or 3 cm. 
broad. Lateral veins spreading, roughly parallel, disposed 
at an acute angle to the midrib. Venation not very 
prominent, the leaves covered with oil-dots, and evidently 
rich in oil. 

Floivers. — Very floriferous, umbels leaf-opposed to the 
last leaf, the umbels up to seven in the head with peduncles 
of 1 cm. and pedicels of half that length. The operculum 
pointed when half ripe, but when ripe nearly hemispherical 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 313 

and with an umbo, rather longer than half the length of 
the calyx-tube which is conoid, has (usually) two angles, 
and tapers into the distinct pedicel. 

Filaments pale yellow or cream-coloured, which dry 
orange-red and exhibit a pretty contrast with the cream- 
coloured anthers. Anthers large, creamy-white, opening 
in parallel slits, the gland nearly filling up the back, and 
the filament attached almost at the base. 

Fruits. — Subcylindroid, but not seen ripe. Thin, defined 
rim. The tips of the valves, now represented by a per- 
sistent style and unexpanded stigma, will when ripe prob- 
ably become awl-like and will protrude beyond the orifice, 
in this respect becoming reminiscent of E. oleosa. 

Known only from a cultivated specimen in the King's 
Park, Perth, W.A. (The late Mr. J. Sheath, Superintendent 
up to 1913). Mr. Sheath informed me that he received the 
seed from "the Eastern Gold Fields near the South Aus- 
tralian border" (of Western Australia). 

He further informed me it had been sent to him as E. 
erythronema. I have received additional specimens from 
the same plant from Mr. Sidney William Jackson, of Sydney, 
and from Dr. F. Stoward, Government Botanist of Western 
Australia, whose attention I had invited to the plant. 

I name this plant in memory of Mr. Sheath, a first class 
horticulturist, who was keen on the cultivation of native 
plants. 

Affinities. 

This species belongs to the Macrantherse, of which there 
are many members, and, in absence of the fruits, I am 
unable to indicate any close affinities. 

3. E. Websteriana, n. sp. 

Frutex 6 — 10 pedes altus. Folia immatura glauca, breve 
petiolata, fere rotundata vel apice obtusa, ad 3 cm. diametro. Folia 



314 J. H. MAIDEN. 

matura petiolata, glauca utrinque aeque viridia, crassa, obovata 
ad fere spathulata, aliquando emarginata, margine lata et incras- 
sata, venis non prominulis, patentibus. Petioli -5-1 cm longi. 
Folia 2-4 cm. longa et 1*5 - 2*5 cm. lata. Alabastri gracile 
pedunculo 1 cm. longo, pedicellos dimidio aequilongos ferente. 
Cupula hemisphserica. Operculum hemisphserico-conoideum. 
Antherae in loculamentis parallelis dehiscentes, filamentis basi 
adherentibus, apice glandula. Fructus pedunculati, pedicellati, 
fere hemisphserici, plerumque circiter 9 cm. diametro. Margo 
latissima planaque, valvarum apicibis exsertis. Valvae plerumque 
4. 

Habitat Coolgardie, Western Australia. 

Species ad E. leptopoda?n vergit sed incerte ponatur. 

A shrub six or ten feet high. The branchlets round and 
the bark deciduous. 

Juvenile leaves. — Yellowish-green, slightly or wholly 
glaucous, shortly petiolate nearly circular or with a blunt 
apex, up to 3 cm. in diameter as seen, venation moderately 
prominent, spreading, the lateral veins roughly parallel, 
intramarginal vein scarcely evident. 

Mature leaves. — Petiolate, glaucous, equally green on 
both sides, thick, obovate to almost spathulate, sometimes 
emarginate, venation hardly visible, spreading, with the 
intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge, the 
thickened margin remarkably broad, pale-coloured. Petioles 
*5 to 1 cm. Leaves 2 — 4 cm. long, and 1*5 - 2*5 cm. broad. 

Flowers. — Buds on a slender peduncle of 1 cm. supporting 
slender pedicels of half that length. Calyx tube hemi- 
spherical, operculum hemispheric-conoid. 

The anthers open widely in quite lateral parallel slits, 
filament attached at base, a small gland at the top. It 
flowered on September 16th, 1900, and was observed to 
flower each year during the same month. 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 315 

Fruits. — Pedunculate and pedicellate, remarkably hemi- 
spherical. The fruit usually a hemisphere, with a very 
broad, flat rim, the tips of the valves protruding, but not 
greatly. Valves usually four. Most of the fruits I have 
seen are about *9 cm. in diameter, but I have one 1*1 cm. 
in diameter with a depth similar to that of the other fruits; 
in consequence its appearance is more tazza-like. 

Habitat. — Near Coolgardie, Western Australia, associ- 
ated with E. torquata, Luehmann. (See p. 109, Vol. i of 
my Critical Revision). (Mr. now Dr. 0. L. Webster). 

These two species grow on a range of hills about one 
hundred feet high above the surrounding country. The 
range runs almost due east and west; the country consists 
mostly of iron-stained gravel and boulders lying on decom- 
posed country rock. E. Websteriana occurs four miles 
east of Ooolgardie, at Coolgardie (Toorak), and ten miles 
west of Coolgardie, near the old Southern Cross road and 
railway line. 

Affinities. 

In the present state of our knowledge this is a " strong" 
species, that is to say, we do not know its close relations. 

1. With E. leptopoda, Benth. The nearest approach to 
the remarkable fruit of E. Websteriana is a Tamrnin, W.A. 
specimen of E. leptopoda. (See fig. 8, Plate 73, part xvii, 
Critical Revision). But the juvenile leaves of the two 
species are sharply different, those of E. leptopoda being 
very narrow. The mature leaves also are very different. 
The flowers are much more numerous in E. leptopoda, and 
the anthers are similar. 

2. With E. Oldfieldii, F.v.M. The anthers of the two 
species are very similar. (See Plate 73.) I do not trace 
any other resemblances. 



316 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



3. With E. squamosa, Deane and Maiden. In this species 
the filament is attached slightly at the back but the anthers 
of the two species are otherwise very similar. (See Plate 
73). There is some flattening of the rim in E. squamosa, 
and the shape of the buds (without the filaments), is not 
dissimilar, but I do not trace other resemblances. 

4. With E. pyriformis, Turcz. In this species the gland 
is a little more forward, otherwise the anthers of the two 
species are much the same. I see no other resemblance. 

4. E. Flocktokle, n. sp. 
(Syn. E. oleosa, P.v.M. var. Flocktoni, Maiden.) 

In Part xvi of my "Critical Revision," p. 185, with 
Plate 69, I more fully described a Western Australian 
Eucalypt which I had originally described in "Journ. W.A. 
Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. iii (1911), under the name E. oleosa, 
F.v.M. var. Flocktoni (Flocktonice). 

I am of opinion that it is worthy of specific rank, and 
therefore propose the above name for it. As I have, loc. 
cit., compared and contrasted it with E. oleosa, F.v.M., 
E. faleata Turcz., E. decurva F.v.M., E. torquata Luehm., 
and E. incrassata Labill., and in the present series of notes 
with E. Cooperiana F.v.M., it would appear to be suffici- 
ently discriminated. At the same time it is one of those 
species concerning which additional information would be 
acceptable. 

In addition to the localities already quoted by me, I have 
it from Gnowanerup, thirty miles east of Brome Hill, 
Great Southern Railway, Western Australia (W. O. Grasby). 

The seedlings of E. Flocktonice are remarkable, and may 
thus be described from the earliest stages. 

Hypocotyl long, wiry and angular, crimson. Cotyledons 
bisected, green on the back, with sometimes a purple tip. 
Stem angular, crimson, with prominent oil glands. First 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 317 

leaves narrow linear, alternate. They afterwards become 
opposite. As development proceeds, and while the leaves 
are opposite, they become decurrent in a remarkable degree. 

1 regret it is not possible, at this place, to figure them. 

Its affinities in this respect are with E. salmonophloia, 
F.v.M., the young leaves of which are however glaucous. 

It resembles E. Gillii Maiden in the early stages, but 
the leaves do not then become decurrent. 

5. E. confluens (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden, n. sp. 

Folias maturas solum, alabastros non perfecte maturos et 
fructus habenius, sed planta a specie descripta quaque differe 
videtur. Arbor ramulis teretibus, apicibus paullo angulatis. 
Foliis maturis utrinque nitentibus, angusto-lanceolatis, subfalcatis, 
petiolatis, petioliis circa 2 cm. longis, lamina circa 1 dm. longa et 
plerumque 1 cm. lata. Venis obscuris. Alabastris circa 8 mm. 
longis, operculo cupulaque sub-conicis et fere symmetricis. Sta- 
minis inversis, antheris paralleliter dehiscentibus, dorso glandula. 
Fructibus turbinatis v. conoideis, sessilibus vel pedicello circa 1 
mm , pedunculo communi minore 1 cm., usque ad 7 capitulo, 
circa 5 cm. longis latisque. 

The available material of this plant is very scanty, con- 
sisting of mature leaves, with nearly ripe fruits attached, 
and a few not perfectly ripe buds picked up from the ground. 
It is a tree. In spite of the paucity of the material, I have* 
after careful consideration, come to the conclusion that 
Mr. Fitzgerald's view that it is undescribed is a correct 
one. Ampler material will be available some day. 

Branchlets round, slightly angular at the tips. 

Mature leaves. — Pale-coloured, shiny on both sides, 
narrow-lanceolate, slightly falcate, petiolate, petioles about 

2 cm. and laminae about 1 dm., with an average width of 
about 1 cm. Venation very faint, the lateral veins very 
slender, attached to the midrib at about 60°, the intra- 
marginal vein close to the edge. 



318 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Floivers. — Buds about 8 mm. long, nearly symmetrical 
as regards the calyx-tube and operculum, both of which 
are sub-conical. There is sometimes a pedicel of 1 mm. 
The rim between calyx-tube and operculum is well-defined. 
Stamens inverted, the anthers opening in parallel slits, 
gland at the back, filament attached not quite half way up. 

Fruits, — Turbinate or conoid, not seen quite ripe, sessile 
or with a pedicel of about 1 mm., on a common peduncle of 
under 1 cm., up to 7 in the head, about *5 cm. long and the 
same in breadth, a well-defined narrow rim, slightly domed, 
tips of valves protruded beyond the orifice, and, when ripe, 
they will doubtless be well exsert. 

Habitat. — "Restricted to the sandstone and quartzite 
ranges, table-lands and sandy foot-hills. On the shales of 
Mounts House and Clifton the tree life is largely restricted 
to E. confluens and Grevillea heliosperma. Occurs on the 
conglomerates of Mount Behn." (Fitzgerald in "Kimberley 
Report''). 

Beyond the above, all that has been published by Mr. 
Fitzgerald is a small-scale photographic illustration with 
the words "a narrow-leaved tree; of much wider distribu- 
tion (than E. Mooreana (W.V.F.) Maiden, see this Journal 
xlvii, p. 221) especially north-east of the King Leopold 
Ranges." 1 

Affinities. 
It is evidently a strong species in the present state of 
our knowledge, and additional material must become avail- 
able before one can usefully indicate its relationships. 

6. E. Housbana, (W.V.F.) Maiden, sp. nov. 

Arbor alta, altitudinem 80 feet attinens, aetate opposito-foliata 
florescens. Folia juvenia fere amplexicaulia, petiolis brevibus vel 
absentibus, latissinie lanceolata ad fere ovata, basi cordata, apice 

1 " Western Mail/' (Perth, W.A.) 2nd June, 1906. 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 319 

obtusa, pallida saepa glauca, 8-12 cm. longa, 6-7 cm. lata. 
Venae patentes, venis principis fere parallelibus, margine crassata. 
Folia matura petiolata, alternata, falcata, petiolis 2 cm. longis, 
foliis ad 16 cm. longis et 4 cm. latis. Alabastri, pedunculis bre- 
vibus leniter planis, floribus sessilibus vel fere sessilibus, 4-7 
capitulo. Operculum hemisphsericum circiter dimidio cupula sub- 
angulare aequilongum. Antherae aperientes in fissuris parallelibus, 
versatiles, dorso glandula magna. Fructus non vidimus. 

"Amongst the tallest of the tropical species, occasionally 
reaching a height of 80 feet." 

Particulars as to habit, bark and timber not available. 

Juvenile leaves. — The following description has been 
drawn up from specimens in the flowering (or rather plump 
bud) stage. They represent, as far as we have them at 
present, the juvenile leaf stage; at the same time, they 
are mature to the extent that they are contemporaneous 
with the inflorescence. 

Opposite, almost stem-clasping, the petioles being very 
short or absent ; very broadly lanceolate to nearly ovate, 
cordate at the base, apex blunt-pointed, margin sometimes 
undulate, pale coloured, or entirely glabrous. Length 8 — 
12 cm., width 6-7 cm. 

Venation spreading, the principal veins roughly parallel, 
and making an angle of approximately 60° with the midrib. 
The margin thickened, the intramarginal vein well removed 
from the edge, the venation distinct, particularly on the 
lower surface. 

Mature leaves. — (Petiolate, alternate, lanceolate, falcate, 
with petioles of 2 cm., and leaves up to 16 cm. long and 
4 cm. wide. Venation distinct, the foliage pale-coloured 
and glabrous and the two surfaces scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from each other.) 



320 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Floivers. — Buds with short, slightly flattened peduncles, 
the individual flowers sessile or almost so, 4 to 7 in the 
head as seen. Opercula hemispherical, about half the 
length of the calyx-tube, which tapers only slightly, and 
which is usually sub-angular. 

(Filaments red on drying. Anthers open in parallel slits, 
attachment of filaments versatile, large gland at back.) 

Fruits not seen. 

Habitat. — "In swampy and wet sandy localities, associ- 
ated with the coarser kind of grasses were E. Houseana 
and E. ptychocarpa." (Fitzgerald in "Kimberley Report," 
p. 12). 

Type. — Isdell River near Mount Barnett Homestead, 
Kimberleys, North Western Australia. No. 1014, collected 
by W. V. Fitzgerald, May, 1905. 

The sentences in brackets ( ) have been drawn up from 
specimens (No. 1357) collected at the base of the Artesian 
Range, Kimberleys, by Mr. Fitzgerald. 

I attribute the following four specimens to this species: — 

1. Scientific Expedition of Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer 
(and others) from Darwin to the Roper River, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, July — August, 1911. At Oullen Creek, Prof. 
Spencer collected a specimen with glaucous foliage, twigs 
and buds. Leaves sessile but hardly stem-clasping; 
flowering while the leaves are still opposite. The leaves 
as much as 15 cm. long and half as broad. 

Then I have three specimens from Pine Creek (Railway) 
Northern Territory. 

2. Collected by Dr. H. I. Jensen, Government Geologist, 
Darwin, in August, 1913. His label reads "Sessile leaf, 
white bark, (? smooth bark — J.H.M.), small flower and fruit 
(no fruit available— J.H.M.) rather crooked branches." 
Close to type. 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 321 

3. A similar specimen from E. J. Dunn, Pine Greek 
Railway, same date, also in bud and leaf. 

4. Specimen in leaf, bud and flower from Pine Creek, 
J. H. Niemann, August, 1904. This differs from the type, 
and Nos. 2 and 3, in having distinct pedicels to the flowers. 
There is a slight umbo to the operculum, probably because 
the bud is fully developed. The leaves are mostly narrower- 
lanceolate than the type, and most have distinct, though 
very short, petioles. 

Affinities. 
This is another of the few species which flower in the 
opposite-leaved or juvenile stage. 1 If described from the 
type only, it might have been looked upon as a homoblastic 
species, but the additional material I have quoted shows 
that, like E. praecox (loc. cit.) it is heteroblastic, like the 
vast majority of species of this genus. We can only say 
that it is an example of retarded heteroblasty. 

Other instances of retarded heteroblasty in Eucalyptus 

are 

E. Risdoni, Hook. f. See Plate 32 of my "Critical 

Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus." 

E. Glllii, Maiden. See Plate 67, op. cit. 

E. cinerea, F.v.M. See Plate 89, op. cit. 

E. cinerea, F.v.M. var. multiflora. Plate 90, op. cit. 

E. melanophloia, F.v.M. 

In the absence of a complete suite of specimens and full 
data as regards E. Houseana, I am only able to suggest 
relationships to the following species at present. 

1. With E. alba, Reinw. The flower-buds of E. Houseana 
may resemble those of E. alba a good deal. Exceptionally 
the leaf-blade may resemble that of E. Houseana in shape 
and venation, but that of E. alba is not sessile at any stage, 
not cordate at the base, and is often gross in size. Speaking 

1 Compare, this Journal, xlviii, 424, (1914). 
U— November 3, 1915. 



322 J. H. MAIDEN. 

generally, the foliage of E. alba is not pale-coloured 
whether arising from glaucousness or not. Both species 
flourish in moist, low-lying localities. 

2. With E. clavigera, A. Cunn. It differs from this 
species in the hairiness of the leaves (particularly) in young 
specimens, so common in E. clavigera, in the numerous 
flowers, in the great length of the peduncles and pedicels 
and in the clavate shape of the buds of E. clavigera. The 
shape of the leaves and the venation may, exceptionally, 
be a good deal similar in the two species. 

Appendix. — The name Houseana was used by Mr. Fitz- 
gerald in the "Western Mail," Perth, W.A. of 2nd June, 
1906. No description of the plant was ever published. A 
small scale photograph was accompanied by the following 
words: — "Eucalyptus Houseana, W.V.P. after Dr. F. M. 
House, is among the tallest of the tropical species, it 
occasionally reaching a height of 80 feet. This tree 
usually occurs on well-grassed plains between the Isdell 
and Oharnley Rivers." 

Following are notes on species already published. 
1. E. angophoroidbs, R. T. Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, xxv, 676. 
This species is described as from Colombo, N.S.W., and 
Towrang, N.S.W. 

Some years ago I received from Mr. Baker specimens (in 
bud) from Towrang, which he attributed to this species 
and which I attributed to E. Stuartiana, F.v.M. var. 
parviflora, and still hold that view. 

Recently, having received certain specimens from Mr. 
R. H. Oambage which had been collected by Mr. E. O. 
Andrews, at Wyndham, on the Pambula-Bombala road, I 
went into the matter again, and find that they are identical 
with Mr. Baker's Colombo specimens, and I agree with him 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 323 

as to the validity of his species so far as the Colombo 
specimens are concerned. Further search at Towrang 
reveals no E. angophoroides, but confirms the previous 
determination of E. Stuartiana. 

The error is to be regretted, and I would point out the 
inconvenience of giving more than one locality for a type. 

The combination of the two species is perpetuated in my 
notes of E. Stuartiana, F.v.M. at page 68, part xxiv of my 
"Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus," now in the 
press, but the type was distributed before I could point 
out the confusion. 

I have also received this plant under the name of "Cab- 
bage Box" from Mr. William Dunn from Yourie, about 
thirty miles westerly from Bermagui, on the Tuross waters. 
The locality is useful, as we do not at present know the 
range of this species. 

2. E. calycogona, Turcz., new for Queensland. 

I have dealt with this species in Part iii of my "Critical 
Revision," and constituted two varieties, gracilis (E. 
gracilis, F.v.M. partim) and celastroicles (E. celastroides, 
Turcz.) 

These varieties run into each other, and I compared 
them 1 with the view of ascertaining if they could be kept 
apart as species, but failed. 

Normal species. — The angular budded and fruited form 
of the normal species seems very distinct at first sight, 
but there is a perfect series of transition forms with var. 
gracilis. There seems to be no important differences in 
the size of the three forms. The two varieties are trees 
of small or medium size. E. calycogona is less well known, 
but Mr. Walter Gill, Conservator of Forests, Adelaide, 

1 Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc, in, 169, (1911). 



324 J. H. MAIDEN. 

sends me a photograph of a tree twenty-five feet in height 
and Mr. Max Koch says that it is a tree of thirty feet at 
Oowcowing, Western Australia. Some forms of var. 
gracilis perhaps showing hybridism, may be larger. 

Additional localities (normal species) are "Mallee," 
Parilla, near Pinnaroo, near the South Australian-Victorian 
border, with juvenile as well as mature foliage, flowers 
and fruits (W. Gill). Murray Bridge to Callington, S.A. 
(J. M. Black). "White Mallee," Sea Lake, Mallee Country, 
Victoria (C. French, Jr.) Mildura, a form intermediate 
between E. calycogona and var. gracilis (W. S. Campbell). 

Var. celastroides, Maiden. 
Perhaps specimens from Stamford Hill, Port Lincoln, 
S.A. (J.H.M.) and Fowler's Bay, S.A. (Dr. R. S. Rogers) 
may be looked upon as forms intermediate between this 
and var. gracilis. A little coarser than var. gracilis, fruit 
larger than var. gracilis, and the calyx distinctly angled, 
though not so conspicuous as in the normal form. The 
urceolate fruit of var. celastroides is ofteu a useful guide. 

Var. gracilis, Maiden. 

Mueller's type of E. gracilis came from the Murray 
River, S.A. The oil dots of the buds are prominent, and a 
tendency to an angled calyx-tube is nearly always present. 
There is some variation in this form in regard to the size 
of the fruits and the length and thickness of the pedicel, 
which is not surprising, considering its wide range. It 
varies a good deal in regard to the quantity of oil in the 
leaves. 

Mr. Max Koch, referring to trees at Oowcowing, W.A., 
speaks of a small cylindroid fruited specimen as follows: — 
"A tall tree of fifty or sixty feet high, trunk with rough 
persistent bark, upper branches smooth. Known as 'Mor- 
rel.' It grows in forests amongst Gimlet (E. salubris, F. v.M.) 
and Salmon Gums (E. salmonophloia, F.v.M.), and is more 
plentiful than the other so-called 'Morrel.'" 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 325 

The use of the name "Morrel," which is one of the most 
used names in Western Australia, is referred to in my 
"Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus," Part xv, pp. 
166-7. It is usually applied to E. oleosa, F.v.M. var. 
longicornis, F.v.M. 

Mr. Fred. Brockman, then Ohief Surveyor of Western 
Australia, and whose knowledge of the trees of that State 
was very extensive, in an interesting interview, 1 suggested 
hybridism in regard to the "Morrel." He suggests that 
the Yate (E. occidentalis, Endl.) from the south coast of 
Western Australia and the Morrel from the Eastern district 
of Western Australia (E. oleosa, F.v.M. var. longicornis, 
F.v.M.) probably have met say in the latitude of Katanning, 
and "from the common point a process of hybridising has 
proceeded spreading northward until Yate is lost in Morrel, 
and southward until Morrel is lost in Yate." 

The late Mr. Henry Johnston, Surveyor General of 
Western Australia told me that he had given the descriptive 
name "Yorrel" to a supposed hybrid between York Gum 
(E. foecunda, Schauer) and the Morrel; it seemed to him 
to have the timber of the York Gum and the twigs of the 
Morrel. 

I have not been able to obtain twigs of any of Mr. Brock- 
man's or of Mr. Johnston's supposed hybrids, so I cannot 
express an opinion as to their botanical relationships, but 
I think it is highly probable that hybridism does explain 
the puzzling variations to be referred to in regard to the 
Morrels. 

In Journ. W. A. Nat. Hist. Soc, in, 168, (1911) I identified 
a specimen of var. gracilis from near Salt River, ten miles 
east of County Peak, Beverley, W.A., as the " Parker 
Gum" of the new settlers, "but not to be confused with 

' " Western Mail/' (Perth), 15th January, 1910. 



326 J. H. MAIDEN. 

the true "Parker Gum" allied to or identical with the 
Morrel " (E. oleosa var. longicornis). 

So here we have, from two sources, var. gracilis known 
as "Morrel." We also know that the true "Morrel" is 
E. oleosa, P.v.M. var. longicornis, F.v.M. The two trees 
are also known colloquially as " Parker Gum." The bush- 
man recognises the affinity of E. calycogona, Turcz. var. 
gracilis, Maiden and E. oleosa, F.v.M. var. longicornis, 
F.v.M. and botanicaily there is no doubt that the species 
E. calycogona and E. oleosa are closely related. 

Additional localities are : — 

Sandhills east of Ooldea, S.A. Transcontinental Railway 
Survey. A graceful Mallee of about twenty feet, "Congel" 
of the blacks, who eat the bark of the root. A dwarf, 
comparatively sturdy Mallee, Streaky Bay, S.A. — (Henry 
Deane.) 

It is not common in New South Wales, having been 
recorded hitherto from such dry areas as Mount Hope (on 
the Euabalong road) and Went worth. We want to be able 
to define its New South Wales range better. 

A Queensland form. — I now desire to invite attention 
to a form first received from Mr. Ivie Murchie from Nor- 
manton, Queensland, not far from the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
in November, 1911, under the name of "Box Wood." 

Enquiries failed to elicit any further particulars until 
Mr. R. H. Cambage collected it at the same place in 
August, 1913. He obtained a full suite of specimens and 
furnished the following particulars: — "No. 3930. Small 
Box-trees of ten to thirty feet, sometimes suggestive of 
Mallee. Leaves bright green, somewhat shiny, give no 
odour of oil when crushed. Box-bark on trunk and large 
branches. Upper branches sometimes smooth and greenish. 

"Formation pebbly (ironstone) and sandy; Cretaceous? 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 327 

"Also occurs on Normanton-Cloncurry road between 
Normanton and Flinders River." 

So far as I am aware, var. gracilis has not been recorded 
previously from nearer than 1500 miles and it is not to be 
surprised that the Normanton specimens differ a little from 
the type. I fail to get hold of any characters of sufficient 
importance to separate it from var. gracilis, and therefore 
note E. calycogona var. gracilis as an addition to the 
Queensland flora. 

Compared with typical var. gracilis, the leaves are of a 
different texture, and there is a sticky exudation in patches, 
the result of insect punctures. 

Mr. Cambage's note of absence of oil does not mean that 
there is no oil at all, for the oil dots can be seen and are 
not scarce, but in comparison with other forms, there is an 
absence of oil. At the same time the leaves from southern 
specimens of var. gracilis vary a good deal in oil-content. 
The most important character is that the inflorescence is 
terminal in the Normanton specimens (chiefly those of Mr. 
Murchie), whereas it seems to be usually axillary in all 
our other specimens. 

3. E. Cooperiana, F.v.M., Fragm. xi, 83, (1880). 

Described without fruit. Mueller (loc. cit) said that 
Bentham had placed it under E. decurva, F.v.M. That 
this is not correct may be seen on reference to Part xvi of 
my "Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus." 

At one time I thought it might be included under E. 
cladocalyx, F.v.M., but the peduncles and pedicels of E. 
Cooperlana are broader than those of E. cladocalyx, while 
the anthers are as a rule very different, but those of E. 
cladocalyx are exceptionally variable. 

It is nearer to E. Flocktonice, from which it differs in the 
broad peduncles and pedicels, the broader leaves and the 



328 J. H. MAIDEN. 

operculum, which is long in E. Flocktonice. At the same 
time it is a species which requires further investigation. 

Although Mueller said he had not seen it in fruit, I have 
received from Prof. Ewart a small twig bearing two not 
fully developed fruits, which certainly bear some general 
resemblance to those of E. Flocktonice. 

4. E. falcata, Turcz. 
(Syn. E. Dorrienii, Domin.) 

E. Dorrienii was described by Domin in Fedde's "Reper- 
torium specierum nov. reg. veget." xn, 388 (1913). 

The author says in his opinion it is nearest to E. decurva, 
F.v.M.. and also compares it with E. oleosa, F.v.M., and 
E. falcata, Turcz. In comparing it with the last species, 
he says "E. falcata reminds us of it in the ribbed calyx- 
tube but differs from it greatly in the operculum." 

I am in possession of a quarto drawing of the type in the 
Kew Herbarium done by Miss M. Smith, and also a frag- 
ment of the type. I fail to see in what way E. Dorrienii 
differs from E. falcata. The opercula of the two species 
are precisely similar. See Plate 68, Part xv of my "Critical 
Revision of the genus Eucalyptus." 

The suggestion of the affinity of E. Dorrienii (falcata) 
with E. decurva is doubtless founded on the same error 
that I have pointed out in my "Critical Revision," Part 
xvi, p. 193. 

5. E. Kruseana, F.v.M. 

(Syn. E. Morrisoni, Maiden.) 

This was described in the "Australian Journal of Phar- 
macy" (Melbourne) for August, 1895, p. 233. 

I described E. Morrisoni in the " Journ. Nat. Hist, and 
Science Soc. of W.A., Vol. in, p. 44 (1910). I find that the 
two species are identical, and therefore E. Morrisoni must 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 329 

fall. I endeavoured to see Mueller's type many years ago, 
but it was detained by Mueller's trustees for a number of 
years, and was not seen by me until Prof. Ewart showed 
it to me in August, 1911. 

Mueller's locality for the type is given in the description 
as "Fraser's Range, South Western Australia." The 
specimen itself bears the inscription "100 miles north of 
Israelite Bay" and doubtless refers to the same locality. 
My locality for E. Morrisoni is " 50 — 150 miles east of 
Kalgoorlie," Transcontinental Railway Survey, is new, but 
is in the same general locality as the preceding. 

6. E. odorata, Behr and Schlecht. 

This tree is so imperfectly known as a member of the 
New South Wales flora, that the following particulars in 
regard to a tree which I critically examined on the spot 
will be acceptable. 

Fairly large tree, trunk eighteen inches in diameter. 
Bark black, scaly, hard. Timber excessively hard and 
interlocked, deep brownish-red in colour, certainly with a 
shade of red in it. Foliage dull ; juvenile leaves narrow. 
Buds clavate and somewhat angular, fruits small, shiny, 
hemispherical-cylindroid, tips of valves well sunk, pedun- 
cles long, pedicels short. 

Not well known in the district, and hence called "Bastard 
Box," a term often applied by bushmen to a tree they do 
not well know, and not necessarily suggestive of hybridism. 

Girilambone, 410 miles west of Sydney, on the Travelling 
Stock Route from Railway Station in direction of the Mine, 
half a mile from the Station. 

The above tree a friend tested with an axe, and timber 
and bark and complete set of specimens were obtained. It 
is the type form of E. odorata, nearest to that described 
as E. cajuputea, F.v.M. (Crit. Rev., Part xi, p. 27) in con- 



330 J. H. MAIDEN. 

tradistinction to var. calcicultrix, Miq. (op. cit., p. 28), 
which favours limestone areas. This specimen shows that 
the typical form obtains great development in New South 
Wales. 

Although I did not preserve the timber, and the particular 
trees were somewhat smaller, the following specimens are 
referable to the same species. 

"Mallee Box" (the local name) twelve to fourteen inches 
diameter. Peppermint-scaly bark up to branches. A very 
tough, hard wood. Fruits variable in size, some very small. 
From Ooolabah Station, four and a half miles on the road 
to the late Ooolabah Experiment Farm. 

7. E. papuana, F.v.M., Mueller's Papuan Plants, I, 8 (1875). 

(Syn. E. clavigera, A. Cunn. var. Dallachiana, Maiden.) 

In the Journal of this Society, xlvii, 76 (1913), I drew 
attention to a Queensland tree which, in my opinion had 
been erroneously looked upon as a variety (Dallachiana) of 
E. tesselaris, F.v.M. I suggested that it is a form of E. 
clavigera, A. Ounn., and I still am of opinion that it is 
closer to that variable species than to E. tesselaris. 

But for some time past I have held the opinion that it 
might be worthy of specific rank, and Mr. R. H. Cambage, 
who the year before last botanised in Northern Queensland, 
independently came to the same conclusion, stating that, 
in his opinion, it is sufficiently distinct from E. clavigera. 

E. papuana was described by Mueller from complete 
herbarium material, but the specimens have disappeared 
from the Melbourne Herbarium, with the exception of some 
leaves, one of which has been presented by Prof. Ewart to 
me. Careful study of the description, and examination of 
the leaf, leaves very little doubt in my mind that it is 
identical with my E. clavigera var. Dallachiana. 



NOTES ON EUCALYPTUS. 331 

The line of demarcation, at least as regards leaves, 
between E. clavigera and E. clavigera Dallachiana (E. 
papuana) is, however, not sharp, particularly as regards 
Melville Island and Papuan specimens. I will bring this out 
in my "Critical Revision," as illustrations are necessary. 

E. papuana came from the mainland of New Guinea 
(Papua), opposite Yule Island, and about twelve miles 
distant from the shore. 

8. B. Seeana, Maiden, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxix, 469, 

(1904). 

Following are additional localities for a species at one time 
deemed to be rare: — 

Port Macquarie to Telegraph Point, near the seven-mile 
post from the former place. In poor ill-drained land. (R. H. 
Oambage and J.H.M.) 

Tree three feet in diameter and fifty feet high, larger 
than I have previously seen it. With pedicels thicker than 
in the type. The prevalent colour of the foliage is dull, 
and it is somewhat rich in oil. We found numbers of very 
narrow-leaved seedlings. 

There is some general similarity in the appearance of the 
seedlings of E. Seeana and E. squamosa, Deane and Maiden, 
but the cotyledon leaves are bilobed in the former case, and 
bisected in the latter. 

"Cabbage Gum," Tooloom. Occurring at various points 
between Drake and Tabulam. Good for posts but bad for 
splitting or sawing. Withstands bush fires, which run 
round it and only blacken it." (R. H. Cambage, No. 2898.) 



332 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JJENOLAN OAVES DISTRICT. 
By O. A. Sussmilch, f.g.s., and W. G. Stone. 

With Plates LV, LVI. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, December 1, 1915. .] 

Part I. General Geology. 

By C. A. Sussmilch. 

A. Introduction. 

B. Previous Observers. 
C Physiography. 

D. General Geology. 

(a) The (?) Ordovician Strata — The Radiolarian Cherts. 
(6) The Silurian Strata. 

1. The Limestones. 

2. The Slates. 

3. The Quartzites. 

4. The Rhyolite Porphyry, 
(c) The Igneous Intrusions. 

1. The Andesites. 

2. The Quartz Porphyrites. 

3. The Felsites. 

4. The Diorite. 

A. Introduction. 
The field work upon which this investigation is based was 
started some ten years ago for the purpose of providing 
practical field instruction for the students of the geology 
classes of the Sydney Technical College. On each sub- 
sequent annual visit a few days have been spent in con- 
tinuing the work, but as the time available was always 
short, and as much attention had to be given on each visit 
to the demonstration of ordinary geological principles, the 
work has necessarily been slow and limited to that part of 
the district immediately adjoining the Oaves. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 333 

The Jenolan Caves form such an important tourist centre 
and are visited by so mauy who are interested in geology, 
that it will no doubt serve a useful purpose if the inform- 
ation thus gathered together be now placed on record. 

The Jenolan Caves occur in the Parish of Jenolan, in the 
County of Westmoreland, N.S.W., and are situated on the 
Jenolan River a short distance from its source on the 
eastern fall of the Main Divide. They are about thirty-six 
miles from Mount Victoria, which is the railway station 
from which visitors usually journey to the Caves, and from 
which there is a splendid motor road. 

The scope of the present paper is limited to a description 
of the geology and petrology of the country immediately 
adjoining the Jenolan Caves, but in order to completely 
solve some of the geological problems of this region, a 
detailed examination of a much more extensive area would 
be necessary, than we have had time or opportunity to 
carry out. 

B. Previous Observers. 
In 1892 Mr. R. Etheridge, Jr., 1 recorded the occurrence 
of Pentamerus Knightii and other fossils in the Jenolan 
limestone, and expressed the opinion that the geological 
age approximated to the Aymesbury Limestone of England. 
In 1896 Prof. T. W. E. David 2 in a paper on "Radiolaria 
in Palaeozoic Rocks," gave a brief description of the geo- 
logical features of the Jenolan Cave District with particular 
reference to the occurrence of the radiolarian cherts. 

In 1911, one of us (C. A. Sussmilch) 3 contributed a pre- 
liminary note on the geology of the Jenolan Caves District 

1 Records Geological Survey, N.S. Wales, Vol. in, part ii, 1892, p. 57. 

2 The occurrence of Radiolaria in Palaeozoic Rocks in N.S. Wales by 
Prof. T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1896, Vol. xxi, 
pt. iv, p. 553. 

3 Note on the Geology of Jenolan by C. A. Sussmilch, f.g.s., Austr. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1911, p. 120. 



334 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

to The Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science. This was published in abstract only. In 1913 
the same writer 1 gave a brief abstract of the geology of 
the Jenolan District in his Introduction to the Geology of 
New South Wales. 

C. Physiography. 
The Jenolan Oaves occur in one of the valleys of the 
western part of the Blue Mountain Tableland. A general 
description of the physiography of this tableland has already 
been published by the writer, 2 and a more detailed descrip- 
tion is in course of preparation, so that only a brief account 
is necessary here. 

That part of the Blue Mountain Tableland in which the 
Jenolan Oaves occur has an altitude of from 3750 to 4000 
feet, and its surface is a peneplain cut out of highly inclined 
Palaeozoic strata and their associated igneous intrusives. 
This peneplain is of Tertiary age and was elevated to its 
present position at the close of the Tertiary Period (Kos- 
ciusko Epoch). Rising above the general level of this 
peneplain are residuals of the older tableland out of which 
it has been cut; Mount Bindo is an example and is 4460 
feet in altitude. 

Since the uplift of the tableland it has been deeply 
dissected by stream action, and is now traversed by a series 
of deep gorges; it is in one of these gorges, that of the 
Jenolan River, that the Jenolan Oaves occur. In the Blue 
Mountain Tableland as a whole, the present cycle of erosion 
has reached early maturity, but in the Jenolan Oave Dis- 
trict, which is close to the Main Divide, the valleys are 
still in the youthful stage of their development and are 

1 An Introduction to the Geology of New South Wales, by C. A. Suss- 
milch. Government Printer, Sydney, 1913, and 2nd Edition, Angus and 
Robertson, 19 L4. 

2 Handbook for the New South Wales Meeting of the British Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science, Sydney, 1914. The Central Table- 
land of N.S. Wales, by C. A. Siissmilch, p. 495, (1914). 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 335 

typical V-shaped gorges with steep grades, steep walls and 
narrow bases. So steep are the valley walls that landslips 
are frequent. The whole region is very rugged and difficult 
of access, and geological field-work, except along the few 
roads and pathways, is both difficult and arduous. 

The limestone caves occur where the Jenolan River and 
its tributary McEwens Creek, have cut their channels 
across a thick bed of limestone (the Gave limestone), the 
various cave levels representing successive levels of the 
streams' channels as they cut their way downwards from 
the tableland surface. Owing to the extent to which the 
limestone resists mechanical erosion as compared with the 
slates and cherts which lie on either side of it, it now 
stands as a great wall across the course of the stream from 
one side of the valley to the other, and entirely cutting 
off the head of the valley from that part below. The drain- 
age from the upper valley passes through this wall by 
means of natural tunnels carved out of the limestone by 
chemical action, such as the Grand Arch and the Devil's 
Coach-house. This limestone wall, at its lowest part, rises 
300 feet above the present stream channel. The Gave 
House is in the upper valley and the road to it from Mount 
Victoria passes through the Grand Arch (see PI. LV). This 
great wall of limestone is a most impressive feature, par- 
ticularly when viewed along the direction of its strike, and 
from a position where one can see how completely the 
upper valley is cut off from the lower valley by it. 

In their geological features the Jenolan Oaves do not 
differ from other limestone caves, and for a detailed 
description of them the reader is referred to the excellent 
guide-book written by Mr. O. Trickett, l.s., and published 
by the Department of Mines. Each of the cave-levels 
marks the one time channel of the Jenolan River or one of 
its tributaries, and all of them contain deposits of river- 



336 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

gravel, some of the pebbles of which reach a foot or more 
in diameter; the rivers themselves still flow through the 
lowest cave-levels. 

A word might be said here about the probable age of the 
Oaves; observations have been made of the present rate of 
growth of some of the stalactites and stalagmites in the 
caves, and assuming that the rate of growth so obtained to 
have been the same ever since the caves first began to form, 
estimates of many million years have been made as to the 
age even of some of the stalactites. It is obvious that the 
Jenolan Oaves could not have been formed before the valley 
in which they occur was formed, and this cannot date back 
beyond the end of the Tertiary Period, when the tableland 
was uplifted to its present height. The most liberal esti- 
mates of the length of time which has elapsed since the 
end of the Tertiary Period do not exceed 1,000,000 years, 
while many estimates do not exceed 500,000 years. The 
present caves occur more than 1000 feet below the tableland 
level, so their age must be considerably less than that of the 
valley as a whole; it is therefore quite improbable that the 
age, even of the oldest of the caves can exceed 500,000 
years. 

D. General Geology. 

The various rock formations met with in travelling from 

Mount Victoria to the Jenolan Caves may be classified, 

according to geological age, as follows: — 

Mesozoic Triassic Hawkesbury Series. 

^ ~ , .„ f Upper Goal Measures. 

Permo-Oarbomferous \ ^ Marine geries _ 

f Granites, quartz porphyrites, 
Upper Devonian] felsites, Mount Lambie Beds, 
Iquartzites, etc. 

«» . f Jenolan Series — Slates, quartzites, 
biiunan <j limestones and r t]yolite lavas. 

(?) Ordovician — Jenolan radiolarian cherts. 



Palaeozoic 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN OAVES DISTRICT. 337 

The Triassic and Permo-Carborriferous strata do not occur 
within the area dealt with here and will not be further 
referred to; this applies also to the Mount Lambie Series 
of Upper Devonian age. The sedimentary formations actu- 
ally occurring in proximity to the caves are of (?)Ordovician 
and Silurian age, and these are intruded by igneous rocks 
of late Devonian age. 

(a) The (?) Ordovician Strata. 
The Radiolarian Cherts. — These lie to the west of the 
Cave limestone, and are well shown in the cuttings along 
the Tarana Road in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Cave House. They vary from jet black to bluish-grey in 
colour, are exceedingly compact and fine-grained, and rarely 
exhibit stratification ; when the latter is visible it is marked 
by a series of alternating thin layers of lighter and darker 
material. 

Prof. T. W. E. David has already described these beds 
as follows: — 

"Immediately overlying the limestone are fine-grained dark 
clay-shales and argillites and black cherts. Mr. V. Wyburd, the 
guide to the Caves, informs me that these must be at least 1000 
feet in thickness. The dark shales are not distinctly cherty except 
where they are in close proximity to the eruptive dykes. The 
cherty character of the beds in this case is due therefore, I think, 
to contact metamorphism rather than to silica derived from radio- 
larian shells. Both the black cherts and the softer and less 
siliceous dark grey shales abound in casts of radiolaria. The casts 
are in the best state of preservation in the cherty bands." 

No attempt has been made on our part to determine the 
actual thickness of these beds, but they are unquestionably 
very thick, probably considerably more so than the 1000 
feet mentioned above. We are also of opinion that their 
cherty nature is independent of their contact with the 
igneous dykes as they possess this character at distances 

V— December 1, 1915. 



338 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

too far away to have been effected by them. One sample 
taken from locality A on the map (Plate LV) yielded on 
analysis 70*1% of silica. These cherts and dark claystones 
&re so poorly stratified and are so crowded with joints that 
it is difficult, except in a few places, to determine their true 
dip and strike. Until quite recently it had always been 
supposed that they were conformable with the Cave lime- 
stone and geologically above it, and that they, therefore, 
were a part of the Silurian series. A more careful field study 
made by us this year resulted in finding a number of places 
where the dip and strike departed widely from that of the 
Cave limestone. The observed strikes range from N. 10° W. 
to N. 45° E., the positions of some of these are shown on the 
accompanying geological map. The strike of the Gave 
limestone is about N. 20° W., while its dip is westerly at 
from 60° to 65°. In some places, notably at A on the map, 
the strike of the cherts parallels that of the limestone, but 
the dip is easterly at a high angle, that is towards the 
limestone, and in the opposite direction to the dip of the 
latter. The general strike of the radiolarian cherts appears 
to be about N. 45° B., while the dip is typically a very high 
angle, in many places almost vertical. 

These facts strongly suggest that an unconformity exists 
between the radiolarian cherts and the Silurian limestone, 
and if this be so, then their relative positions suggest that 
they have been brought together by overthrust faulting. 
If these conclusions are correct then the overthrust parallels 
the main axis of folding of the Silurian strata (N. 20° W.) 
and the tangential thrust which produced it must have 
come from the west. 

The probability of such an unconformity receives support 
from another feature. The radiolarian cherts are intruded 
by a large dyke of andesite; this intrusion is adjacent to 
the contact of the cherts and limestones. If the radiolarian 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 339 

cherts were lying conformably above the limestones, the 
intrusive andesites would probably have broken through 
the downward continuation of the limestone in order to 
reach its present position in the cherts. No evidence has 
yet been found that the andesite is intrusive into the lime- 
stone, and no inclusions of limestone have yet been found 
in it, whereas inclusions of chert fragments are common. 
The quartz-porphyrite intrusions lying to the east of the 
Gave limestone, on the other hand, contain abundant 
included fragments of limestone, even at considerable 
distances from the contacts. These facts are difficult 
of explanation except on the supposition that both cherts 
and andesites are older than the limestone and have been 
faulted against it. 

There is still one other factor which has a bearing on 
this problem. At the eastern leg of the Jenolan anticline 
(see section), the limestone is overlain by a thick series of 
argillaceous quartzites, these are at least 1000 feet in 
thickness. These quartzites therefore occupy the same 
horizon in the eastern leg of the anticline that the radio- 
larian cherts would in the western leg if the latter were 
conformable with the limestone. It is difficult to imagine 
conditions such as that at two places so near to one another 
there should be a simultaneous deposition of radiolarian 
cherts and quartzites, the one a relatively deep-water 
deposit and the other a shallow- water deposit, particularly 
in view of the great thickness of both deposits. 

If the black radiolarian cherts are older than the Silurian 
limestones, what then is their actual geological age? Litho- 
logically they much resemble the Ordovician strata from 
such localities as Oadia, Tallong and Berridale ; further, the 
occurrence of radiolaria in Ordovician strata is common in 
New South Wales, although it must not be forgotten that 
radiolaria have been identified by Prof. David in the slates 



340 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

underlying the Cave limestone and which are of Silurian 
age, although he referred to these as being doubtful. It 
would appear probable therefore that these Jenolan radio- 
larian cherts are of Ordovician age. While it cannot yet 
be said to have been definitely proved, the balance of 
evidence at present available strongly suggests therefore, 
that (a) the radiolarian cherts of Jenolan are unconformable 
with and older than the Silurian strata and (b) that they 
are probably of Ordovician age. 

(b) The Silurian Strata. 

These include limestones, slates, and quartzites, with what 
is probably a contemporaneous rhyolite lava flow. The 
succession of strata in descending order is as follows : — 



Argillaceous quartzites and slates 1000' + ( ac *rtaow? ness ) 


Slates 


... 100' 


Limestones... 


... 550' 


Slates 


... 100' 


Rhyolite lava flow 


... 300 x 


Slates 


1 Ann' _l_ /actual thickness \ 
... 1UUU -t{ unknown. ) 



These strata have a general strike of about N. 15° W. to 
N. 20° W., and in the district mapped form part of a great 
anticline. This anticline is a symmetrical one, the eastern 
and western legs both dipping at an angle of about 60°. 
Extensive intrusions of quartz-porphyrite have taken place 
along the axis of the anticlines, particularly in the slate* 
below the limestone, and near the contact of these intru- 
sives some local irregularities of dip occur in the slate. 

1. The Limestones. — Two belts of limestone occur in the 
region examined, (a) the one in which the Jenolan Caves 
occur, and (b) the limestone which outcrops to the east in 
the banks of Jenolan River about two miles below the 
Grand Arch. The former will for convenience be referred 
to as the Cave limestone, the latter as the eastern lime- 
stone belt. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 



341 



The Cave limestone is about 550 feet thick, strikes 
N. 20° W. and extends north with an unbroken outcrop for 
three miles and southwards for upwards of two miles. It 
is bluish-grey to blue-black in colour and is very massive 
in character and almost devoid of bedding planes; near the 
top of the bed however, some interstratification with shales 
takes place and the bedding planes thus become marked. 




Fig. 1. — Sketch Section of Strata, Jenolan District, on line W Z on map. (Plate LV). 
Vertical Scale 1 inch = 2500 feet. Horizontal Scale 1 inch = 2000 feet. 

A Radiolarian cherts (? Ordovician), B Silurian slates; C Rhyolite porphyry (? Lava 
Flow); D Gave limestone; E Eastern limestone belt; F Qaartzttes; (x Intrusive andesite; 
H Quartz-porphyrite (pink variety); I Quartz-porphyrite (green variety); K Probable 
overthrust fault; S Grand Arch. 

Tins may be seen on the Tarana road, at the place marked 
B on the map, just above the Cave House; the dip here is 
to the west at about 60°. Jointing is, however, strongly 
developed, there being in general two main sets, approxi- 
mately at right angles to one another ; these are well shown 
in the Devil's Ooach House and at the eastern entrance to 
the Grand Arch. In the Lucas Cave large masses of lime- 
stone have broken away from the roof of the cave and here 
the joints are particularly well shown. 

Visible fossils are not frequent except in a few localities 
the best being the road-cutting on the Tarana Road about 
a quarter of a mile from the Cave House, just at the sharp 
bend behind the Engineer's cottage at the place marked C 
on the map. The following is a list of those fossils so far 
identified from this district: — 

Hydrozoa ...Stromatopora 

Actinozoa ...Favosites gothlandica,Heliolites porosa 

Crinoidea ...Stems and ossicles 



342 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

Brachiopda ...Pentamerus(Conchiclium) Knightii 
Gasteropoda... Palaeoniso Brazieri, Loxonema antiqua 

(?) Velotuba 
Cephalopoda . . . Orthoceras, Lituites 
Trelobita ...Sphaerexochus mirus, (?) Phacops. 
These have been determined by Messrs. R. Etheridge, Jr. 
and W. S. Dun. Of these fossils Pentamerus, Favosites, 
and Stromatopora are the most abundant. 

The eastern bed of limestone, as already pointed out, lies 
to the east of the cave limestone, and strikes about N. 20° 
west, but it dips to the east at an angle of about 65°. It is 
not so massive as the Gave limestone and is more definitely 
stratified, there being frequent intercalation of beds of 
shale. No fossils have yet been obtained from this bed. 

The relative position of these two limestone beds with 
regard to one another and to the associated strata, indi- 
cate that they are part of one and the same bed, the Cave 
limestone occurring in the western leg of a great anticline, 
the other occurring in the eastern leg of the same anticline. 

On top of the ridge formed by the Gave limestone, 
remarkable examples of the "rills" or grooves formed by 
the chemical action of rain-water upon the surface of the 
limestone outcrops may be seen; some of these simulate in 
a remarkable way the drainage system of a steep mountain 
range; these are particularly well shown on the top of the 
Lucas Rocks, and above the Carlotta Arch. 

2. The Slates. — These are typical examples of the so- 
called Silurian slates of New South Wales, and are well 
shown in the road-cutting on the Mount Victoria Road for 
the last four miles before reaching the Caves. In colour 
they may be light-grey, bluish-grey, red, or dark-green; 
they are much jointed and usually break more readily along 
the joint planes than along the laminations, but do not 
possess the fissile structure of a typical roofing slate. The 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 343 

fracture displays a lustrous surface due to the presence of 
minute mineral particles which have resulted from regional 
metamorphism. They are for the most part thinly bedded, 
but some massive strata also occur. Professor David has 
referred to the occurrence of doubtful Radiolar la in some 
of these slates, but otherwise they are unfossiliferous. 
This question of the occurrence of Radiolaria has not been 
further investigated by us. 

Quite apart from the small amount of contact meta- 
morphism shown at their junction with the intrusive igneous 
rocks to be referred to later, they exhibit a*varying amount 
of regional metamorphism which has resulted in the 
development of minute crystals of secondary minerals. 
These are too small to be seen in hand specimens, but their 
presence is indicated by the lustrous surfaces given when 
the rock is split. Denudation has not cut deep enough into 
the Jenolan anticline to reveal the true thickness of these 
slates, and owing to the extent to which they have been 
intruded by later igneous rocks, it is difficult to determine 
the thickness of that portion exposed, but it must be at least 
2000 feet. Excellent exposures of these slates can be seen> 
along the cuttings of the Mount Victoria-Jenolan Road, 
quite close to the Grand Arch. 

The association of limestone and slates at Jenolan, and 
the particularly favourable conditions for quarrying them,, 
would give ideal conditions for the manufacture of Portland 
cement, were it not for the great difficulty of access, 
owing to the very rugged nature of the country between 
here and the nearest railway-line. 

3. The Quartzites. — These are almost pure white in 
colour, are very fine-grained and more or less argillaceous; 
they are also thinly-bedded and much jointed. They out- 
crop extensively along the bed of Jenolan River immediately 
to the east of the eastern bed of limestone, where they lie 



344 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



geologically above the limestones, but separated from them 
by a thickness of about 100 feet of slates. No fossils have 
yet been found in these beds, although very little search 
has yet been made for them. 

4. The Jenolan Rhyolite-porphyry . — This occurs almost 
immediately to the east of the Gave limestone, being sepa- 
rated from it by a thickness of 100 feet of slates only. Its 
bold massive outcrop may be seen crossing the valley just 
below the Grand Arch, where it forms a very prominent 
feature. It has the same direction of strike as the Gave 
limestone and appears to have a similar dip. Mr. V. 
Wyburd informs me that this outcrop may be traced for 
many miles in a southerly direction, always occupying a 
position parallel to and east of the Gave limestone. 

In the hand specimen, this rock has all the characters of 
a typical intrusive quartz-porphyry; it is almost white in 
colour, and is usually markedly porphyritic, containing 
large phenocrysts of quartz and felspar set in an aphanitic 
groundmass. It resists weathering, giving bold rugged 
outcrops, and so resistant is it to the forces of denudation 
that the valley of Jenolan Greek narrows markedly where 
it crosses the outcrop of this rock at the " bathing- pool" 
just below the engine-house. In the valley of McEwans 
Greek about a mile north of the Grand Arch at a place 
marked D on the map. This rock is not porphyritic and 
exhibits a well developed flow structure; the width of 
outcrop here is much narrower than where it is crossed by 
Jenolan Greek. 

At first sight it seemed probable that this quartz-por- 
phyry was an intrusive rock, but its occurrence in the field 
and its characters as revealed under the microscope suggest 
that it is more probably a contemporaneous lava-flow. 
There are a number of undoubtedly intrusive igneous rocks 
in the immediate neighbourhood, some of which bear a con- 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLA.N CAVES DISTRICT. 345 

siderable resemblance to this rock in the hand specimen, 
but they differ from it considerably in their chemical and 
petrological character. In the case of these latter rocks, 
(porphyrites and felsites), there can be no doubt of their 
intrusive nature; numerous veins run out from them into 
the adjoining slates, while abundant fragments of the slate 
occur embedded in the igneous rock at their contacts. No 
such evidence has been found in the case of the rhyolite- 
porphyry, although it is true that the contacts so far 
observed are obscure. In the case of the porphyrites and 
felsites, the slates have been so much hardened and in- 
durated at their contacts, that weathering has been resisted 
and good sections of these contacts are given in the road 
cuttings, whereas in the case of the rhyolite porphyry the 
slates at the contact have weathered so readily that the 
actual junction cannot be seen. Along the hill sides and 
stream channels innumerable boulders of porphyrite with 
included fragments of indurated slate may be seen; but no 
boulders of the rhyolite porphyry with such inclusions have 
yet been found. 

The chemical composition of the rhyolite porphyry in 
comparison with that of the other igneous rocks of the 
district is given in Part II ; it will be seen that it differs 
from the intrusive quartz porphyrites and felsites in (a) 
being more acidic, (b) in the proportion of the alkalis 
present, potash preponderating over soda, whereas in the 
other rocks the reverse is the case. 

If the rhyolite-porphyry be a contemporaneous lava flow, 
it would of necessity have been subjected to the same 
folding forces as the Silurian sediments, and one might 
expect a repetition of its outcrop in the eastern leg of the 
anticline; this repetition does occur in the actual position 
one might expect to find it, as shown in the geological 
section. Specimens from this occurrence have such similar 



346 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



lithological and penological characters to those of the 
rhyolite-porphyry near the Grand Arch that there can be 
no doubt that they have been derived from one and the 
same magma. The outcrops of this second occurrence 
along the line of section are such, however, that their 
stratigraphical relations with the adjoining slates are 
not clear, and neither time nor opportunity have allowed 
of our investigating this matter further at this locality. 

It might also be expected that if this rock were a con- 
temporaneous lava flow which had been subjected to the 
same folding as the Silurian sediments, that it would show 
some evidence of metamorphism, and this is actually the 
case. Micro-slides show that the rock has been subjected 
to considerable pressure ; many of the biotite crystals are 
bent; the quartz crystals are shattered and fractured ; and 
in some slides the rock shows distinct foliation, with the 
development of sericite and secondary quartz. These 
features are not shown by any of the undoubtedly intrusive 
rocks. 

Much more field work would be necessary to settle the 
intrusive or effusive origin of this rock beyond doubt, but 
the balance of evidence at present available seems to be in 
favour of the latter view. The occurrence of rhyolite lava- 
flows of Silurian age is not uncommon, as they have been 
recorded for the Orange District, 1 the Yass District, 2 and 
the Canbelego District. 3 

(c) The Igneous Intrusions. 
Not the least interesting feature of the geology of this 
region is the number and variety of the intrusive igneous 

1 The Silurian and Devonian Rocks of the Orange District, by C. A. 
Sussmilch, this Journal, Vol. xl, page 130. 

2 The Geology of the Yass District by A. J. Shearsby, Report of the 
Thirteenth Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Sydney, 1911, p. 106. 

3 The Canbelego Budgery and Budgerygar Mines by E. C. Andrews, b.a. 
Mineral Resources, No. 18, Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 1915. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 347 

rocks; these include the following: — 1. The Andesites, 2. 
The Quartz-Porphyrites, 3. The Felsites, 4. The Diorites. 
The andesites are limited in their occurrence to the region 
lying to the west of the Gave Limestone and intrude the 
radiolarian cherts only; all the other intrusions occur to 
the east of the Cave Limestone and intrude the Silurian 
strata. 

1. The Andesite,— This occurs in the form of a dyke 
striking nearly north and south, and, as may be seen from 
the geological map, parallel to and very close to the junction 
of the radiolarian cherts and limestones. Good exposures 
have been found at two localities only, viz., (1) immediately 
adjoining the Cave House, and (2) some distance up 
McEwans Creek at the place marked A on the geological 
map. At the former locality this rock was extensively 
exposed by the quarrying done in making the foundations 
for the Cave House. The dyke here is upwards of 150 feet 
in thickness and careful examination shows it to contain 
two distinct rock types, one in which there are abundant 
black phenocrysts, the other in which such phenocrysts are 
absent; the former will be referred to as the porphyritic 
type and is a hornblende-augite-andesite, the latter will be 
referred to as the non-porphyritic type and is an augite- 
andesite. 

The augite-andesite is an aphanitic rock, greenish-grey 
in colour and is much jointed; many of these joints are 
slicken-sided and contain films of calcite, chlorite, etc. It 
is traversed in places by very thin veins of quartz, some of 
which contain a little arsenopyrite; this latter mineral 
and pyrite also occur as occasional minute crystals 
sporadically scattered through the rock. This non-por- 
phyritic type of andesite occupies by far the larger part of 
the intrusion. The porphyritic hornblende-augite-andesite 
contains abundant black phenocrysts of augite and horn- 



348 C. A. S13SSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

blende; the relative proportion of these two minerals is 
very variable, in some specimens the augite preponderates 
to the exclusion of the hornblende, while in other speci- 
mens the reverse is the case. This type occurs as more 
or less rounded inclusions in the non-porphyritic type, and 
very irregularly distributed through it; the inclusions 
themselves are very variable in size ranging from an inch 
up to several feet in diameter. The junctions between the 
two types are always quite sharp. 

This rock weathers very readily and gives few good out- 
crops, and little would therefore have been known of it, 
had it not been cut away in making the foundations for the 
Cave House, and in making road cuttings. These operations 
have not exposed either wall of the dyke. 

At the other good outcrop mentioned (the place marked 
A on the map) instead of one large dyke, there are two 
small dykes, which are exposed in the face of a waterfall 
in the channel of one of the tributaries of McEwan's Creek. 
One of these dykes contains the non-porphyritic type of 
andesite only, and is ten feet thick, the other contains the 
porphyritic type only and is fifteen feet thick, (see Fig. 2). 




A C B C 

Fig. 2 — Sketch Section at A on Map (Plate LV) showing 
andesite dykes intruding radiolarian cherts. A — Andesite-porphy- 
ritic type. B — Andesite-non-porphyritic type. C — Radiolarian 
cherts. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 349 

The porphyritic type from this locality contains biotite in 
addition to augite, and has a decidedly lamprophyric struc- 
ture and could be called a true lamprophyre. 

We have been unable to find outcrops between the two 
localities already referred to, although fragments have been 
found in one or two places near the Tarana Road in the 
surface soil along the line of strike; there is, however, 
little doubt that they form part of a continuous intrusion, 
the absence of good outcrops being due to the ready decom- 
position of the rock. 

At first it was thought that the patches of porphyritic 
andesite occurring in the non-porphyritic andesite were 
xenoliths, but the occurrence of the two rock types in two 
separate dykes at locality A, suggests that the occurrence 
at the Cave House is a composite dyke in which there was 
first intruded the porphyritic type of andesite, to be followed 
later by the non-porphyritic type, the later intrusion break- 
ing up and partly reabsorbing the already consolidated 
earlier intrusion. At the more northerly locality (A) the 
combined bulk of the two intrusions is much smaller, and 
the second intrusion did not keep to the same channel as 
the earlier one, and thus formed a separate dyke. A 
detailed petrological description of these andesites with 
analyses is given in Part II, and it will be seen that they 
are sufficiently alike to have originated from a common 
magma. 

The age of this intrusion is difficult to determine ; it 
intrudes the radiolarian cherts and is therefore newer than 
them, but is not known to intrude the Silurian strata. It is 
practically in contact with the Cave limestone just south 
of the Cave House, yet no included fragments of limestone 
have yet been found, whereas included fragments of the 
radiolarian cherts are common. Included fragments of 
limestone are quite common in the quartz-porphyrites and 



350 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

felsites east of the Cave limestone, even at points distant 
from the junction. These facts have already been referred 
to in discussing the age of the radiolarian cherts, and it is 
quite possible that it was faulted against the limestone 
along with the cherts, in which case it would be older than 
the other igneous intrusions, which are of late Devonian 
age. On the other hand its strike approximates to that of 
the more acid intrusives occurring to the east of the Oave 
limestone, and it could possibly, therefore, have resulted 
from the same set of activities. In its petrological char- 
acters, this rock much resembles the intermediate intru- 
sive and effusive rocks associated with the Ordovician rocks 
of the Orange District. Until more information is available 
it is impossible to assign any definite age to this intrusion, 
but there is some reason for thinking that it may be older 
than the late Devonian (Kanimbla Epoch) intrusives, and 
that it may even be Pre-Silurian in age. 

2. The Quartz Porphyrites. — These occur to the east 
of the Oave limestone and intrude the underlying slates; 
that they also intrude limestone is shown by the large 
number of included limestone fragments which they contain, 
but no actual intrusion into limestone was observed in the 
area mapped. Two distinct types of porphyrite occur, one 
of these has a reddish colour and will be referred to, for 
the sake of convenience, as the Pink Porphyrite; the other 
has a decidedly greenish colour and will be referred to as 
the Green Porphyrite. Tbey are sufficiently alike in their 
chemical and petrological character to be both classified 
as quartz-porphyrites, but there are also differences both 
chemical and petrological which will be referred to in 
Part II. 

The pink porphyrite is a reddish aphanitic rock, typically 
with but few phenocrysts of quartz; in places, however, 
there is a considerable development of small phenocrysts 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 351 

of red felspar and quartz, notably on the track down Jenolan 
Creek at the place marked E on the map. The contact of 
this rock with the Silurian slates which it intrudes is well 
shown in the road cuttings on the Mount Victoria road 
(at G on the map). Here numerous tongues of the igneous 
rock may be seen running out into the slate, while numer- 
ous fragments of the slates may be seen entirely surrounded 
by the porphyrite, the whole giving the appearance, at first 
sight of a coarse volcanic breccia ; the mixed rock in this 
marginal zone may be referred to as a contact breccia. 
The included fragments of slate have, for the most part, 
been well rounded by corrosion, and the slate has been 
indurated and hardened into a porcellanite or lydian stone. 

The green porphyrite, as the name implies, has a greenish 
colour, particularly when slightly weathered, the colour 
being due to the presence of secondary chlorite. This rock 
is usually crowded with small phenocrysts of quartz and 
felspar, and when weathered looks not unlike a coarse 
sandstone. Similar intrusive contacts occur to those 
described in connection with the red porphyrite. 

Both of these rocks are traversed by numerous irregular 
but closely set joints, and when weathering break up into 
small angular blocks. They both occur as large irregular 
dykes conforming in general direction to the strike of the 
Silurian slate, although not entirely so. They are related 
in composition to the tonalites which occur in the great 
bathylith of the Kanimbla Valley. This bathylith, which 
contains granites, tonalites as quartz-augite-diorites, 
extends along the valley of Oaky Greek to within a few 
miles of the Jenolan Oaves, and these quartz porphyrites 
are probably apophyses of this bathylith. It will be noticed 
on referring to the geological map that the intrusion of 
pink porphyrite is separated from a neighbouring intrusion 
of green porphyrite by a long narrow belt of slates ; it would 



352 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

seem hardly probable, under the circumstances, that the 
two were intruded simultaneously; one would expect the 
belt of slates to have been broken up and shattered under 
such conditions. So that it seems probable that one of 
these rocks was intruded later than the other; as to which 
was the later there is at present no evidence to show; it 
is not considered, however, that any great period of time 
elapsed between the two intrusions, but that they both 
belong to the one epoch. 

The Kanimbla Valley bathylith intrudes Upper Devonian 
as well as Silurian strata, and the writer 1 has previously 
assigned a late Devonian age to it (Kanimbla Epoch). The 
quartz porphyrites are probably of the same age. 

The contacts of the intrusions with the rocks they intrude 
are very interesting from the point of view of the methods 
by which the intrusion took place. That there has been 
some marginal assimilation there can be no doubt, but this 
has been relatively small in amount and has not produced 
any marked difference in that part of the porphyrite in 
contact with the slate, as compared with that some dis- 
tance away. The features of the contact strongly suggest 
mechanical methods of intrusion, such as the theory of 
"overhand stoping" suggested by Reginald Daly. Large 
blocks of slate, many feet in diameter, can be seen already 
"undercut" and apparently just ready to break away; other 
large masses of slate twenty to fifty feet, or even more, in 
diameter, occur entirely surrounded by igneous rock. Such 
masses have frequently broken away along the bedding 
planes leaving the igneous rock in places with a contact 
like that of a sill. These features are well shown in the 
road cuttings of the Mount Victoria road. 

1 Introduction to the Geology of New South Wales. Angus and 
Kobertson, Sydney, 1914, p. 80. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 353 

3. The Quartz-Felsites. — These are more highly acidic 
in composition and occur in smaller intrusions than the 
quartz porphyrites. As shown ou the map they occur 
between two large intrusions of green porphyrite, and one 
of them, at least, appears to be genetically connected with 
this rock, although this counection is not shown on the 
map. These felsites are well exposed in the road cuttings 
at the head of Hinchman's Oreek ; some are unquestionably 
intrusive, but one of them, which is only about twelve feet 
thick, lies conformably between the bedding planes of the 
slates, just like a contemporaneous flow. This occurs at 
the point marked H on the map, although the actual occur- 
rence is not shown. An adjoining felsite intrusion is simply 
crowded with fragments of limestone, which must have 
been brought from some distance, as there is no limestone 
occurring in the immediate vicinity. Quite a number of 
felsite dykes (or ? silis) occur at this locality, but as it 
would be impossible to show them all on the map, they are 
represented thereon as two intrusions; they alternate with 
slates. 

4. The Diorites. — One outcrop of diorite has been noticed; 
it occurs on the track leading down Jenolan Creek at the 
place marked J on the map. The rock is fine-grained, 
almost aphanitic, and is much altered. It exhibits no 
features of special interest. 

Part II. Petrology and Analyses. 
By W. G. Stone. 

A. The Rhyolite Porphyry (Quartz-porphyry. 

B. The Andesites. 

(a) Andesite (non-porphyritic type). 

(b) Augite-Hornblende- Andesite (porphyritic type). 

(c) Augite-Lamprophyre. 

C The Quartz-Porphyrites. 

(a) Granophyric-Quartz-Porphyrite (pink variety). 
(6) Quartz-Porphyrite (green variety). 

D. The Quartz-Felsites. 

W— December 1, 1915. 



354 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

In the descriptions of the various rocks, embraced in the 
area, the subject of the present paper, the writer has 
endeavoured to give, as far as possible, a general descrip- 
tion of each rock type. For this purpose numerous sections 
of specimens collected from different parts of the same 
occurrence have been examined. The result is, therefore, 
more n account of the average rock type, than a detailed 
description of individual sections. The material taken for 
analysis was that least likely to be affected by absorptions 
of the intruded rocks, and therefore, occurring as far as 
possible from such contacts, and as representative as 
possible of each occurrence. 

In the calculation of the norms all the lime has been 
included, its combination with C0 2 as calcite etc. not being 
taken into account, as it is considered that the calcite 
present would represent in large part, the alteration in situ 
of the lime-bearing minerals. The analyses were under- 
taken in the Geological Survey Laboratory, through the 
kind permission of Mr. J. O. H. Mingaye, f.i.c, f.c.s., 
Analyst in Charge. I wish also to express my indebtedness 
to Messrs. G. W. Card, a.r.s.m., of the Mines Department, 
N. S. Wales, and W. N. Benson, b.Sc, b.a., f.g.s., Linnean 
Macleay Fellow in Geology, for kindly advice. 

A. The Rhyolite Porphyry (Quartz-porphyry). 
The detailed description given below and the analysis 
are of specimens taken from the massive outcrop near the 
Grand Arch. Specimens from other localities will be dealt 
with more briefly and comparisons made. 

Megascopic Description. — Colour is creamy-white with 
darker blebs due to phenocrysts of quartz. The rock is 
aphanitic and porphyritic, the phenocrysts present being 
quartz, felspar, and rarely mica. The quartz is plentiful 
and represents approximately 10% by volume of the rock ; 
some of the crystals reach 9 mm. in diameter, but the 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 355 

average is about 3 mm. The felspar phenocrysts, somewhat 
more plentiful than the quartz, are creamy- white in colour 
and usually with the dull appearance produced by kaoliniza- 
tion. The crystals range up to 8 mm. in diameter, but 
average about 2 mm. The mica, which is only sparingly 
present, is yellowish in colour and averages about 1 mm. 
in diameter. 

Microscopic Description. — The rock is noncrystalline 
and porphyritic, with a microcrystalline groundmass. The 
minerals present are quartz, felspar, biotite and a little 
apatite. Oalcite, chlorite, limonite, magnetite, and possibly 
ilmenite are present as alteration products. 

Quartz. — This is sometimes idiomorphic, but more often 
shows rounded or irregular outlines due to corrosion, typical 
examples of which are present. It occasionally encloses 
crystals of biotite. 

Felspar. — This is mainly orthoclase, seldom shows twin- 
ning, but exhibits corrosion in some crystals, while others 
are quite idiomorphic. Some phenocrysts exhibit a micro- 
scopic intergrowth with plagioclase (probably albite). 
Plagioclase crystals are not common. Alteration is present 
and varies from crystals which are almost fresh to those in 
an advanced stage of alteration. The secondary products 
are kaolin, sericite, chlorite and calcite. 

Biotite. — This is not plentiful. It is somewhat contorted, 
has a bleached appearance, is almost colourless and only 
faintly pleochroic. Iron oxides have separated out as 
magnetite and limonite along the directions of cleavage, 
while cloudy patches of calcite are frequent. 

Apatite. — This occurs sparingly as minute crystals, both 
in the felspar and biotite phenocrysts and in the groundmass. 

Calcite. — This occurs as an alteration product of the 
felspar and biotite crystals and also in the groundmass. Its 
appearance indicates the presence of magnesium carbonate 



356 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

and probably also of ferrous carbonate. This is borne out 
by the analysis, which shows that some magnesia and 
probably some ferrous oxide are combined with the carbon 
dioxide, there being insufficient lime for that purpose. 

Chlorite is a product mainly of the alteration of the 
felspar phenocrysts. It is pale green in colour and almost 
isotropic. 

The groundmass of the rock is microcry stall ine and com- 
posed essentially of orthoclase felspar and its decomposition 
products with a little quartz. In places it is much obscured 
by alteration, mainly the kaolinization of the felspar. The 
rock is traversed by veins of secondary quartz and much 
of this mineral occurring in the groundmass is of secondary 
origin. The groundmass also shows evidence of rather 
extensive devitrification. 

The rhyolite porphyry from the eastern leg of the anti- 
cline is seen under the microscope to be identical with that 
described above. The phenocrysts are in general larger. 
The felspars show a similar microperthite structure, and 
are in a more advanced stage of alteration, being in some 
cases completely altered to a sericitic material, or to 
a mixture of chlorite, sericite, kaolin, and calcite. The 
biotite is not so bleached and is consequently more strongly 
pleochroic. The groundmass is somewhat finer grained, 
and exhibits a well marked flow structure under the 
microscope, which may in part, however, be really a 
foliated structure. The groundmass also shows consider- 
ably more alteration, mainly in the formation of sericite- 
like minerals; these appear to have developed mainly along 
lines of flow, although in some cases transverse to these 
directions. 

The rhyolite porphyry from this locality also shows evid- 
ence of having been subjected to severe dynamic action 
subsequent to consolidation. The biotite crystals are much 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 357 

contorted, and the quartz crystals highly shattered, the 
detached fragments of the same crystal often showing 
different optical extinction. The felspar crystals also 
exhibit strain-shadowing and fracturing. What has been 
referred to in the above description as flow structure may 
be due in a large part to foliation resulting from dynamic 
metamorphism, although from the manner in which the 
groundmass swirls around the phenocrysts as seen in some 
sections from this part of the occurrence, there can be no 
doubt that this structure is due in part to the flow of the 
groundmass before consolidation. 

Specimens collected from McEwan's Greek, at the place 
marked D on the geological map (Plate LV), and which 
appears to be an undoubted continuation of the occurrence 
near the Grand Arch, show a well marked flow structure 
in the hand specimen. This rock under the microscope 
is seen to be almost coarsely microcrystalline with an 
allotriomorphic-granular fabric; phenocrysts are typically 
absent. Veins of secondary quartz are numerous, cutting 
across the lines of flow. This phase of the rock has the 
appearance of a rhyolite which has undergone much 
devitrification, with subsequent intense silicification, the 
latter generally along lines of original flow. The phase 
described from near the Grand Arch has more the appear- 
ance, both in hand specimens and under the microscope^ 
of a typical quartz-porphyry. 



Si0 2 .. 
A1 2 3 
Fe 2 3 
FeO .. 
MgO ... 



CaO .. 

Na,0 



Chemical 


Composition. 




Per Cent. 




Per Cent. 


7418 


H 3 (100° 


C.) 0-15 


11-15 


H 2 (100° 


C. + ) 1-27 


0-90 


CO, ... 


... 2-00 


1-31 


Ti0 2 ... 


0-25 


0-62 


Zr0 2 ... 


... absent 


1-35. 


P 3 5 ... 


0-15 


1-00 


so 3 ... 


... trace* 


5-86 


CI 


... trace* 



358 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 





Per cent. 


S (FeS 2 ) 


. 0-01 


Cr 2 3 


. absent 


MO and CoO 


absent 


MnO 


. 0-02 


BaO 


. 0-10 


SrO 


. presentf 



Li 2 

v a o 8 

CuO 



Per cent. 
... absentf 
... absent 
trace* 



100-32 



Specific gravity 2*654 
* Trace less than 0*01%. f Spectroscopic reaction only. 



Not 





Per cent. 


Quartz 


... 41-76 


Orthoclase 


... 35-03 


Albite 


... 8-38- 


Anorthite 


5-84 


Corundum 


... 0-92 


Hypersthene... 2- 69 


Class I. 


Persalane 


Order 3 


Columbare 



Magnetite 
Ilmenite 
Apatite 
HoO, CO, 



etc. 



Per cent. 

1-39 
0-46 
0-34 
3-45 



100-26 



Ran 
Subi 



2 Alsbachase 
is: 2 Mihaloae 



Magmatic name Mihalose. 

B, The Andesites. 
In naming these rocks andesites, the writer may appear 
to be inconsistent, because if adhering strictly to the lines 
laid down in the description of the quartz-porphyrites of 
this area, these rocks should also be called porphyrites. 
These two rock types, however, possess so many points of 
difference that it would have been confusing, particularly 
to students, to have called them both porphyrites. The 
rocks now under consideration, although they are intrusive, 
have all the appearance, both in hand specimens and under 
the microscope, of typical andesites, whereas the rocks we 
are calling quartz-porphyrites are more inclined to a 
plutonic than to a volcanic type. It is not unusual to call 
certain dyke rocks andesites, as for example, Harker in his 
" Petrology for Students," figures and describes a dyke- 
rock from Northumberland as an augite-andesite. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 359 

As already described in Part I, two distinct types of 
andesite occur, these will be described separately: — 

(a) Andesite (Non-porphyritic Type). 

Megascopic Description. — The colour is dark grey with 
a tinge of green; phenocrysts are always small and rarely 
visible to the eye, but on a smooth surface one can, with 
a pocket lens, see that the rock is crowded with small 
felspar phenocrysts. Inclusions of black chert are fre- 
quently noticed, besides the more abundant inclusions of 
the porphyritic andesite referred to in Part I. 

Microscopic Description. — The rock is noncrystalline 
and microporphyritic, with a microcrystalline to crypto- 
crystalline and somewhat turbid groundmass. The pheno- 
crysts are mainly plagioclase with a subordinate amount of 
augite and hornblende. 

Felspar. — The phenocrysts are for the most part small, 
averaging about 0*4 mm. in diameter, but crystals up to 
1 mm. in size occur. These crystals are for the most part 
rounded or irregular in shape, only occasionally idiomorphic 
and often encircled by a ring of dark kaolin-like material. 
These felspars constitute about fifty per cent, of the rock, 
but are so much altered that any exact determination is 
impossible. Multiple twinning can be detected in some 
crystals. The analysis indicates that both orthoclase and 
plagioclase are present, the latter largely predominating. 

Augite. — This is not plentiful. In colour it is pale-green 
to almost colourless, and is fairly fresh. The crystals vary 
from 0*25 to 0*50 mm. in size, some few crystals reaching 
1 mm. in diameter. 

Hornblende. — This is less plentiful than the augite, is 
yellowish-green in colour and quite fresh. It occurs in 
typical prismaticand basal sections with strongpleochroism, 
but the crystals are rather smaller than the augites. Both 



360 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



the hornblende and augite are remarkably fresh, considering 
the amount of alteration which the felspar phenocrysts 
and the groundmass have suffered. 

Iron ores. — These are very sparingly present, pyrites 
being the most abundant ; a little magnetite is present. 

Groundmass. — This is much altered, and where it admits 
of any examination it is seen to consist of a microcrystalline 
to cryptocrystalline base of felted microlites of felspar 
with some ferro-magnesian mineral, probably augite. A few 
small patches of calcite were noted. 

Chemical Composition (x 63). 

Per cent. 



Si0 2 


50-05 


A1 2 3 


19-56 


Fe 2 3 


0-90 


FeO 


6-48 


MgO 


6-30 


CaO 


5-20 


Na 2 


2-49 


K 2 


3-09 


H 2 (100° C.) 


0-43 


H 2 O(100°C.+ 


) 3-90 


co 3 


0-32 


Ti0 2 


0-55 


Zr0 2 


absent 


P 2 5 


0-38 


so 3 


0-03 




Per cent. 


Orthoclase . . . 


18-35 


Albite 


20-96 


Anorthite 


23-63 


Corundum 


3-47 


Hypersthene... 


24-00 


Olivine 


1-45 





Per cent. 


CI 


trace* 


S(FeS 2 ) 


trace* 


Cr 2 3 


absent 


NiO and CoO 


trace* 


MnO 


0-09 


BaO 


0-15 


SrO 


f trace 


Li 2 


absent 


v 2 o 3 


0-05 




99-97 



Specific gravity 2-775 
* Trace less than 0-01%. 
f Spectroscopic reaction only. 



Nort 



Magnetite 
llmenite 
Apatite 
ELO, COo 



etc. 



Per cent. 

1-39 
1-06 
1-01 
4-65 

99-97 



Class II. Dosalane. 
Order 5. Germanare. 



Rang 3 Andase. 
Sub-rang Shoshonose. 



Magmatic name Shoshonose. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 361 

Although the analysis only gives traces of pyrites the 
sections certainly show more, this is due to the fact that 
the material chosen for analysis was carefully selected, 
any showing pyrites being rejected. 

The calculation of the norm also indicates that the bases 
present are not sufficient to satisfy all the alumina, the 
balance 3*47 per cent, entering into the norm as corundum. 

The microscopic examination shows the rock to be much 
altered, particularly the felspars, which are now repre- 
sented largely by a sericite-like material with some kaolin. 
It illustrates an example of metasomatism, through the 
action of percolating superficial water acting on the sili- 
cate of lime in the felspar, resulting in a loss of lime and 
a gain in alkalis, particularly potash, and probably alu- 
mina, as indicated by the development of sericite and kaolin. 

The result of Termiers 1 investigations has shown that in 
general the above action has resulted invariably in the loss 
of lime and a gain in alkalis. Silica remains approximately 
constant, the alumina varies and the magnesia fluctuates 
between a small loss or gain. 

Allotting all the hypersthene molecules together with 
some of the anorthite to form the augite and hornblende 
present in the rock, the average plagioclase would be 
about andesine of a basic character. Plagioclase would 
also largely predominate over orthoclase. In arriving at 
the actual mineral constitution from the norm it is also 
necessary to bear in mind that this rock, particularly the 
felspar, has undergone a good deal of alteration, which has 
probably resulted in a loss of lime and a gain in potash and 
alumina, giving to the norm a higher percentage of ortho- 
clase than actually existed in the unaltered rock. 

1 Sur T elimination de la chaux par metasomatose dans les roches 
eruptives basiques de la region du Pelvoux, P. Termier. Bulletin de la 
societe Geologique de France, series 3, Vol. xxvi, 1898, p. 165. 



362 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



(b) Augite-Hornblende-Andesite (Porphyritic Type). 

This occurs near the Gave House as included fragments 
and masses of varying size in the compact, non-porphyritic, 
andesitic dyke previously described. Two phases of this 
type occur, one characterised by porphyritic augite only, 
the other by phenocrysts of both hornblende and augite, 
the hornblende predominating. In all other essentials they 
are similar, and are undoubtedly cognate, and represent 
inclusions from the same rock mass. The phase in which 
augite only occurs, is the one more frequently met with. 
These rocks also outcrop at the locality marked A on the 
geological map (Plate LV), as described in Part I, but the 
porphyritic type from here differs so much from that occur- 
ring near the Gave House, that it should really be called a 
lamprophyre, and will be described separately as an augite- 
lamprophyre. 

Megascopic Description. — The augite and hornblende 
phenocrysts are set in a greenish aphanitic base, and have 
an average size of 2 to 3 mm., but individual crystals range 
up to 9 mm. in diameter. Small oval-shaped cavities con- 
taining chalcedony and calcite may be seen in some speci- 
mens, and where these have fallen out during weathering 
the rock presents a somewhat vesicular appearance. These 
cavities may represent in part an original vesicular struc- 
ture, although some are undoubtedly due to replacement 
of augite phenocrysts by serpentine, calcite and secondary 
silica. 

Microscopic Description.— Holocrystalline and por- 
phyritic with a microcrystalline groundmass, which has in 
some sections a distinctly pilotaxitic fabric. Besides the 
phenocrysts of augite and hornblende observable in the 
hand specimen, some small phenocrysts of felspar also occur. 

(i.) Phase containing augite only (slide x 32). 
Augite isa pale yellow-green to almost colourless variety, 
and occurs in beautiful idiomorphic, well cleaved, crystals; 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 363 

some crystals have an almost colourless central zone with 
an outer zone of yellowish-green. The crystals in general 
have a very fresli appearance, but some show various stages 
of alteration into serpentinous material and calcite. In 
those sections in which the augite only occurs it occupies 
up to 40% of the volume of the rock. 

Felspar, This occurs in small idiomorphic crystals ranging 
up to 1 mm. in diameter, the average being about 0*5 mm. 
The quantity present varies considerably in different sec- 
tions, reaching as much as 30%. These felspars are always 
much altered; any twinning noticeable is always multiple. 
A few approximate extinction determinations place it as 
being a basic andesine. 

Iron ores. — Pyrite is the most plentiful, there being but 
little magnetite or ilmenite present, and this is mainly 
associated with the alteration of the augite. 

Apatite is only sparingly developed. 

Secondary minerals are abundant and include kaolin and 
sericite as alteration products of the felspars; serpentine, 
calcite and iron ores as alteration products of the augites; 
secondary silica due to infiltration. 

Serpentine is the main product of the alteration of the 
augite and is sometimes completely pseudomorphous after 
that mineral. In this connection it is often associated 
with calcite, which in some sections is fairly abundant, 
and in patches up to 2 mm. in diameter. The serpentine 
also occurs filling oval or circular shaped cavities often in 
association with secondary silica, the latter occupying the 
central zone. Some of the cavities are filled completely 
with secondary silica largely chalcedonic in character, and 
showing well marked concentric structure. Pyrite is 
sometimes associated with the serpentine and secondary 
silica often forming a complete border zone. 



364 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



The groundmass is microcrystalline with a pilotaxitic 
fabric in some sections. It is essentially a matrix of minute 
felspar laths with microscopic augite grains in which are 
embedded the phenocrysts. It is for the most part much 
altered and inclined to opacity. In some sections secondary 
silica is plentifully scattered through it in microscopic 
aggregates. 

(ii.) Phase in which hornblende occurs. 
In slide x 64, which is a good example, the hornblende is 
abundant in beautifully fresh crystals of a green colour, 
exhibiting strong pleochroism. Twinning is common, and 
some good zoning is present. The augite is generally above 
the average in size for this phase, one crystal measuring 
3 mm. in diameter. It shows slight alteration to horn- 
blende in places. 





Augite-andesite phase (x 32). 








Chemical 


Composition. 








Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Si0 2 ... 




53-62 


CI 


trace 


A1 2 3 




12-10 


S(FeS 2 ) 


trace 


Fe 3 3 


... 


2-00 


Cr 2 O s 


absent 


FeO ... 




6-30 


NiO and CoO 


trace 


MgO... 




7-07 


MnO 


0-17 


CaO ... 




11-64 


BaO 


0-04 


Na 3 




1-84 


SrO 


f trace 


K 2 ... 




1-52 


Li 2 


absent 


H 2 O(100° 


C) 


0-22 


v fl o 8 


0-02 


H 2 O(100° 


C.+ 


) 1-86 








co 2 ... 




1-12 




100-33 


Ti0 2 ... 




0-50 








Zr0 2 ... 




absent 


Specific gravity 


2-892 


P 2 5 ... 




0-29 


Trace = less than 0-01% 


so 3 ... 


... 


0-02 


f Spectroscopic reaction only, 



GEOLOG? OF THE JENOLA.N CAVES DISTRICT. 



365 



Norm. 





Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Quartz 


... 6-00 


Magnetite ... 3-02 


Orthoclase 


... 8-90 


Ilrnenite ... 0-91 


Albite 


... 15-20 


Apatite ... 0-67 


Anorthite 


... 20-57 


H0 2 , 0O 2 etc. 3-20 


Diopside 


... 28-61 






Hypersthene 


... 13-32 


100-40 


Class III. 


Salfemane. 


Rang 3. Carnptonase. 


Order 5. 


Gallare. 


Sub-rang 4. Camptonose. 



Magmatic name Camptonose. 

The high percentage of quartz in the norm would be 
accounted for in large part, if not entirely, by the amount 
of secondary silica present. The diopside and hypersthene 
molecules together with a portion of those allotted to 
anorthite would be combined to form the augite present, 
and thus give a good idea of the high percentage of that 
mineral. 

Bearing in mind that a portion of the anorthite should 
be transferred to form the pyroxene, the average plagio- 
clase felspar would probably approach a basic andesine or 
an acid labradorite. The amount of orthoclase present 
would be small. The fact that the felspars have undergone 
a good deal of alteration, resulting probably in a loss of 
some lime, should be taken into consideration when trying 
to arrive at the actual mineral constitution from the norm. 

In taking a sample of this rock for analysis, fragments 
as free as possible from the secondary minerals were chosen, 
therefore the amount of these present, as shown in sections, 
would probably be more than indicated by the analysis. 

(c) Augite Lamprophyre. 
From McEwan's Creek, Locality A. 
Megascopic Description. — A dark green aphanitic rock 
with numerous fresh looking augite phenocrysts. Small 



366 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

patches of a darker and much softer serpentinous material 
are also abundant. 

Microscopic Description.— Holocrystalline and por- 
phyritic with a microcrystalline groundmass tending to a 
pan-idiomorphic fabric. The porphyritic constituent is 
augite, while the groundmass contains felspar, augite, 
biotite and apatite. 

Augite. — The augite phenocrysts constitute 30 to 40% of 
the rock by volume; they have an average size of 1 to 
2 mm., but crystals up to 4 mm. occur. It is a pale green 
to almost colourless variety, and occurs in beautifully fresh 
looking, idiomorphic, well cleaved crystals, sometimes 
showing typical examples of twinning; and are similar in 
every way to those occurring in the andesites at the Gave 
House. A serpentinous material is abundant, occurring 
in patches of about the same size as the augite phenocrysts. 
It is pale green to colourless and probably pseudomorphous 
after the augite. Except that a similar serpentinous 
material is noticed along cracks and cleavage directions in 
some of the augites, there appears to be no transition stage, 
as one would expect to find, between the remarkably fresh 
looking augite on the one hand, and the complete serpentine 
patches on the other. 

The groundmass is comparatively fresh with a distinctly 
holocrystalline texture, the average grainsize being from 
0*1 to 0*2 mm. It consists of felspar, with lesser amounts 
o£ augite and biotite, while fine needles of apatite are 
plentifully scattered through it. 

Felspar is strictly confined to the groundmass, pheno- 
crysts being typically absent. It has a general lath-shaped 
appearance and includes both plagioclase and orthoclase, 
the former predominating. The felspar would constitute 
about 40% of the rock by volume. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN OAVES DISTRICT. 367 

The augite occurs in typical stumpy crystals and is not 
quite so fresh looking as the phenocrysts. It is more 
abundant than the biotite. 

The biotite is of a brown colour, and rather plentifully and 
regularly scattered through the groundmass. It is unaltered 
with fairly strong pleochroism; has a somewhat smudgy 
appearance, the outline of the crystals being indefinite, 
seldom distinctly idiomorphic. 

Besides apatite the only other accessory minerals are 
iron ores, consisting chiefly of pyrite as small crystals and 
grains generally associated with the serpentine patches. 

It will be seen that this rock differs from the porphyritic 
augite-hornblende-andesite of the Cave House in (a) con- 
taining a fair amount of biotite, (b)containing no hornblende^ 
(c) its lamprophyric texture. 

C. The Quartz Porphyrites. 
As already pointed out in Part I, two distinct varieties 
of this rock occur, which owing to their colour were 
referred to as the pink and green varieties respectively. 
It will be seen from the following description, that not only 
do they differ in colour, but to some extent also both in 
their structure and chemical composition. The pink variety 
has a granophyric structure and quartz phenocrysts are 
not conspicuous. This will be described as a granophyric- 
quartz-porphyrite. The green variety does not display any 
granophyric structure, but is crowded with small quartz 
phenocrysts. 

The classification of rocks of this type i.e., of hypabyssal 
occurrence and of intermediate chemical composition, is 
a vexed question. If classified on a chemical and 
mineralogical basis only, a system some petrographers are 
strictly following, they would be placed with the dacites, 
e.g., the green variety with the magmatic name Tonalose 



368 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

would according to the quantitative scheme of classification 
outlined in Iddings' "Igneous Rocks," fall within Division 
II, Group C, i.e., Quartz-diorites and their equivalent 
aphanites, to the latter of which he gives the name dacite 
or dacite-porphyry, the latter being the equivalent of the 
palseotypal variety quartz-porphyrite. Adopting the 
scheme in which mode of occurrence has also a bearing 
on nomenclature, and as outlined in Harker's text book 
"Petrology for Students," the name quartz-porphyrite 1 is 
applied. 

(a) Granophyric Quartz-porphyrite (Pink Variety). 

Megascopic Characters.— This rock has a pinkish- 
brown colour, mottled with dark green, creamy and light 
yellowish-green patches. It is porphyritic with an aphanitic 
base of a pinkish-brown colour. The phenocrysts present 
are chlorite, felspar and quartz. The chlorite is of a dark 
green colour, dull lustre, and varies considerably in size, 
reaching 5 mm., the average size being about 2 mm. Occas- 
ionally harder patches with a fair lustre are noticed, which 
represent not entirely altered phenocrysts of a ferro- 
magnesian mineral. Yellowish-green patches of what 
appears to be epidote are associated with the chlorite and 
scattered through the groundmass. Quartz occurs very 
sparingly as phenocrysts which are only noticed here and 
there with a diameter of about 1 mm. The felspar is pale yel- 
lowish-green to dull white in colour, and shows evidence 
of much alteration to kaolin etc. The average size of the 
crystals is about 2 mm., but ranges up to 4 or 5 mm. The 
chlorite and felspar phenocrysts appear to be developed in 
about equal proportions. 

1 Porphyrite as defined by Harker is a rock of hypabyssal type, with 
intermediate chemical composition and porphyritic structure with a 
groundmass, and characterised by a soda-lime felspar. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 3G9 

Microscopic Characters. — Slide x 888 is described in 
the main as being typical of the rock type. This rock is 
noncrystalline and porphyritic with medium to fairly coarse 
micro-crystalline groundmass. It is much altered, in some 
places to such an extent as to render description difficult. 
The phenocrysts in their order of abundance are felspar, 
augite, quartz, and would occupy between 30 and 40% of 
the rock by volume. 

Felspar. — Is in an advanced stage of alteration and it is 
often difficult to defkie its boundaries, except between x 
nieols, as it merges into the groundmass in ordinary light. 
Both plagioclase and orthoclase are present, the former 
predominating; only occasionally is the multiple twinning 
of the plagioclase clear enough to obtain measurable extinc- 
tions, and approximate determinations place it about 
andesine. A faint zoning is sometimes seen. The colour 
is variable depending upon the type of alteration, being 
brownish, greenish, grey, clouded etc. The decomposition 
products are kaolin, sericite and chlorite mainly, with 
calcite and epidote. In some sections the phenocrysts 
are either completely sericitised or kaolinised; others show 
an alteration to both kaolin and sericite, often having a 
zonal arrangement, the outer zone being kaolin with the 
central part sericite; and others still are a mixture of 
kaolin, sericite, chlorite and calcite. 

Quartz occurs only sparingly as phenocrysts and is of 
small size compared to the felspar; generally speaking it is 
more a constituent of the groundmass. Large and numer- 
ous phenocrysts as in the quartz-porphyrite being typically 
absent. It is often interstitial in habit, separated grains 
being often optically continuous. 

Augite — Slide x 889, shows a very pale green augite 
somewhat sparingly in patches, not yet completely altered. 
In other slides, no trace of an original ferro-magnesian 

X— December 1, 1915. 



370 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

mineral was detected. The augite when present is associ- 
ated with its alteration products, chlorite mainly, calcite, 
epidote and iron ores. A few small phenocrysts of horn- 
blende were noticed. 

Iron ores (in part secondary). Both ilmenite and mag- 
netite are present mainly in groups of grains and crystals 
associated with chlorite, where it represents segregations 
during the alteration of the ferro-magnesian minerals. It is 
also scattered sparingly through the groundmass. Ilmenite 
appears to be the most plentiful, but as they generally occur 
together, it is often impossible to distinguish between them. 
Ilmenite frequently shows a typical skeleton form of growth 
arranged in three parallel groups which cut each other at 
60° in cross section. In some instances it is altered to 
leucoxene. 

Apatite occurs in the matrix as small prisms and needle- 
like crystals. It is also rather plentifully included in the 
chlorite patches and less sparingly in the felspars. It is 
more abundant here than in the other types of rock 
described. 

The secondary minerals are chlorite, calcite, kaolin, 
sericitic material and epidote. 

Chlorite is the most abundant of these products and occurs 
in patches up to 5 mm. in size. It is present as an alter- 
ation product of the phenocrysts and the groundmass. It 
is undoubtedly the principal alteration product of a ferro- 
magnesian mineral, and from its association in x 889 with 
augite, it is probably in large part derived from that 
mineral. It is of a fibrous nature and pale green colour 
and generally faintly pleochroic. Between X nicols it 
shows a deep ultramarine blue, and in some instances is 
almost isotropic. 

Calcite occurs rather plentifully, and according to the 
analysis occupies about two per cent, of the rock. It is an 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 371 

alteration product of the ferro-magnesian minerals, felspar 
and ground mass. 

Epidote is present both as an alteration product of the 
phenocrysts and of the groundmass. It is of a yellowish- 
green colour with fair pleochroism, and occurs as crystals 
with the typical columnar structure, and as irregular patches 
and grains. It is more plentiful in some slides than in 
others. 

The groundmass. — This is generally much altered and 
does not admit of detailed description. It is of a yellowish 
or brownish clouded colour, changing to pale green where 
chlorite is plentiful. It may be briefly described as a 
micro-crystalline mixture of felspar, orthoclase and plagio- 
clase, the former predominating, and quartz with the 
secondary products chlorite, kaolin, calcite and epidote. 
Quartz is fairly plentiful and is more or less interstitial in 
habit. Where the groundmass of this rock is at all fresh 
it shows distinct micrographic structure; especially is this 
the case in slide x 66 where exquisite examples of this 
structure occur, and in which it constitutes a large part of 
the groundmass. Frequently the groundmass encloses 
these patches of micropegmatite, like porphyritic crystals, 
with irregular boundaries, arranged around a centre and 
with an average size of about 0*4 mm. but reaching 1 mm. 
Often the orthoclase is twinned on the Carlsbad law when 
the structure assumes a delicate feather-like appearance, 
the composition plane of the orthoclase corresponding to 
the rib of the feather and the parallel intergrowths of quartz 
to the barbs. 

This rock with its distinctly holocrystalline groundmass 
is inclined more to plutonic than volcanic types. In struc- 
ture it is closely allied to the granophyres of the acid group. 
With a silica content reaching only 61%, and characterised 
by a porphyritic soda-lime felspar, it must however, be 
included in the intermediate group. 



372 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE, 



SiO, 



A1 2 3 


.. 15-05 


Fe 2 3 


2-60 


FeO ... 


.. 3-69 


MgO... 


2-82 


CaO ... 


4-30 


Na 2 


3-22 


K 3 ... 


3-00 


H 2 O(100°C. 


) 0-17 


H 2 O(100°C. 


+ ) 2-08 


C0 2 ... 


.. 0-80 


Ti0 2 ... '. 


.. 0-65 


Zr0 2 ... 


.. absent 


P 2 0,... 


.. 0-26 


so 3 ... 


.. 0-02 


* Trace less than O'Ol^ 




Per cent. 


Quartz 


.. 16-68 


Orthoclase 


.. 17-79 


Albite 


.. 27-25 


Anorthite 


.. 17-51 


Diopside 


2-04 


Hypersthene. 


9-80 


Class II. Dosalane. 


Order 4. Austrare. 



Chemical 


Coyxvpo&ition. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 


60-95 


CI 


trace* 


15-05 


S (FeS 2 ) 


. absent 


2-60 


Cr 2 O s 


. absent 


3-69 


NiO and CoO 


trace* 


2-82 


MnO 


. 0-08 


4-30 


BaO 


. 0-13 


3-22 


SrO .. 


. presentf 


3-00 


Li a O 


. absent 


0-17 


V 2 3 


. 002 


2-08 


CuO ... 


trace* 



99-83 



Specific Gravity 2*796 
f Spectroscopic reaction only. 



N 





Per cent. 


M agnetite 


3-71 


Umenite 


1-22 


Apatite 


0-67 


II 2 0, C0 2 . etc. 


3-09 




99-76 


Rang 3. Tonalase. 


Sub-rang 3. Harzose. 



Magmatic name Harzose. 

The diopside and hypersthene molecules together with 
some of those allotted to anorthite will constitute the 
pyroxene and its particular alteration product present in 
the rock. The plagioclase felspar is one which contains 
an excess of soda over lime and would approach andesine in 
character. This soda-lime felspar is in excess of the ortho- 
clase, although the proportion of the latter is fairly high. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 373 

(b) The Quartz-porphyrite (Green Variety). 

Megascopic Description. — The colour at a distance is 
dark green, near at hand it is dark green speckled white. 
The rock is porphyritic with an aphanitic groundmass. On 
casual inspection the rock appears to be phanerocrystalline, 
but on closer study the aphanitic character is distinctly 
seen; the phenocrysts of felspar and quartz being set in a 
matrix of chloritic material, the latter obscuring somewhat 
the aphanitic nature, and giving to the rock its prevailing 
green colour. The quartz phenocrysts are very plentiful 
and have an average size of from 1 to 2 mm., occasionally 
up to 4 or 5 mm. It is of a dark glassy to faint milky 
colour. With the aid of the lens the groundmass is seen 
to invade some quartz crystals. 

The felspar is white to faint pink in colour, with an 
average size of 1 to 2 mm., occasionally ranging up to 4 mm. 
It is somewhat more plentiful than the quartz and shows 
various stages of alteration, some being fairly fresh in 
appearance, the majority, however, have a more or less 
dull lustre. Traces of twinning are consequently seldom 
noticed. Chloritic material of a greasy lustre and dark 
green colour comprises the balance of the rock. A yellowish 
green mineral of a secondary nature which appears to be 
epidote, is noticed here and there up to 3 mm. in size. 
Small fragments of foreign rocks, viz., limestone, slate, etc., 
are seen to be included occasionally, these are probably 
the remnants of larger lumps and blocks which have not 
been completely absorbed by the magma. 

Microscopic Description. — The rock is noncrystalline 
and porphyritic with a microcrystalline base. Like the 
granophyric-quartz porphyrite, it is much altered, and 
description becomes rather difficult, especially in connection 
with the groundmass. Although chlorite is abundant and 
undoubtedly represents the alteration of a ferro-magnesian 



374 C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 

mineral or minerals, in all the slides examined, primary 
ferro-magnesian minerals were not detected except in the 
case of a few flakes of biotite, included in the quartz and 
felspar phenocrysts. The primary minerals present are 
quartz, felspar, magnetite, ilmenite, and apatite. The 
secondary minerals are chlorite, kaolin, calcite, sericite, 
epidote, and iron ores in part. 

Quartz occurs plentifully and is practically confined to 
the phenocrystic stage. The crystals vary in size (see 
megascopic description) till some approach fragments of 
microscopic dimensions, although the quartz enters but 
sparingly into the composition of the groundmass. Idio- 
morphic crystals are somewhat rare, the phenocrysts being 
generally of an angular or irregular form, where not other- 
wise rounded through corrosion. It also exhibits much 
fracturing, fragments of the same phenocryst often having 
slightly different extinction, but very little strain-shadow- 
ing, indicating subsequent differential movement of the 
fragments. This taken in conjunction with its angular 
character would appear to be the result of fracturing prior 
to the solidification of the rock, and due probably to change 
of molecular stress, consequent upon changes of tempera- 
ture within the magma, subsequent to the crystallization 
of the quartz. Examples of typical corrosion are numer- 
ous, the groundmass commonly penetrating the crystals as 
tubular pockets or shallower bays, and often occurring as 
rounded inclusions. It is possible that such rounding of 
phenocrysts, inclusions and deep embayments of the ground- 
mass, were formed during the crystallization of the quartz 
phenocrysts, and were due to an unequal supply of silica 
molecules from the magma, instead of being, as generally 
considered, the result of solution of the quartz by the 
magma. 

Felspar is somewhat more plentiful than the quartz, and 
also ranges down to microscopic dimensions. It is often- 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 375 

idiomorpkic, but a greater number of crystals are irregular 
or rounded in shape. It shows the typical method of cor- 
rosion along boundaries and lines of weakness as cleavage 
planes and cracks, instead of the pocket-like intrusions of 
of the groundmass, as in the case of the quartz. Plagioclase 
predominates, but the multiple twinning is too obscured by 
alteration to admit of the measurement of extinctions 
except here and there. The results of several determina- 
tions place it mainly as andesine, approaching in some to 
oligoclase-andesine. Orthoclase seems to be fairly plentiful, 
but this conflicts with the percentage of potash returned 
in the analysis, so a second determination of the alkalis was 
undertaken, on a sample secured recently at a different 
spot to that upon which the analyses were made, the 
material for which was collected some time previously: 

Recent sample. Earlier sample. 

Potash 0*56% 0*88% (analysis) 

The quantity of orthoclase present in this rock must con- 
sequently be small. It is therefore probable that what is 
assumed to be orthoclase in section represents plagioclase 
twinned on the Carlsbad and albite laws, the finer lamellae 
of the latter being obliterated by alteration, while the 
more prominent Carlsbad type is still noticeable. 

The felspar is never fresh, but has undergone more or 
less alteration into kaolin, sericite, chlorite, calcite and 
epidote. These secondary products occur in abundance 
in the order named. The amount of alteration varies in 
different sections, some showing almost complete change 
to the above products. 

Biotite — Only noticed on a few occasions as small flakes 
enclosed in felspar and quartz phenocrysts. 

Iron ores — These occur as irregular patches and grains 
riiostly associated with the light green chlorite patches, 
and no doubt here represent mainly an alteration product 



376 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



of a ferro-magnesian mineral. It is sparingly scattered 
through the groundmass. A little of it appears to be 
leucoxene, but generally it is impossible to distinguish 
between the magnetite and ilmenite. A few specks of iron 
pyrites were detected with aid of lens in hand specimens. 

Apatite occurs sparingly as small crystals in the chlorite 
patches and groundmass. It is included also occasionally 
as needle-like crystals in the felspars. 

The secondary minerals are chlorite, calcite, epidote, 
kaolin, and a sericite-like material. 

Chlorite is very plentiful and occurs in patches of a light 
green colour up to 2 or 3 mm. in size. The average size is 
about 1 mm. It is slightly pleochroic, shows very low 
interference colours, and is sometimes practically isotropic. 
It is probably the variety pennine. It undoubtedly repre- 
sents, in a large part, the alteration of a ferro-magnesian 
mineral, and is often associated in this connection with 
calcite and iron ores. It also probably represents complete 
pseudomorphs after felspar as these show various stages of 
alteration. Chlorite, also of a fibrous nature, constitutes 
in large part the groundmass, giving to it the prevailing 
brownish-green to green colour. In most sections examined 
the matrix has been largely chioritised, in some completely 
so. 

Calcite is fairly plentiful and would reach in quantity 
that indicated by the analysis, about 4%. It occurs some- 
times in patches up to 3 mm. showing typical cleavage. 
Some of it no doubt is entirely secondary, i.e., been intro- 
duced wholly into the rock by the action of percolating 
water, but the main bulk is probably due to the alteration 
in situ of lime bearing minerals by the action of percolating 
solutions containing carbonic acid. It is an alteration 
product of the felspar, ferro-magnesian mineral, and ground- 
mass. The felspar shows various stages of alteration and 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 6i i 

some of the calcite patches from their general appearance 
appear to represent complete pseudomorphs after that 
mineral. As a secondary product of a ferro-magnesian 
mineral it is often associated with the other alteration 
products, chlorite and iron ore. 

Epidote of a yellowish-green colour is occasionally 
noticed as an alteration product of the phenocrysts and 
grouudmass. It is rather plentiful in slide x 65, which 
shows typical replacement of felspar. 

The other secondary products, kaolin and sericitic- 
material as already indicated, represent the alteration of 
the felspar. 

The grouudmass is microcrystalline, of a brownish- green 
colour. It is much obscured by alteration, and inclined to 
opacity, and does not admit of any detailed description. It 
is generally composed of felspar and its decomposition pro- 
ducts, intimately mixed with a finely fibrous chloritic 
mineral. Wherever it penetrates the quartz and felspar 
phenocrysts it is of a brighter green, and more transparent, 
and illustrates well the alteration of the matrix into chlorite 
by infiltration. From the result of the analyses the con- 
clusion is drawn that the felspar is essentially plagioclase, 
as the low percentage of potash would not allow much 
room for the presence of orthoclase, the potash present 
constituting orthoclase as phenocrysts. Microscopic quartz 
is present in small amount only. Oalcite is scattered 
through it plentifully in patches and microscopic aggregates. 
A few inclusions of small fragments of other rocks were 
noticed, principally of sedimentary origin, viz., slate etc., 
also of a finer-grained igneous rock of a cognate type. 

One of the features of this rock is the high proportion of 
phenocrysts to groundmass. This is apparent in both hand 
specimen and section, giving to the former a phaneo- 
crystalline appearance at first sight. The phenocrysts 
represent fully 75 per cent, of the rock by volume. 



378 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 









Chemical Composition. 








Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Si0 2 ... 


... 


62-85 


S (FeS 2 ) 


absent 


A1 2 3 




.. 


13-58 


Cr 2 3 


absent 


Fe 2 3 






1-95 


NiO and CoO 


absent 


FeO ... 






5-45 


MnO 


0-14 


MgO ... 






1-92 


BaO 


o-io 


CaO ... 






4-10 


SrO ... f 


present 


Na 2 






3-32 


Li 2 


f absent 


K 2 0- 






0-88 


v 2 o 3 


trace * 


H 3 O(100° 


C 


) 


0-20 


CuO 


trace * 


H 3 O(100° 

co 2 ... 


c 


.+ 


) 2-50 
1-85 










99-92 


TiOn 






0-90 






-i- i\_f 2 • • • 

Zr0 2 ... 






absent 


Specific gravity 


2-753 


P 2 5 ... 






0-18 


* Trace less than 0-01% 


S0 3 ... 






trace* 


f Spectroscopic reaction only 


CI ... 






trace* 












Norm. 








Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Quartz 




25-56 


Ilmenite 


1-67 


Orthoclase 




5-56 


Apatite 


0-34 


Albite 




27-77 


H0 25 C0 2 etc. 


4-55 


Anorthite 




19-74 







Hypersthene... 


11-80 




99-77 


Magnetite 






2-78 







Class II. Dosalane. Rang 3 Tonalase. 

Order 4. Austrare. Subrang 4 Tonalose. 

Magmatic name Tonalose. 

Arriving at the actual mineral constitution from the 
norm, it is evident that the average plagioclase felspar is 
one in which soda predominates over lime, and, therefore, 
approximates to the andesine group, and plagioclase also 
largely predominates over orthoclase. 



GEOLOGY OP THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 379 

Both in hand specimens and under the microscope this 
rock is seen to be distinct in character from the grano- 
phyric quartz-porphyrite already described. Quartz pheno- 
crysts are abundant and typical of this rock, and the quartz 
is practically confined to the phenocrystic stage, and enters 
only slightly into the composition of the groundmass. In 
the granophyric quartz-porphyrite, quartz as phenocrysts 
is only sparsely present, but it enters largely into the 
composition of the groundmass. The extreme chloritization 
of the groundmass of quartz-porphyrite is also very charac- 
teristic. 

The analyses of both these rocks is somewhat similar, 
except in the percentages of potash present. The amount 
of potash in each is characteristic and constant, as 
already indicated by two determinations of the alkalis of 
material collected from different places. This difference 
is manifested mineralogically by the proportions of ortho- 
clase present in each, being much more plentiful in the 
granophyric- quartz-porphyrite, and giving rise in it, in 
conjunction with the quartz, to the fairly abundant micro- 
pegmatitic structures. 

The texture of the groundmass of the latter is also dis- 
tinctly coarser and the rock generally approaches a more 
plutonic type. From a petrographical and chemical aspect 
these two occurrences appear to represent separate intru- 
sions, as opposed to considering them as different phases 
of the one intrusion. 

D. The Quartz Felsites. 
The specimen selected for description is from the road- 
cutting at the head of Hinchman's Creek, (Slide x 894). 

Megascopic Description. — Colour greyish-green to 
white. The groundmass has a distinctly felsitic appearance 
and contains numerous small phenocrysts of quartz and 



380 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



felspar. Some specimens show evidence of intense silicifi- 
cation, the groundmass in some instances being completely 
changed to a fine-grained compact quartz. 

Microscopic Description. — The rock is noncrystalline 
and porphyritic with a cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline 
groundmass. The phenocrysts, quartz and felspar occupy 
from about 10 to 15 per cent, of the rock. They are present 
approximately in equal quantity and generally of about the 
same size. 

The quartz is irregular in outline and shows more or less 
corrosion, numerous instances of a typical character being 
noticed. Shadowy extinction is sometimes present. 

Felspar. — Both orthoclase and plagioclase are present 
the latter predominating. The average size being from 0*5 
to 1 mm. It is never quite fresh, being somewhat kaolin- 
ised and of a faint cloudy appearance. The amount of 
alteration is not so great as in the quartz-porphyrites. It 
generally shows incipient alteration to sericite, microscopic 
whisps of that mineral being scattered through the pheno- 
crysts. Extinctions measured from the twin lamellae of 
the plagioclase gave angles corresponding to albite. The 
orthoclase only occasionally shows twinning. The pheno- 
crysts generally show more or less rounding through cor- 
rosion. Calcite occurs as an alteration product replacing 
the felspar along cleavage directions and cracks, also on 
boundaries, some of the phenocrysts being completely 
enveloped by a border of calcite. 

Apatite is very sparingly present as needle-like crystals 
in groundmass, and to a less extent in the felspars. 

Iron ore is scantily scattered as microscopic grains 
through the groundmass. Here and there small aggregates 
occur. A little iron pyrites was detected. 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT. 



381 



Cede it e etc. is plentiful, occurring as grey patches up to 
1 mm. in size and also scattered microscopically through 
the groundmass. It shows strong absorption and rarely 
traces of cleavage. It is an alteration product of the 
felspar, both phenocrysts and in groundmass. The amount 
present in this rock is high, as indicated by the presence of 
2*83% of 00 2 in the analysis. No doubt magnesite and 
possibly dolomite are present, as it is not at all likely that 
the lime only is combined with the 00 2 . The appearance 
of the carbonate mineral in section suggests this also. The 
carbonates are due in part to infiltration and not entirely 
the result of the alteration in situ of lime-bearing minerals. 

The groundmass is cryptocrystalline mainly, to micro- 
crystalline in texture, and is generally distinctly felsitic in 
character. It is of a grey colour and somewhat altered to 
a kaolinised product. Where determinable, it is seen to be 
composed of a microscopic mixture of orthociase and quartz, 
the former predominating. Plow structure is well marked 
in places. Calcite is plentifully scattered through it in 
large patches and also in microscopic aggregates. A little 
sericite has also developed mainly along lines of flow. Some 
sections show complete silicification of the groundmass to 
a microcrystalline granular quartz. 







Chemical Composition. 








Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Si0 2 ... 


.. 


70-40 


co 2 


2-83 


A1 2 3 




13-13 


Ti0 2 


0-30 


Fe 2 3 




1-25 


Zr0 2 


absent 


FeO ... 




1-75 


P 2 5 


0-08 


MgO ... 




0-64 


so 3 


* trace 


CaO ... 




2-74 


CI 


trace* 


Na 2 


.. 


. 3-47 


S (FeS 2 ) ... 


absent 


K 2 ... 




. 2-22 


Cr 2 O s 


absent 


H 2 O(100° 


o.) 


0-15 


NiO and CoO 


absent 


H 2 O(100° 


C.-i 


-) 1-35 


MnO 


0-04 



■382 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 





Per cent, 


BaO ... 


... 0-04 


SrO ... 


f present 


Li 2 ... 


... absent 


V 2 0,... 


... absent 



CuO ... 



Per cent. 

trace* 



100-39 



* Trace less than 0-01% 



Specific gravity 2*688 
f Spectroscopic reaction only. 



Noi 





Per cent. 






Per cent. 


Quartz 


.. 34-86 


M agnetite 




1-86 


Orthoclase 


.. 12-79 


Ilmenite 




0-61 


Albite 


.. 29-34 


-Apatite 




0-34 


Anorthite 


.. 12-51 


H 2 0, C0 2 


etc. 


4-41 


Corundum 


.. 0-41 









Hypersthene . . . 3*18 



100-31 



Class I. Persalane. 
Order 3 Columbare. 

Magmatic name Alsbachose. 



Rang 2 Alsbachase. 



Sub-rang 4 Alsbachose. 



Bearing in mind that the lime in the anorthite and hypers- 
thene molecules, is represented in the rock mainly by 
calcite, which is in part due to infiltration, the plagioclase 
must be essentially a soda variety. 

Another example of quartz-felsite, also from the road- 
cuttings at the head of Hinchman's Creek (Slide N 2) shows 
the following points of difference from that just described: 
(1) the quartz phenocrysts predominate largely over the 
felspar. (2) The comparative paucity of this rock in plagio- 
clase, indicated by the much lower percentage of soda 
present, the amounts as given in the analyses being respec- 
tively (x 894) 3*47 per cent, and (N 2) 0*98 per cent. (3) 
Flow structure is more marked and there is a much greater 
development of sericite which forms a plentiful constituent 



GEOLOGY OF THE JENOLAN OAVES DISTRICT. 383 

of this rock. The sericite occurs largely along lines of flow, 
and its appearance along certain planes as this would suggest 
that it is an alteration product as the result of pressure. 
The apparent flow structure might therefore be in part a 
foliation due to dynamic action subsequent to consolidation. 
The strain-shadowing sometimes noticed in the quartz 
phenocrysts, with some fracturing, and the remarkably bent 
felspar phenocrysts (slide x 52) may also have been due 
to dynamic action, but these characteristics could have 
been produced prior to consolidation, i.e., during flow. 

(4) Carbonates are more plentiful in this rock, the analysis 
of which gives 6*01 per cent, of 00 2 . The calcification 
etc. is due in large part to infiltration instead of the alter- 
ation in situ of lime or magnesia bearing minerals. The 
analysis indicates that there is not enough OaO present 
(4*56%), to satisfy all the 00 2 to form calcite, therefore 
some of the 0O 2 must be combined with the MgO, to 
form magnesite or dolomite, with probably a little isomor- 
phous ferrous carbonate. The presence of ferrous carbonate 
is indicated by the separation of yellow oxide of iron from 
the carbonate patches. 



Si0 2 ... 
A1 2 3 
Fe 2 3 
FeO ... 
MgO ... 
OaO ... 
Na 2 
K ... 



Chemical Composition. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 


63-22 


H 3 O(100° 


0.) 0-26 


13-57 


H 2 O(100° 


C. + ) 2-10 


1-50 


C0 2 ... 


6-01 


2-07 


Ti0 2 ... 


... 0-50 


1-80 


MnO ... 


... 0-09 


4-56 






0-98 




100-48 


3-82 







Note. — The rock and slide numbers quoted refer to registered 
specimens and rock sections in the Sydney and Newcastle Technical 



College collections. 



384 



C. A. SUSSMILCH AND W. G. STONE. 



Table of Analyses. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


SiO., 


74-18 


50-05 


53-G2 


60-95 


62-85 


70-40 


63-22 ; 


ai 2 o 3 ... 


11-15 


19-56 


12-10 


15-04 


13-58 


13-13 


13 57 


Fe 2 O s ... 


0-90 


0-90 


2-00 


2-60 


1-95 


1-25 


1-50 


FeO 


1-31 


6-48 


6-30 


3-69 


5-45 


1-75 


2-07 


MgO 


0-62 


6-30 


7-07 


2-82 


1-92 


0-64 


1-80 


CaO 


1-35 


5-20 


11-64 


4-30 


4-10 


2-74 


4-56 


Na^O ... 


1-00 


2-49 


1-84 


3-22 


3-32 


3-47 


0-98 


K 2 


5-86 


3-09 


1-52 


3-00 


0-88 


2-22 


3-82 


H 2 O(100°C) 


0-15 


0-43 


0-22 


0-17 


0-20 


0-15 


0-26 


H„O(100°CH 


-) 1-27 


3-90 


1-86 


2-08 


2-50 


1-35 


2-10 


CO, 


2-00 


0-32 


1-12 


0-80 


1-85 


2-83 


6-01 


TiOo 


0-25 


0-55 


0-50 


0-65 


0-90 


0-30/ 


0-50 


Zr0 2 ... 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 




P 2 5 ... 


0-15 


0-38 


0-29 


0-26 


0-18 


0-08 




so 3 


trace 


0-03 


0-02 


0-02 


trace 


trace 




CI 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 




S(FeS 2 ) ... 


o-oi 


trace 


trace 


absent 


absent 


absent 




Cr 2 3 ... 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 




NiO & CoO 


absent 


trace 


trace 


trace 


absent 


absent 




MnO 


0-02 


0-09 


0-17 


0-08 


0-14 


0-04 


0-09 


BaO 


0-10 


0-15 


0-04 


0-13 


0-10 


0-04 




SrO 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 


trace 




Li 2 ... 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 


absent 




v a o s ... 


absent 


0-05 


0-02 


0-02 


trace 


absent 




CuO 


trace 
100-32 




100-33 


trace 


trace 


trace 




99-97 


99-83 


99-92 


100-39 


100-48 



I. — Rhyolite-porphyry from near Grand Arch. 
II. — Andesite (fine grained, non-porphyritic type) from near 
Caves House. 
III. — Augite-andesite (porphyritic type) occurring as inclusions in 

II. from near Caves House. 
IV. — Granophyric-quartz-porphyrite (pink variety). 
V. — Quartz-porphyrite (green variety). 

VTT i Q uar tz-felsite from road cutting at head of Hinchman's Crk. 



Plate LV. 




GEOLOGICAL MAP 



JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT 



; 



Journal Royal fan, h, of A S. IF., Vol. XL1X, WIS 




\ 



■■'-k. : GEOLOCiICAL MAP 
JENOLAN CAVES DISTRICT 



'<?'''■' ' ; ':" : " 



PP» 



Journal Royal Society of N.S.W., Vol. XL IX., 7915. 



Plate LV1. 




TWO LORD HOWE ISLAND POLYPODIA. 

TWO LORD HOWE ISLAND POLYPODIA. 
By the Rev. W. Walter Watts. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, Deeember 1, 1915.~\ 



In the earlier determinations of the Ferns of Lord Howe 
Island, too much appears to have been taken for granted ; 
and, unfortunately, the two short papers published by me 
in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales, 1 in 1912 and 1914, rested upon the decisions of the 
earlier pteridologists, save in two cases, which resulted in 
the publication of Asplenium bulbiferum, var. hoiveanum, 
var. nov., determined earlier, at least in Sydney, as Asplen- 
ium pteridoides Bak.; and Polystichum Whiteleggii, sp. 
nov., known earlier as Aspidium capense (Polystichum 
adiantiforme). Recently I have seen reason to question 
the correctness of the view, that the two Polypodia, of the 
section Grammitis, found on the island, are respectively 
P. australe (R. Br.) Mett. and P. Hookeri Brack. My 
scepticism related, first, to the supposed P. Hookeri, but 
soon extended to the associated species. 

I. Polypodium Hookeri Brack, belongs to a series of 
ferns, mostly tropical or subtropical, which have been 
involved in considerable confusion. They belong to the 
Grammitis group, i.e., small Polypodia with undivided 
fronds; and they are clothed, more or less densely, with 
reddish-brown hairs. Dr. Christ 2 makes of them a Section 
"Setigera," but selects, for mention, only P. setigerum Bl. 
and P. Hookeri Brack. P. Hookeri was named P. seti- 
gerum by Hook, and Arn. in 1832, they having apparently 
overlooked Blume's P. setigerum published in 1828; the 
name was changed by Brackenridge in 1854. 

1 Vol. xxxvn, part 3, and Vol. xxxix. part 2. 
2 Die Frankrauter der Erde, 1897, p. 78. 

T— December 1, 1915. 



386 W. W. WATTS. 

Blume, 1 in 1828, had described and figured several species 
of this group; but Hooker, 2 in 1862, in a note following his 
description of Polypoclium hirtum Hook., said, "The 
smaller Indian grammitoid Polypodia, if I may so call them, 
are attended with great difficulty in their study, and 
neither the costly figures nor the descriptions of Blume 
tend so much as they ought to do to remove the difficulties." 
Mettenius, he adds, referred to three of Blume's species as 
belonging to Grammitis hirta Bl. Christensen (Index Fil.) 
identifies Blume's G. hirta (also G. setosa Bl.) with Poly- 
podium diplosorum Christ (1896). Hooker, in describing 
his own Poly podium hirtum, expressed a doubt as to 
whether it was the P. hirtum of Mettenius (vide supra). 
Christensen, loc. cit., makes Hooker's P. hirtum cover three 
separate species, viz., P. diplosorum Christ, P. Rein- 
ivardtii (Bl.) Pr., and P. pubinerve (Bl.) Christ. The 
result of all this is, that the name, Polypodium hirtum, has 
lost validity, and has disappeared, except as a synonym. 
This example of the difficulties that beset the "grammitoid 
Polypodia" is given, because, curiously enough, while in the 
Sydney National Herbarium the Lord Howe plant is labelled 
P. Hooker i, in Hooker and Baker's Synops. Fil., p. 320, one 
of the localities given, for P. hirtum Hook., is "Lord Howe's 
Island, C. Moore." In my opinion, the Lord Howe hairy 
Grammitis differs, in essential respects, from any of the 
described species within my knowledge, and must be 
regarded as a new species. 

Polypodium (Grammitis) pulchellum, sp. nov. 
(P. Hooker i Brack, et P. hirtum Hook, in Herbariis err.) 

Rhizoma robustiusculum, subrepens vel subadscendens, densis- 

sime nbrillosum, ssepe cum parvis discis (ostendentibus casorum 

bases stipitum) multo prseditum, apice dense paleaceum, paleis 

subintegris, brunneis, a basi lata lineari-lanceolatis, acumine in 

1 Enuro. Fil. jav. p. 106 ff. 2 Sp. Fil., iv, p. 170, fig. 273 A. 



TWO LORD HOWE ISLAND POLYPODIA. 387 

longam, subflexuosam, integram setam, interclum geuiinam, pro- 
ducto. Stipites dense approximati, subcsespitosi, c. 3 - 4 cm. longi, 
in attenuatam frondis laminam mergentes. Frons integra, 1-2 
dm. longa, et cir. 1 cm. lata, basin versus sensim tenuissime angus- 
tata, supra oblongo-lanceolata, breviter acuminata, acumine 
obtusiusculo, utrisque faciebus (et marginibus, stipitibus, et soris) 
cum levibus, integris, brunneis, longiusculis, subnexuosis pilis 
prseditisj nervo tenui, fere ad apicem attingenti, venulis erecto- 
patentibus, plerumque dichotomis, interdum trifurcatis, furcis fere 
ad marginem attingentibus; soris sat numerosis, obliquis, in seriebus 
singulis, subjuxtacostalibus, dispositis, juventate sublinearibus, 
maturitate ovalibus, prope basin superioris furcse venulse positis. 
Textura tenui-coriacea. 

On the upper slopes and the summit of Mount Gower; 
also on Mount Lidgbird. 

This handsome little fern differs from P. Hookeri, (1) in 
size: it is considerably larger; (2) in venation: in P. 
Hookeri the lower fork of the dichotomous venule is much 
longer than the short upper one that bears the sorus, while 
in our species the two forks (sometimes three) are of equal 
or nearly equal length ; (3) in the shape and position of the 
sori, which, in P. Hookeri, are larger, rounder, more 
closely set in the rows, and closer to the midrib; (4) in the 
surface hairs, which are shorter and stiffer in P. Hookeri; 
(5) especially in its basal scales, which are very short and 
broad, and lighter in colour, in P. Hookeri; (6) in texture: 
the veins in our species are, with a lens and transparent 
light, more or less visible, while in P. Hookeri they are 
altogether obscured. 

The basal scales of P. pulchellum are apparently quite 
distinctive, with their long, sometimes geminate, setae, 
which character would have made the name P. setaceum 
suitable, but for its too close approximation to P. setigerum 
Bl. and the syn. P. setosum. 



388 W. W. WATTS. 

II. Polypodium (Grammitis) howeanum sp. nov. 

(P. australe in Herbariis err.) 

Rhizoma robustiusculum, adscenclens vel subcsespitosum, densis- 
simefibrillosutn, apice dense paleaceum, paleis longiusculis, lanceo- 
latis, subflexuosis, mollibus, longe subulatis, subula flexuosa. 
Stipites dense approximate, glabri, fere ad basin per attenuatam 
frondis laminam alati, plus minusve brunnei. Frons glaberrinia, 
integerrima, ad 3 dm. vel ultra longa et prope ad 1 cm. lata, sed 
plerumque multo angustior, sicca subfalcata, distincte recurva, 
infra longissime in brevem stipitem sensim attenuata, supra 
oblongo-lanceolata, longe acuminata, nervo valido, fere percurrente, 
subtus prominenti; venulis numerosis, dichotomis, utrisque furcis 
equalibus vel subequalibus, fere ad marginem attingentibus, erecto- 
patentibus, indistinctis ; soris in superiore tertia frondis parte et 
in superioribus furcis venularum positis, obliquis, sublinearibus, 
saepe confluentibus. Color dilute viridis, haud nitens Textura 
coriacea. 

Upper slopes and summit of Mount Gower, also on Mount 
Lidgbird; often associated with P. pulchellum. 

Hitherto identified with P. australe (R. Br.) Mett., from 
which, however, it differs through its stouter rhizome, its 
much longer fronds, its long, subulate, flexuose scales, its 
very short, smooth stipes, and, especially, its finer and 
more closely set venules with their long equal or nearly 
equal forks. P. australe has venules with one long fork 
and one short one (bearing the sorus); it also shows its 
venules more or less distinctly in slightly raised ridges on 
the upper surface, and its venules are much farther apart 
than those of P. hoiveanum. The fronds, also, of P. australe 
are more or less distinctly crenulate. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 389 



NOTES ON THE NATIVE FLORA OB 1 TROPICAL 
QUEENSLAND. 

By R. H. Oambage, f.l.s. 

With Plates LVII-LXI and Map. 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, December 1, 1915.'] 



The notes for this paper were obtained during a visit to 
Queensland in August 1913, and the references are practi- 
cally confined to the conspicuous members of the flora as 
seen from the train and coaches, and as examined and 
discussed with bushmen during stoppages of a few hours in 
various localities. The route followed was from Cairns to 
Alma-den, Forsayth, Georgetown, Croydon and Normanton 
on the Gulf of Carpentaria. From Normanton the journey 
was continued to Cloncurry, Hughenden, Prairie, Winton, 
Longreach and Rockhampton. 

By far the greater portion of the area traversed is west 
of the Great Dividing Range, and consequently the vege- 
tation for the most part consists of open forest. The same 
conditions prevail in Queensland as in New South Wales in 
regard to the eastern and western floras being responsive 
to the moist and dry climates respectively. 1 

Cairns is situated a few feet above sea-level, at the base 
of steep mountains whose eastern sides are clothed with 
luxuriant brush (the term scrub is used in Queensland) or 
jungle to their summits. To the westward of Cairns the 
Main Divide is crossed by the railway at about 1,700 feet 
above sea-level, while about thirty miles southwards from 
Cairns the great mountain masses of Bellenden Ker and 

1 Mountains of Eastern Australia and their effect on the Native 
Vegetation. By R. H. Cambage. This Journal, xlviii, (1914), p. 267. 



390 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



Bartle Frere rise to elevations exceeding 5,000 feet, and 
these are for the most part walls of brush to within a few 
feet of their actual crests. In all these mountain scenes, 
the Malayan element of the tropical flora, which includes 
fig trees, climbing vines, palms, dense jungle, etc., adds a 
magnificence and grandeur unsurpassed, and in only a few 
instances equalled in any portion of Australia. 




The impressions formed by botanists from the Southern 
States on arrival at Cairns will vary to some extent accord- 
ing to the season of the year, and flowering plants which 
may appear common at one season may be scarcely noticed 
at others. One cannot fail to be impressed however, with 
the tropical nature of the flora, and in the course of a short 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 391 

walk many plants are met with which are never seen wild 
in the latitude of Sydney, but which are recognised as 
cosmoplitan tropical types. 

Within the limits of the town may be seen huge spreading 
examples of various species of Ficus; shapely trees of 
Wormia alata Rottb., (Dilleniacse), with beautiful large 
yellow flowers three inches in diameter, and large oval 
leaves with winged stalks; palm-like arborescent plants of 
Pandanus aquations P.v.M., ? (Pandanacese); shrubs of 
Taberncemontana or ientalis, R.Br., (Apocynacese), rendered 
conspicuous by the three-angled, falcate, yellow fruits; 
small plants of Vinca rosea Linn., (Apocynacese), a natur- 
alised species common in the sand; beach plants of Ipomcea 
pes-caprce Roth., (Oonvolvulacese), common on the sea 
coasts of most tropical countries; masses of succulent 
herbaceous plants, near the beach, of Bryophyllum caly- 
cinum Salisb., (Crassulaceae), a naturalised plant several 
feet high with attractive reddish-green to pink tubular 
flowers, from tropical Africa; large trees of Castanosper- 
mum australe A. Ounn., (Leguminosse), Moreton Bay 
Chestnut or Bean Tree; smaller trees of Alphitonia excelsa 
Reissek., (Rhamnacese), a species distributed from the 
Pacific Islands to the south coast of New South Wales, 
where it is in places known as Red Ash, and whose identi- 
cation is assisted by its clusters of berry-like drupes, and 
leaves with an almost white underside; tall twining plants 
of Hardenbergia retusa Benth., (Leguminosse) with beau- 
tiful purple flowers; species of Macrozamia, Melaleuca, 
and phyllodineous Acacias, including A. aulaeocarpa A. 
Cunn., with its falcate phyllodes and spike flowers; and A. 
flavescens A. Cunn., with its prominently three-nerved, 
broad phyllodes, with sinuate upper margins, and its flowers 
in globular heads. 



392 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

BELLENDEN KER. 

An ascent was made of Bellenden Ker from the Harvey's 
Creek side, but it is not proposed to give an account of its 
flora, as a comprehensive list has already been published 
by P. Manson Bailey, Colonial Botanist, Queensland. 1 The 
ascent, though strenuous, may be conveniently made from 
Harvey's Creek, but it is necessary to secure a guide as 
there is no track whatever. 

The beautiful Dracophyllum Say eri F.v.M.(Epacridacese), 
was found flowering on the summit in August. This is the 
only species of Dracophyllum recorded for Queensland, and 
although the genus is represented in New Caledonia, Lord 
Howe Island, and Western Australia, its home is usually 
regarded as being in southern latitudes. 

The native guides, one of whom had spent much of his 
early life on the slopes of Bellenden Ker before the arrival 
of white men, gave me several native names of plants. It 
seems evident that in their wild state the natives kept 
very much to their own districts in this rough, wooded 
country, for different dialects arise at fairly short distances. 
As an example, the native names of Bellenden Ker and 
Bartle Frere have been recorded from the Russell River 
dialect as Wooroonooran and Chooreechillum respectively; 1 
while the names given me by natives representing the 
Harvey's Creek dialect, a dozen miles away, were Charor- 
jimburra (the accent being on the third syllable), and 
Chigweaya (the accent being on the first a or third syllable). 

Among the native names (Harvey's Creek dialect), sup- 
plied of plants on the lower slopes of Bellenden Ker were 
the following: — 

1 Report of the Government Scientific Expedition to Bellenden Ker 
Range (1889). See also "Botanical Notes in Queensland, the Mulgrave 
River," by Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, Vol. 
vn, (1882), p. 305. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 393 

Elceocarpus granclis F.v.M., "Mooregan" (Tiliacese, Blue 
Pig or Quandong). 

Castanospermum australe, "Dongera" (Moreton Bay 
Chestnut or Bean Tree). 

Backhousia Bancroftil Bailey etF.v.M., "Cowarda," with 
the accent on the first syllable, (Myrtacese, Johnstone 
River Hardwood). 

Alstonia scholaris R.Br., " Jalgan," (Apocynaceae, Milky 
Pine). 

Corclyline terminalis Kunth., "Midgenbil" (Liliaceae, Lily 
Palm). 

Colocasia macrorrhiza Schott., "Culgum," (Aroidese, Cun- 
jevoi of the natives of parts of the southern Queensland 
coast). Some of these plants were noticed to be 
prostrate, and it was pointed out by the natives that 
the roots are eaten by the Brush Turkeys (Talegallus 
Lathami) which undermine the plants when scratching 
for their food. This is evidently the plant referred to 
by Professor Baldwin Spencer as being eaten by the 
Native Turkeys near Oooran, south of Gympie. 1 

Angiopteris evecta Hoffm., "Chillimother," (Pilices). A 
beautiful tree-fern with a short trunk and remarkably 
long fronds, often upwards of twelve and fifteen feet. 
Locally called Water Tree-Fern, from being commonly 
found on the banks of creeks. It ranges over tropical 
and Eastern Asia to Japan and extends from Mada- 
gascar to the Pacific Islands. 2 

As showing the effect of warmtli and moisture on poor 
soils, it may be mentioned that the greater portion of 
Bellenden Ker, which has an excessive rainfall, over 150 
inches annually, is covered with brush, although the granitic 
rock at the summit contains about 72% silica, and yields a 

1 Victorian Naturalist, Vol. ix, (1892) p. 32. 
2 B. PI., Vol. vn, p. 694 



394 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



soil which in cooler latitudes south of Sydney would be too 
siliceous for the growth of Jungle flora. I am indebted to 
Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, F.c.s., for the amount of silica con- 
tent in this rock. 

NATIVE LEGENDS OF BELLENDEN KER. 

Mr. John Hill of Glen Boughton, Cairns, who ascended 
this mountain over twenty years ago, gave me the follow- 
ing interesting folk-lore which he obtained through a native 
interpreter from a very old blackfellow named Merrewah, 
who acted as one of the guides. During their ascent it 
was noticed that on three occasions after a long climb, a 
small level zone was reached. These zones, Merrewah 
explained, were up to that time used as camping grounds 
by the natives when making their flying hunting trips on 
these mountains, and were swept clean for spaces of ten to 
twenty feet. They were known as "plarriah" and denoted 
by numbers. Each plarriah had certain tribal responsi- 
bilities and laws attached to it. Thus up to No. 1 plarriah 
could go the women and children with the hunters; to No. 
2 could go the men accompanied by the lads up to ten or 
twelve years old, who had then to return to their waiting 
mothers at No. 1. Then up to No. 3 plarriah (embracing 
the whole summits characterising the Bellenden Ker 
Mount), only the adult men could go, who had been through 
the full initiation ceremonies of manhood. Old Merrewah 
went on to explain that the legends of the tribe told how 
one disobedient boy of about twelve years, surreptitiously 
followed his father on to the plateau of No. 3 plarriah, and 
that while his father was hunting for the Mappee, (the tree- 
climbing kangaroo, Denclrolagus Lumholtzii), he suddenly 
was horrified to hear his son close by calling piteously for 
help. Running to the sounds he looked up to the top of a 
tall tree to see the evil spirit embracing his boy. The 
father wept and implored the evil spirit to let the boy go 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 395 

or bring him down, but the fiend only laughed and threatened 
to drop him. At last, exasperated, the father hurled his 
spear at the fiend and impaled him through the abdomen , 
when he let go of the boy, and the father opening his mouth 
caught his son safely. 

It is well known that the natives had a curious dread of 
some evil spirit on the summits of these mountains, and an 
elderly blackfellow who was one of my guides, had never 
been to the actual top of Bellenden Ker until he went with 
me in August 1913. 

Mr. Hill relates that his party passed an enormous fig tree 
growing in a peculiar depression down the slope. Merrewah 
pointing to the tree said, (through the interpreter), in that 
tree the first mappees which lived in this region started 
their existence, male and female; but gradually they so 
increased in numbers that one night the whole tree and the 
ground beneath it collapsed under their weight, and the 
tree-climbers found themselves being buried under the 
earth. Ultimately, by following an underground channel, 
two of them, male and female again, found themselves on 
the surface. This worthy couple, decided that never again 
would they or their descendants live more than two in a 
tree together, and this custom, Merrewah continued, they 
follow to the present day. 

Mr. Hill adds that it is a fact that only two of these 
animals are ever found together, and they do not go in 
numbers like their near relatives, the Rock Wallaby 
(Petrogale penicillata). 

KURANDA TO MAREEBA AND ALMA-DEN. 

Kuranda is situated near the famous Barron Falls, twenty- 
one miles by railway from Cairns, and at about 1,100 feet 
above sea-level. The spot is just at the summit of the 
steep ascent from Cairns, and on the eastern margin of a 
gently rising plateau. 



39fi R. H. CAMBAGE. 

About five miles past Kuranda, the effect of the change 
of climate from the wet and humid conditions of the coastal 
belt to the drier atmosphere of the western side of the 
mountains is most marked, and is evident in the resultant 
flora. In less than thirty miles from Cairns, practically 
the whole of the jungle flora is left behind, and is seen no 
more on the way to Normanton. The geological formation 
of a considerable area between Mareeba and Alma-den is 
granite. 

From Kuranda to Alma-den the following species were 
noted: — 

Dilleniace,e : Hibbertia volubilis Anclr. (Seen only around 
Kuranda). 

RhamnacEjE : Alphitonia excelsa Reiss. (At various points). 

LEGUMiNOSiE : Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. (Moreton Bay 
Chestnut. Seen only around Kuranda), Acacia flavescens A. 
Cunn., A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn., A. auriculiformis A. Cunn., 
A. cincinnata F.v.M. (with compact spiral pods). 

MYRTACEiE : Callistemon viminalis Cheel (at Biboohra), Melaleuca 
leucadendron Linn. 1 var. Cunninghami Bailey, Eucalyptus 
leptophleba F.v.M., E. melanophloia F.v.M., (Silver-leaved 
Ironbark), E. crebra F.v.M., (Narrow-leaved Ironbark), E. 
miniata A. Cunn., E. tereticornis Sin. (Forest Red Gum), E. 
alba Reinw. (E. platyphylla F.v.M.), E. pellitaF.vM., (large 
fibrous barked trees between Kuranda and Barron Falls, with 
fruits 1*6 cm. in diameter), E. papuana F.v.M. (E. tesselaris 
F.v.M. var. Dallachianal Cabbage Gum), E. corymbosa Sm. 
(Blood wood), E. sp. (Stringybark, between Oaklands and 
Koah), E. dichr omophloia F.v.M.? (Red Bloodwood), Tristania 
suaveolens Sm., Rhodamnia trinervia Blume, (at Kuranda), 
Carey a australis F.v.M., (at intervals all the way, often 
showing a few red leaves). 

Melastomace^e : Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (At Kuranda). 

LoranthacEjE : Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 397 

Composite : Helichrysum sp.? (white flower with black centre, on 
granite hills between Boonmoo and Petford) 

Bignoniace^e : Spathodea heterophylla R.Br.? (at Kuranda). 

Proteace^e : Persoonia falcata R.Br., (10 to 15 feet high. Near 
Lappa Junction, 1900 feet above sea level), Helicia Nortoni- 
ana Bailey, (at Kuranda on slate formation), Grevillea chryso- 
dendron R.Br., with beautiful yellowish-red flowers, G. poly- 
stachya R.Br., G. gibbosa R.Br., (Beef tree). 

Euphorbiace^e : Homalanthus populifolius Grah. (Carumbium 
populifolium Reinw.). 

Urticace^e : Ficus opposita Miq., Cudrania javanensis TrecuL 
(Cockspur Thorn, near Kuranda). 

Casuarinace^e : C asuarina suberosa Ott. and Dietr., (Black Oak), 
C. torulosa Ait., (Forest Oak), C. C unninghamiana Miq. 
(River Oak), C. Luehmanni R. T. Baker, (Bull Oak). 

Conifers: Callitris sp. (Pine), Agathis robusta C. Moore, (Queens- 
land Kauri Pine, seen around Ku»ancla). 

Cycadace^e: Macrozamia sp. (between Boonmoo and Lappa 
Junction). 

JuNCACEiE: Xerotes longifolia R. Br. 

PANDANACEiE : Pandanus aquaticus F.v.M.? 

Gramine^e : Imperata arundinacea Cyr. (Blady grass, seen only 
near Kuranda). 

Amongst the Acacias of North Queensland is a consider- 
able percentage of those belonging to the sections Pluri- 
nervse and Juliflorse. A, auriculiformis was noticed at 
Kuranda and also on the side of Bellenden Ker, where 
some of the trees were 70 to 80 feet high and 3 to 4 feet 
in diameter. 

Eucalyptus leptophleba was noticed soon after the forest 
country was entered, and it extends westerly to Alma-den 
and towards Forsayth, but from about this latter locality 



398 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

it seems to give place to a smaller and paler coloured form 
of Box Tree (No. 4162) which was found intermittently as 
far west as the Flinders and Oloncurry Rivers. E. lepto- 
phleba is a Box tree with a rather thick bark and long 
leaves, the rough bark extending to the branchlets. The 
timber is reddish-brown with a fairly thick sapwood. It 
seems to favour the low, rather than the hilly land. 

E. alba (Poplar Gum) is fairly common along the coast 
and was noticed as far inland as towards Dimbulah. It is 
a white gum with very large juvenile leaves, measurements 
of nine by six inches being not uncommon. It appears to 
often grow on a granite formation which contains about 
70° silica. A note taken at Townsville, while near trees 
of this species, reads: — white to the ground, bark peels off 
in short flakes, buds often have double operculum. 

Small trees about twenty feet high of various species of 
Grevillea were fairly common throughout. G. polystacliya 
with beautiful creamy flowers, and G. clirysodenclron with 
charming yellowish-red flowers were the most conspicuous. 
G. glbboscv was first noticed near Biboohra after which it 
was seen the whole way. It is known as Beef Tree or 
Beefwood owing to the appearance of its timber, which is 
prettily marked with medullary rays, a common feature of 
the timbers of the Natural Order Proteaceae. For a species 
of Grevillea its orbicular, gibbous fruits are somewhat 
remarkable for their shape and size, the longer axis some- 
times measuring as much as two and a quarter inches. 
This species was not flowering in August but was con- 
spicuous by its silvery looking leaves. 

Casuarlna suberosa (Black Oak) and C. torulosa (Forest 
Oak), were not noticed for more than twenty miles west of 
Kuranda. These are both well known coastal species, the 
former extending south to Tasmania, while the latter does 
not occur much to the south of Sydney. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 399 

C. Cunninghamiana (River Oak) was noticed on many of 
the large streams from Kuranda to Alma-den, including the 
head waters of the Walsh River, a tributary of the Mitchell, 
but was not seen on the lower Gilbert or lower Flinders. 
Although this species ranges from North Queensland 
southerly to the Murrumbidgee River, and occurs on fresh 
water streams on both sides of the Main Divide, it appears 
to have limitations in regard to its powers of resisting 
extremes of cold and salinity. Thus, although it occurs on 
the upper portions of all the main western rivers of New 
South Wales from the Murrumbidgee northwards, it has not 
been recorded from Victoria, nor does it extend down the 
rivers to the Murray, as though it prefers the swiftly run- 
ning to the sluggish streams. It is rarely found at eleva- 
tions exceeding 3,000 feet above sea level. It is of interest 
to note that its distribution in North Queensland seems to 
be regulated by the same factors which govern its occur- 
rence in the south, and it appears throughout to avoid the 
lower portions of the western streams. As previously 
suggested, its inability to descend the rivers to the sluggish 
portions may be owing to the presence there of saline con- 
ditions which often prevail in times of drought, and which 
this species always shuns. 1 

In 1845 Leichhardt noted its absence from the lower 
portions of the Gilbert, Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt and 
Albert Rivers, and when on the Nicholson, near the western 
border of Queensland, he wrote: — "We crossed a creek in 
which we recognised a Casuarina, which tree we had not 
seen since we left the Mitchell." 2 He does not mention 
what species of Casuarina was growing on the Nicholson. 

The River Oak affords a splendid object lesson in the 
limitations which may sometimes attend the distribution 

1 Notes on the Botany of the Interior of New South Wales," Part V. 
By E. H. Cambage. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, Vol. xxvi, (1901) p. 635. 

2 Journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia, p. 368. 



400 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

of a plant, for here we have a species which flourishes on 
the banks of fresh water streams, and extends throughout 
the greater portion of Eastern Australia, north and south t 
but is unable to follow the streams for any great distance 
across the continent to the westward. Its great desidratum 
appears to be perfectly fresh water, and this is usually best 
obtained where the water is in motion. 

Casuarina Luelimanni (Bull Oak) occurs between Kambul 
and Biboohra, just north of latitude 17°, so that this record 
places its known northerly range well into the tropics. It 
is now known to extend from Biboohra in the north to 
south-western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia 
near Serviceton in the south. It is remarkable that a 
species with such an extensive range should show so little 
variation in habit, for it may be mentioned that the general 
appearance of the Bull Oak trees near Kambul is so similar 
to those of New South Wales and Victoria, that the species 
was identified from the train window. The identification, 
however, has since been corroborated by the receipt of 
specimens kindly sent by Miss L. Martin of Biboohra, and 
which show the characteristic flat cones with seeds arranged 
in three whorls. 

ALMA-DEN. 

Parts of two days were spent in examining and collecting 
plants within a radius of one or two miles of Alma-den, 
which is situated 121 miles by rail westerly from Cairns, 
and 18 miles short of Ohillagoe. 

The geological formation of the area examined is granite 
containing about 68 to 70° silica, and producing an open 
forest vegetation. The locality is about 1,600 feet above 
sea level, and is to some extent comparable with the lower 
western slopes of northern New South Wales. The rainfall, 
which is somewhere in the vicinity of 35 inches annually, 
is confined chiefly to the period between December and 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 401 

April, and this latter condition applies to practically the 
whole of northern Queensland, so that by the month of 
August the country away form the watercourses is getting 
decidedly dry. Botanists who have had experience in 
collecting in this class of country well know that the season 
for the flowering and fruiting of a plant is short. The 
result is that the visitor often finds a difficulty in identify- 
ing plants owing to the absence of both flowers and fruits. 
It will also be understood that small plants, including 
grasses, are likely to be overlooked in the dry season. 

The following is a list of plants noted around Alma-den. 
Authors' names are not repeated where they have been 
previously used for the same plant: — 
Bixace^e : Cochlospermum Gillivrcei Benth., (Native Cotton). 

PittosporacEjE : Bursaria incana Lindl., (30 feet high, 10 inches 
in diameter, spineless). 

Sterculiace.e : Stercnlia Bidwilli Hook. 

Tiliace^e : Grewia polygama Roxb., (a medicinal plant). 

BuRSERACEiE : C ' anarium australasicum F.v.M., (an endemic 
species 20 to 30 feet high with hard rough bark, and belong- 
ing to an Order widely distributed throughout the tropics). 

Celastrine.e : Celastrus Cunning hamii F.v.M. 

Rhamnace.<£ : Alphitonia excelsa. 

Sapindace^e : Dodoncea physocarpa F.v.M., (Hopbush, with pin- 
nate leaves). 

Leguminos^e : Desmodium umbellatum DC, 1 (a small tree), Ery- 
thrina vespertilio Benth., (a Coral-tree), Acacia hemignosta 
F.v.M., A. leptostachya Benth.,? A. holcocarpa Benth., A. 
plectocarpa A. Cunn., A. holosericea A. Cunn., A. Bidwilli 
Benth. 

MYRTACEiE : Calythrix leptophylla Benth., (6 feet high), Melaleuca 
leucadendron Linn.? (Paper-barked Tea tree, 20 feet high, 
flowering in August), M. Cunninghamii Schauer 1 (20 feet 

Z— December 1, 1915. 



402 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



high, bark papery to almost fibrous, flowering just over in 
August), M. saligna Schauer, (Willow Tea-tree 60 to 70 feet 
high, pendulous, papery bark, growing on the banksof streams), 
M. genistifolia Sm. (12 to 20 feet high, 10 inches in diameter, 
bark hard and firm, growing in clumps, flowering in August 
1913), Eucalyptus leptophleba (Box), E. crebra (Narrow-leaved 
Tronbark), E. miniata, E. rostrata (River Red Gum), E. 
clavigera A. Cunn., (Apple Gum), E. papuana, (E. tesselaris 
var. Dallachiana Benth., Cabbage Gum), E. peltata Benth., 
(Yellow Jack), E. dichromopliloia 1 (No. 3909 and 4160, Red 
Bloodwood), E. terminalis F.v.M. ? (Nos. 3906 and 3908, 
Bloodwood), Carey a australis (Cockatoo Apple). 

Umbellifer^ : Didiscus hemicarpus F.v.M. ? (20 inches high). 

Rubiace^e : Gardenia ochreata F.v.M. 1 (small tree with rugose 
bark, fruits ovoid, 2 inches by 1 inch), G. sp. (10 to 15 feet 
high, fruits almost globular, f inch diameter). 

Stylidie^e : Stylidium Floodii F.v.M. 1 (6 inches high). 

Campanulace^: : Wahlenbergia gracilis DC, (Blue Bell). 

ApocYNACEiE : Alyxia thyrsiflora Benth., (little shrubs of 4 or 5 
feet growing in groups in rocky situations, flowering in 
August). 

PROTEACEiE : Persoonia falcata, Grevillea chrysodendron (with 
beautiful reddish-yellow flowers in August), G. polystachya, 
G. mirnosoides R. Br.? (10 to 15 feet), G. gibbosa (Beef Tree, 
30 feet high), Hakea Persiehana F.v.M.. (with terete leaves 
up to 8 inches long and 1 mm. in diameter, and fruits 4 5 cm. 
long by 3 cm. broad). 

ThymelacEjE : Pimelea sp. (from 1 to 2 feet high, densely clothed 
with silvery, silky hairs, and may be an undescribed species). 

Santalace^e: Santalum lanceolatum R. Br. 

EtjphorbiacEuE : Petalostigma quadriloculare F.v.M., (Quinine, 30 
feet high), Mallotus sp. (a tree about 25 feet high with hard 
rough bark). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 403 

'CoNiFERiE : Callitris columnellaris F.v.M. (Pine, 20 feet high). 

ORCHIDACE.E : Cymbidium sp. 

ELemodorace^e : Hcemodorum planifolium R. Br. 1 (Red-root). 

Pandanace^e : Pandanus aquations. 1 ' 

Trees of Cochlospermum Gillivrc&i (Native Cotton) grow 
to a height of twenty to twenty-five feet, and appear to 
prefer rocky elevations. They are deciduous, and were 
leafless in August or while in bloom. They become covered 
with bright yellow flowers about two inches across, which 
give the trees a very attractive appearance. The presence 
of a woolly substance inside the large pod-like seed vessels 
has caused the plant to be often referred to as Native Cotton. 

Sterculia Blclwilli was seen occupying rocky granite 
elevations with the last named species, the trees being about 
fifteen feet high and deciduous. In August, trees of this 
species were leafless, and coming into bloom, the flowers 
being more than an inch long, and nearly an inch across, 
bell-shaped and red. 

Greivia polygama grows as a small shrub and extends to 
the East Indies. It belongs to a genus widely spread over 
the tropics. The small two-lobed fruits of this species are 
sometimes called Jelly-boys in Queensland, and in addition 
to being regarded by some people as edible, are considered 
to have distinct medicinal qualities especially in cases of 
dysentery. Leichhardt records that in June 1845 when 
below the junction of the Lynd and Mitchell Rivers, or 
about one hundred and twenty miles north-west of Alma- 
den, he used the seeds of a species of Grewia in making a 
beverage, and writes: — "I gathered as many as I could, 
and boiled them for about an hour, the beverage which 
they produced was at all events the best we had tasted on 
our expedition." (Op. cit., p. 295.) 

Erythrina vesperbilio, a Coral tree, was noticed on rocky 
hills. These trees, which were about twenty feet high, 



404 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

with prickly stems, were leafless in August, but fairly well 
covered with red flowers. It is a common Queensland 
species, and also occurs in north-western New South Wales. 

Acacia hemignosta grows into small trees about fifteen 
feet high. It has flat pods, and pale or slightly glaucous 
leaves which, when seen growing, somewhat resemble those 
of Santalum lanceolatum. This Acacia does not appear to 
have been previously recorded for Queensland, although 
Bentham mentions its occurrence in North Australia, and 
includes in the localities the Albert and Gilbert Rivers, 
both of which, however, are in Queensland. It is fairly 
common north of the Cloncurry district. 

A. holosericea was seen up to about fifteen feet high, 
with large silvery three-nerved phyllodes, and spiral pods 
with very small seeds. This is one of the few Australian 
Acacias which crosses to Papua. 1 

A. Bldiuilli is one of the bipinnate leaved Acacias and 
was noticed with and without spines, and growing to a 
height of about thirty feet. Many of the trees had a dis- 
tinctly corky bark. 

Eucalyptus cr.ebra, (No. 3905 Narrow-leaved Ironbark), is 
a common tree around Alma-den, and has been very largely 
used for the mines at Ohillagoe nearly twenty miles away. 
In leaves, bark and timber, it resembles the typical New 
South Wales form, but around Alma-den the fruits are 
larger, 7 mm. in diameter, nearly hemispherical, and have 
a distinct rim as well as somewhat exserted valves ; the 
pedicels are also finer, in fact, the fruits are so different 
from the type as to make it desirable that a careful exam- 
ination should be made of the flowers, which were not seen. 
These trees are being further investigated. 

1 Australian Vegetation, by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. Federal Handbook, 
p. 179. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 405 

Eucalyptus rostrata (River Red Gum) is a common tree 
on the banks of many of the rivers and large creeks of 
North Queensland. It is often associated with Casuarlna 
Cunninghamiana (River Oak), and while usually not able 
to ascend so far, can descend much further down the 
streams, and this attribute or quality has enabled it to 
cross the continent from north to south and from east to 
west. It does not occur in Tasmania and avoids the cold 
portions of the mainland. 

The tree identified as Eucalyptus clavlgera (No. 4159) is 
what eastern New South Wales bushmen would be likely 
to call Apple-gum. Its leaves as seen around Alma-den 
are sessile, often cordate and opposite, both in the primary 
and adult forms, and ovate, the hispid midrib and lateral 
veins standing out in relief on both sides of the leaf, which 
is excessively scabrous or harsh to the touch. In general 
appearance the leaves closely resemble those of Angophora 
subvelutina P.v.M., (Apple Tree) and some of the juvenile 
forms measured 8 by 5 inches, and it is known that these 
dimensions are exceeded in other localities. The bark on 
the main portion of the trunk and branches is white and 
smooth, while that at the base and for a height of 8 or 10 
feet, is tessellated in a manner very similar to that of 
Eucalyptus tesselaris F.v.M., the Moreton Bay Ash of 
Queensland, or Oarbeen of north-western New South Wales. 
(Plate LVII, fig. 1). The trees reach a height of fifty feet 
with a diameter of two to three feet, and if dead, will burn 
right away after being lighted, a character common also 
among the Angophoras. Neither buds nor flowers were 
seen, but some empty seed vessels 1*2 cm. long and 9 mm. in 
diameter were procured having pedicels up to 2*2 cm. long. 

There seems no doubt that these trees belong to the same 
species as those referred to by Leichhardt as Apple-gum, 
and which were first seen by him near the head of the Lynd 



406 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

River, and afterwards until after he had crossed the Roper 
River in the Northern Territory. His first entry reads : — 
"Another Eucalyptus with a scaly butt like the Moreton 
Bay Ash, but with a smooth upper trunk and cordate ovate 
leaves, which was also new to me; we called it Apple-gum." 
(Op. cit., p. 264, 304, 325, 353, 394, 464, 473). 

This Apple-gum was seen by me at various points between 
Alma-den and Norman ton, and again in the Cloncurry River 
district. 

Another Eucalypt of considerable interest seen around 
Alma-den was E. papuana F.v.M., (E. tesselaris var. 
Dallachiana Benth., or E. clavigera var. Dallachiana 
Maiden). 1 A feature of these trees is that their leaves 
are often shiny and twisted, or ; crinkled, those on small 
saplings being usually very large, sometimes measuring 
eleven by five and a half inches, but in all cases smooth 
and petiolate. The bark on the main portion of the trunk 
is smooth and white, but in this locality there is sometimes 
a little roughness on the butt for a height of six or eight 
feet, but in many cases the bark is white to the ground, 
and turns brown before peeling oft*. (Plate LVII, fig. 2.) 
The timber is a very dark brown, and the fruits seem inter- 
mediate between those of E. tesselaris and E. clavigera, 
being up to 1 cm. long, by 7 mm. in diameter, with pedicels 
of 3 to 4 mm. Neither buds nor flowers were obtained. 
These trees appeared to be quite distinct from those of E. 
clavigera growing near. Trees of E. papuana were seen 
intermittently from Alma-den to Normanton,on the Gilbert, 
Flinders, Oorella and Cloncurry Rivers, and around Barcal- 
dine, and were in most cases smooth and white to the 
ground and known as Cabbage Gum. 

1 "Notes on Eucalyptus," by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.. 
Wales, Vol. xlvii, (1913), p. 77; also Vol. xlix, (1915), p. 330. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 407 

In the river country the Cabbage Gum is nearly always 
white to the ground, and is a very shapely and umbrageous 
tree, about forty to fifty feet high, and undoubtedly seems 
to be worthy of specific rank. I was informed that in the 
lower Flinders district these trees withstood the drought 
of 1902 better than any other Eucalypt. 

It seems likely that the trees mentioned by Leichhardt 
(op. cit., p. 325, 351 and 355) as White-gum, and Drooping 
White-gum are of this species. 

Eucalyptus peltata is known around Alma-den as Yellow 
Jack, from the yellowish colour of the scaly bark which is 
of much the same texture as that of the Bloodwood group, 
though perhaps a little more flaky. This rough scaly bark 
extends to the branch lets, the tips of which are angular, 
glabrous and yellowish. The timber is pale towards the 
outside of the tree, but dark brown near the centre. The 
fruits are slightly urceolate and the sessile buds are angular 
in dried specimens. The only peltate leaves seen were 
amongst the ovate, scabrous, "sucker" foliage. The adult 
leaves examined are glabrous and lanceolate, with a 
yellowish midrib, and are five to six inches long, and one 
quarter of an inch to one inch broad. The "sucker " stems 
are hispid. 

This species occurs plentifully between Einasleigh and 
Wirra Wirra, near Forsayth. Exactly similar trees, as 
regards appearance and habit, were seen from the train, in 
the Desert near Jericho, to the east of Barcaldine, but as 
these trees were not examined, their identification is 
doubtful, though it is understood they are known as 
Eucalyptus Leiclihardtii Bailey. 

The species of Eucalyptus (Nos. 3909 and 4160), which I 
have referred to in these notes as Red Bloodwood, because 
of the reddish, rusty colour of its flaky bark, has so far not 
been definitely identified, though it is a common tree in 



408 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

the siliceous soils of the forests of tropical Queensland, 
and is probably E. dichromophloia F.v.M. It usually 
occurs on ridges and hill slopes but seems to avoid rich 
alluvial flats, though it was noticed on some gravelly low 
land. It has a somewhat flaky reddish bark all over the 
trunk, while the branches are usually smooth and often pale 
red. The fruits as examined over a very wide area, are 
urceolate, from about 1*2 to 1*5 cm. long, by 9 mm. to 1*2 
cm. in diameter, with thin rims slightly expanded at the 
orifice to about 5 to 7 mm. across, and slender pedicels of 
about 4 to 5 mm. long. The seeds terminate in a wing or 
samara 4 to 5 mm. long, by 2 to 3 mm. broad. The timber 
is reddish-brown. Neither flowers nor buds were procured. 

The species was seen at intervals most of the way from 
Mareeba to Normanton where it is growing near the 
artesian bore in the town ; also on the Cretaceous sandstone 
ridges near Donors Hills on the road to Oloncurry. Speci- 
mens of this species were collected at Prairie, east of 
Hughenden, and at Bogantungan, about 220 miles west of 
Rockhampton. The species showed practically no varia- 
tion over the whole of the area in which it was examined, 
and in some respects agrees with the description of E. 
terminalis F.v.M., except that the fruits of the latter are 
described as slightly longer and less urceolate. It is quite 
distinct from E. corymbose^ and appears to be the species 
referred to by P. A. O'Shanesy 1 and J. E. Tenison-Woods 
as E. terminalis.' 1 

There is apparently no question but that this Red Blood- 
wood is the species referred to by Leichhardt as Rusty-gum. 
On page 21 (Overland Expedition) he writes that when on 
clayey sandstone country on Dogwood Creek, south of the 

i "Mora of Queensland/' by P. A. O'Shanesy, f.l.s., (1880). 
2 " Botanical Notes on Queensland/' by Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods. f.g.s. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, Vol. vn, (1882), p. 333. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 409 

Dawson River, he found "A new gum-tree, with a rusty 
coloured scaly bark, the texture of which, as well as the 
seed-vessel and the leaf, resembled bloodwood, but specifi- 
cally different." He again refers to it when on Stephen's 
Creek (p. 139) and writes: — "A rather stunted rusty gum 
grew plentifully on the sandstone ridges." It was again 
noted (p. 195) near the Cape and Suttor Rivers, and (p. 304) 
below the junction of the Lynd and Mitchell Rivers, also 
(p. 355) near the Leichhardt River, and "on sandstone 
ranges" (p. 460) beyond the Roper River, and last (p. 526) 
near Port Essington. 

A second rather larger Bloodwood tree, (E. terminalis f 
Nos. 3906 and 3908) occurs at Alma-den, which I have 
referred to in these notes simply as Bloodwood, and it was 
noticed over practically the same range as the Red Blood- 
wood, but with this difference in location that, while the 
latter favoured the elevated land the former was more often 
found on the fairly siliceous flats and in the valleys. These 
two species are quite distinct and can be easily distinguished 
when seen from coach or train. At certain stages of 
growth the fruits might be confused with those of the Red 
Bloodwood, and as the leaves are very similar there seems 
a possibility that both these species have been placed, in 
part, under E. terminalis. 

In its bark and general appearance the Bloodwood some- 
what resembles E. corymbosa, the well known coast 
Bloodwood, but is specifically distinct, while it also shows 
affinities with E. Abergiana F.v.M. Its timber is redder 
than that of the Red-barked Bloodwood, and is regarded as 
the best of the bloodwood timbers around Alma-den. The 
fruits vary from urceolate to almost cylindrical with very 
little contraction at the neck, and the shape changes with 
the development of the seed vessels. At the time the 
flowers fall, the very young fruits are sometimes obconical, 



410 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

and their shape is not then in the least suggestive of the 
mature form. The fruits seen range from 1'6 cm. to 2*4 cm. 
in length, the diameter being from about 1*1 to 1*2 cm., 
and the width across the usually thin rim 6 to 7 mm., the 
capsule sunk. Some old buds which had perished and 
remained on the tree were about 7 mm. in diameter. 

This is the tree referred to by Leichhardt as Bloodwood 
near the junction of the Lynd and Mitchell Rivers. He 
writes: — "The bergue was covered with fine bloodwood 
trees," (p. 292), and "the bloodwood, the apple-gum, the 
box, and the flooded-gum, grew along the bergue of the 
river," (p. 296). He also mentions that the bloodwood 
was in blossom in June (p. 297). He refers to the tree 
again (p. 370), when on the Nicholson, and on three sub- 
sequent occasions, (p. 394, 473, and 529) the last being when 
near Port Essington. 

This species was in flower at several places, including 
Frewhurst, the lower Flinders, and near Oloncurry, in 
August 1913. 

Trees which in habit appear to belong to the same species 
were flowering in August at Prairie, east of Hughenden (No. 
3958), but the fruits are larger, being as much as 2*7 cm. 
long with a diameter up to 2 cm. and the rim is thick, the 
orifice measuring from about 1 to 1*5 cm. across, the 
capsule sunk. The flowering period for jEJ. corymbosa is 
February and March. 

Petalostigma quadriloculare is known in North Queens- 
land as Quinine, from the exceedingly bitter taste of the 
numerous small yellow fruits, and it has a very wide dis- 
tribution. It grows into small trees from fifteen to thirty 
feet high. Leichhardt refers to this tree throughout his 
expedition and calls it the "Severn Tree," after the Severn 
River in northern New South Wales where he first saw it. 
When near the Norman River he wrote: — "The emu here 



NATIVE FLOEA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 411 

feeds on the fruit of the little Severn tree, which is so 
excessively bitter, as to impart its quality to the meat." 

Clumps of several acres of little trees called Quinine, 
with elliptical leaves, and slightly resembling orange trees, 
were seen towards Croydon, and it was pointed out from 
the coach, that the western side of the stem nearly always 
shows a strip of dead wood. There was no opportunity of 
definitely identifying the species or investigating the state- 
ment which, however, was seen to be correct in many 
instances. 

ALMA-DEN TO FORSAYTH. 

The distance from Alma-den to Forsayth (Oharlestown) 
is 143 miles south-westerly, and as the journey was made 
by train only very limited collecting could be done during 
the wait at a few of the platforms, and the list of plants 
identified is small. At forty-three miles the Lynd River 
was crossed. This stream, which flows north-westerly, 
was discovered and named by Leichhardt in May 1845, and 
was followed by him to its junction with the Mitchell, 
which he also discovered and named. For the first twenty 
miles the flora is much the same as that seen around 
Alma-den, but towards the valley of the Lynd, fresh species 
gradually appear, though there is no decided change in the 
vegetation the whole way to Forsayth. 

The geological formation passed over consisted largely 
of granite during the early portion of the journey, but 
beyond the forty-six mile-post, sheets of basalt were 
encountered for about twenty-five miles, examples of 
amygdaloidal structure being common hear the Mount 
Surprise railway station, (1,487 feet). From about the 
seventy-two mile-post onwards the country alternates 
between granite, slate and some sandstone near Wirra 
Wirra. 



412 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

The following is the list of plants noted after passing the 
twenty mile-post: — 
Rhamnace^e : Alphitonia excelsa. 

Leguminos^e : Erythrina vespertilio, Bauhinia Hookeri F.v.M., 
(near Forsayth, with large white flowers), Erythrophloenm 
Laboucherii F.v.M. (Ironwood), Acacia doratoxylon A. Cunn. 1 ? 
(Lancewood), A. holosericea, A. Sutherland! F.v.M.? (Cork- 
tree). 

CoMBRETACEiE : Terminalia platyptera F.v.M., (at 1426 feet near 
Lyndbrook platform, with two- winged pubescent fruit, wood 
yellowish, trees 20 to 25 feet high.) 

Myrtace^e : Melaleuca leucadendron, ? M. geyiistifolia, Eucalyptus 
melanophloia (Silver-leaved Ironbark), E. leptophleba (Box), 
E. sp. (No. 4162, White Box), E. crebra (Narrow-leaved Iron- 
bark), E. miniata (Tobacco-Pipe Gum or Woollybutt), E. 
rostrata (River Red-gum), E. clavigera (Apple gum), E. 
tesselaris 1 (Moreton Bay Ash), E. papuana (E. tesselaris var. 
Dallachiana, Cabbage Gum), E. peltata (Yellow Jack), E. 
dichromophloia ? (Red Bloodwood), E. terminalis ? (Blood- 
wood), E. tetrodonta F.v.M. (Messmate or Stringy- bark), E. 
Brotvnii Maiden and Cambage (Narrow-leaved Box), Careya 
australis. 

RuBiACEiE: Gardenia edulis F.v.M. (Bread-fruit tree of Leichhardt). 

Myoporace^e : Eremophila Mitchelli Benth. 1 (Budtha or Budda 
of New South Wales, sometimes called Sandalwood). 

Proteace^e : Persooniafalcata, Grevillea chrysodendron, G. striata 
R. Br., (up to 40 feet high), G. gibbosa (Beef-tree), Hakea 
lorea R. Br.,? (near Forsayth), B. arborescens R. Br., (near 
Mount Surprise). 

Euphorbiace;e : Petalostigma quadriloculare (Quinine). 

Casuarinace^e : Casuarina Cunninghamiana (River Oak on Lynd 
River and various other streams), C. Cambagei R. T. Baker ? 
(Belah). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 413 

Conifers : Callitris sp, (Pine). 

OrchidacEjE : Cymbidium sp. (growing in the hollow portions o£ 

various trees). 
Juncace.e : Xantliorrhcea sp. (Grass-tree, caudex two feet). 
PandanacEjE : Pandanus aquaticus% 

The trees provisionally identified as Acacia doratoxylon 
(No. 4106) are locally known as Lancewood, and were 
noticed from near Einasleigh and Wirra Wirra onwards to 
Croydon. They seem to a^void the basic formations and 
were seen chiefly on granite or sandstone, and in some 
cases reached a height of quite forty feet, though they 
were commonly from twenty to thirty feet. In western 
New South Wales trees of this species, which are known 
as Currawong, are usually confined to ridges, but the 
Lancewood, though common on the elevated land, often 
grows well down on the slopes where it attains its largest 
size. 

After the one hundred and fifteenth mile-post was passed, 
an undescribed species of Eucalyptus appeared, (E. Brownii 
Maiden and Cambage, these Proceedings, 1913, p. 215). The 
note made in the train conveys a general description of the 
tree, and reads : — "A narrow-leaved Box, seems distinct 
species, rough bark on branches, green leaves." These 
trees were growing on a contorted micaceous slate forma- 
tion showing quartz, but they continued intermittently to 
Wirra Wirra where the rock is sandstone, possibly Upper 
Cretaceous. This Box tree averages about forty feet high, 
with small fruits, and according to Mr. Thomas Keller of 
Wirra Wirra has dark red timber. 

Eucalyptus tetrodonta was first noticed between the 
twenty-second and twenty-fourth mile-posts from Alma-den 
and again towards the fifty-first mile-post. It was subse- 
quently seen at various points along the Gilbert River, at 



414 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

the changing station on the Little River, and around 
Normanton. 

This species, which was the only Eucalypt met with 
belonging to the subseries Eudesmiese, is a very interesting 
one, for in addition to being one of the few having calyx 
teeth, like the Angophoras, it is apparently the only 
stringybark to be found in Northern Australia, excepting 
in the extreme east. It is known both as Messmate and 
Stringybark, and its bark is decidedly fibrous, the timber 
being reddish-brown. 

In New South Wales the only Stringybark which extends 
to the western districts is E. macrorrhyncha F.v.M., and 
as it approaches its western limit and reaches the drier 
country it becomes confined to the elevated land, but does 
not penetrate so far inland as Nymagee, Nyngan or Moree. 

The "sucker" leaves of E. tetrodonta are opposite or 
alternate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to seven inches 
long by three to four inches broad, with petioles of half to 
three-quarters of an inch long, the lateral veins being 
arranged at an angle of about 60° with the midrib, the 
intramarginal vein being close to the edge, the midrib 
prominent on the upper side of the leaf, the young leaves 
often reddish. The trees, which are erect, have an average 
height of about forty feet with a diameter of about one 
foot, and prefer siliceous soil. 

This is the species referred to by Leichhardt as Stringy- 
bark, and noted at various points from the upper Lynd right 
to the settlement at Port Essington. 

Between the sixty-ninth and seventy-first mile-posts 
several trees were seen which exactly resemble Casuarina 
Cambagei (Belah, a species regarded as C. lepldophloia by 
Mr. Maiden), but as it was impossible to obtain specimens 
for verification, the identification may not be accurate. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 415 

FORSAYTH TO GEORGETOWN, CROYDON AND NORMANTON. 

The journey from Forsayth (Charlestown) to Croydon 
was made by coach, the distance being one hundred and 
thirty-five miles, while from Croydon to Norman ton, a 
distance of ninety-four miles, the train was used. The 
country falls gradually most of the way, the height of the 
railway at Forsayth being 1,326 feet, at Croydon three 
hundred and sixty-one feet, while at Normanton it is only 
thirty-two feet above sea level. 

From Forsayth to Georgetown on the Etheridge River, a 
distance northerly of twenty-five miles, the geological 
formation is chiefly granite and porphyry. From George- 
town to Croydon is westerly, one hundred and ten miles, 
the formation for nearly thirty miles being mostly granitic. 
Beyond this point the Gilbert River is reached and followed 
for more than thirty miles, the country being largely made 
up of alluvium with the river bed full of sand. This river 
was discovered and named by Leichhardt on 12th July, 1845, 
after the naturalist of his party, who was murdered by the 
natives. Before Croydon is reached small escarpments of 
Upper Cretaceous sandstone may be seen on both sides, 
while at Croydon the granitic and porphyritic rocks re- 
appear. From Croydon to Normanton no rocks are visible 
from the train and the soil is chiefly of a sandy nature. 

The vegetation for the most part from Forsayth to Nor- 
manton is open forest, largely made up of Eucalyptus, shady 
Terminalias, bright flowered Bauhinias and Grevilleas, and 
clumps of various Acacias, the lagoons near the Gilbert 
and Norman Rivers being dotted with charming pale blue 
and white Water Lilies (Nymplicea sp.), while the banks of 
the large streams are decorated with the beautiful drooping 
Willow Teatree, (Melaleuca saligna). 

Between Forsayth and Normanton the following plants 
were noticed: — 



416 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

NYMPHiEACEiE : KymphcHCL sp. (Water Lilies on various lagoons). 

BixacEjE : C ochlospermum Gillivrmi (Native Cotton). 

Sterculiace^e : Sterculict Bidwilli. 

Tiliace^: : Grewia polygama (Jelly Boys). 

Rhamnace^e : Zizyphus jujuba -Lam., (Jujube), Alphitonia excelsa. 

Sapindace^e : Atalaya liemiglauca F.v.M., (Whitewood). 

Leguminos^: : Crotalaria Mitchelli Benth.,? (on Gilbert River), 
Erythrina vespertilio, (a Coral tree), Bauhinia Car ronii F.v.M ,. 
B. Hookeri, Erythrophlceum Laboucherii (Ironwood), Acacia 
galioides Benth., A. hemignosta, A. sericata, A. Cunn., A. 
doratoxylon ? (Lancewood), A. delibrata A. Cunn.? A. torulosa 
Benth., A. julifera Benth.? (or A, Solandri Benth.?), A.holco- 
carpa, A. plectocarpa, A. holosericea, A. Bidwilli. 

CoMBRETACEiE : Terminalia melanocarpa F.v.M., T. platyphylla 
F.v.M. 

Myrtace^e : Calythrix micropjliylla A. Cunn., (2 - 3 feet high, 
with beautiful pink flowers, on Upper Cretaceous Sandstone 
two miles north of Croydon), Melaleuca leucadendron var. 
viridijlora Soland.,(No. 3929 with leaves up to 2f inches long, 
and venation similar to that of M. Cunninghamii No. 3922, 
20 feet high, at Croydon), M. saligna, M. Cunninghamii 
Schau., M. genistifolia, M. symphyocarpa F.v.M., Eucalyptus 
gracilis F.v.M.,? E. pruinosa Schau. (Silver-leaved Box), E. 
melanophloia, E. crebra (seen only between Forsayth and 
Georgetown), E. sp., (No. 4162, a White Box), E. miniata, 
E. rostrata, E. clavigera, E. papuana (Cabbage Gum), E. 
setosa Schau., E. terminalis? (Bloodwood), E. dichromophloia? 
(Red Bloodwood), E. tetrodonta (Messmate or Stringybark), 
Careya australis. 

Loranthace^e : Loranthus longiflorus Desr., (Mistletoe, yellow 
flowers, with Melaleuca saligna as host, Etheridge River), L. 
longifolius Hook.? (red flowers, with Melaleuca saligna as 
host, Etheridge River) 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 417 

Rubiace^e : Gardenia edulis (Bread-fruit tree). 

ApocYNACEiE : Vinca rosea Linn. var. alba (naturalised). 

AsclepiadacejE: Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br., (a naturalised 
straggling rubber plant from Tropical Africa, having a pair 
of remarkable looking triangular fruits pointing in opposite 
directions, about four to five inches long, resembling horns, 
and containing a silky fibre attached to the seeds. Seen only 
at Georgetown. It is said that this plant is not eaten by 
goats). Sarcostemma australe R. Br., (a thin leafless vine, the 
seeds attached to silky tufts of hairs). 

Bignoniace^e : Spathodea alternifolia R. Br., (a straggling shrub, 
the flat pod-like capsule up to eighteen inches long and half 
an inch wide. Seen only near Normanton). 

Myoporace^: : Eremophila longi folia F.v.M. 1 

Labiat^e : Anisomeles salvifolia R. Br.? (near Gilbert River). 

PROTEACEiE : Grevillea chrysodendron, G. striata, G. gibbosa, Hakea 
arborescens (ten feet high, at Normanton), H. Persiehana. 

Euphorbiace^e : Petalostigma quadriloculare. 

Urticace.e : Ficus glomerata Willd , (Red Fig). 

Orchidack.e : Cymbidium sp. 

PandanacEjE : Pandanus aquaticns.lt 

Gramine^e : Triodia irritans R. Br., (Spinifex or Porcupine 
grass), Ectrosia Schultzii Benth., (a grass, at Croydon). 

Zizyplius jujuba, a well known little tree in tropical 
Asia, and occurring also in tropical Africa, is common in 
the Croydon district and other parts of Queensland, being 
known as the Jujube tree. The plants average about ten 
to fifteen feet high, generally with stipular prickles on the 
stem and branches, and the fruits are edible, having a 
flavour resembling that of an apple scarcely ripe. 

Atalaya hewiiglauca was first noticed near Georgetown, 
on a granite formation not highly siliceous, and was seen 

Aa— December 1, 1915. 



418 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

afterwards at various points near the Flinders and Clon- 
curry Rivers and to the southward near Winton and Long- 
reach. It is known to extend as far south as Nyngan. 
This is the common Whitewood, a drought-resisting fodder 
tree of the Bourke country, and the fruits are somewhat 
remarkable for the samarae or wings. The presence of this 
and other species mentioned, of north-western New South 
Wales trees around the Gulf of Carpentaria and over the 
intervening area, is evidence of a similarity of climatic 
conditions over this thousand miles of country. 

Bauhinia Carronii and B. Hookeri, the former with 
bright red, and the latter with beautiful white flowers 
were noticed at various points. They seem to be usually 
known as Bohemia or Bohemew trees, the name evidently 
being a corruption of Bauhinia. At Boomarra station near 
the Oloncurry, the native name of B. Carronii was given 
me as "Bigunny," being practically the same as that 
recorded for the same species by Mr. Edward Palmer, 
("Pegunny't). 1 The flowers of both species are rich in 
honey, and at Georgetown a tree of B. Carronii, which at 
that period had a scanty supply of leaves, but was covered 
with scarlet flowers, was noticed to be full of birds which 
were busily engaged extracting honey, and at the same 
time carolling in a most delightful manner, as so many 
Australian birds can do, and filling the air with sounds of 
gladness. The leaves of these trees are very prettily 
arranged as pairs of leaflets somewhat ovate in shape, and 
in their disposition resemble the wings of a butterfly when 
at rest. The leaflets close up at night. 

The genus is one of considerable interest and extends 
over the tropical regions of the world. B. Carronii is 
recorded as far south as from the extreme north-west por- 

1 "On Plants used by the Natives of North Queensland, Flinders and 
Mitchell Rivers, for Food, Medicine, etc." This Journal, Vol. xvit, (1883) 
p. 95. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 419 

tion of New South Wales. When writing of the genus, 
Bentham states: — "Leaflets either two distinct from the 
base, or (in the majority of species not Australian) united 
into an entire or two-lobed leaf, with five to eleven digitate 
nerves." He also says : — "The following Australian species 
(3), all endemic, with one or two nearly allied Asiatic ones, 
form a small group, with the two leaflets quite distinct." 1 

In this connection it is of interest to note that although 
most of the Australian species have their leaflets distinct 
from the base, yet the primary leaf of a seedling recently 
raised from the seed of an undetermined Bauhinia, collected 
near Barcaldine in Central Queensland by Sir William Oullen, 
was simple and bi-lobed, the leaflets being united for the 
greater portion of their length. The leaflets of the second 
and all subsequent leaves were distinct. The fact of this 
primary leaf being bi-lobed goes to show that this is an 
ancestral character, and the development of separate 
leaflets is another of the various forms of specialising 
resorted to by Australian plants. 

B. Haivkesiana Bailey, is a Queensland' species with the 
leaflets united, described since Bentham wrote the Flora 
Australiensis. 

Lubbock records a seedling of B. Carronll as having the 
primary and all subsequent leaves divided into two distinct 
leaflets. 2 

Erytlirophlceum Laboucherii, commonly called Ironwood 
around the Gulf of Carpentaria, is the "Leguminous Iron- 
bark " of Leichhardt. The wood of this species is exceed- 
ingly hard, and it is a well known fact that it was used by 
the natives for the making of weapons, examples of which 
are now in many collections. In August 1913 a native at 

1 " Flora Australiensis," Vol. n, p. 295. 

2 "A Contribution to our Knowledge of Seedlings," by Sir John Lubbock, 
Vol. i, p. 464. 



420 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Croydon was seen with a sword upwards of three feet long- 
and quite three inches broad, which it was understood was 
made from this species. 

Bentham gives the length of the flower-spike of this 
species as from one to three inches, but spikes were found 
at Croydon measuring up to four and three-quarter inches 
long. 

Acacia galioides was found on a rocky hill of Upper 
Cretaceous sandstone about two miles north of Croydon, a 
fossil of Maccoyella maricebumensis collected close by, and 
which helps to determine the age of the rocks, having been 
identified by Mr. W. S. Dun. Only a few plants were seen 
and these were about two feet high. This was the only 
Acacia noticed belonging to the series Brunioidese, a char- 
acter of which section is that the phyllodia are verticillate* 

A. sericata was passed between the Gilbert River and 
Croydon, the only specimen obtained being snatched from 
a branch as the coach went past. The little trees ranged 
from about ten to fifteen feet high. The large flat pod is 
made somewhat remarkable by being bordered with a 
pronounced narrow edging. 

The wattle provisionally identified as A. delibrata ? (No. 
3898) was growing on the banks of the Etheridge River at 
Georgetown. The flowering was nearly over in August 
and the young pods just formed were narrow and very viscid 
or almost glutinous. In the absence of mature pods the 
determination is doubtful. 

A. torulosa (No. 4107) is a common species near Croydon 
and forms a natural avenue along the road for about a mile. 
The flowering is over towards the end of August. 

The plant identified as A. julifera ? or A. Solandri ? (No. 
4109) was found near Normanton. The very young pods 
were narrow and spirally twisted into loose coils. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 421 

Terminalia melanocarpa and T. platyphylla (Plate LVIII, 
fig. 2) were seen near the Etheridge and Gilbert Rivers, 
and are beautiful shade trees somewhat resembling an 
English mulberry, but around the Gulf or Carpentaria they 
are often known as Pear trees. 

One of the most beautiful and conspicuous of the large 
trees along the banks of streams in tropical Queensland is 
Melaleuca saligna. It occurs at elevations of at least 1600 
feet above sea level as at Alma-den, which is on a tributary 
of the Mitchell River about 250 miles from its mouth, and 
will descend practically to sea level. Two of the common 
river trees of Eastern Australia are Eucalyptus rostrata 
(not confined to the east) and Gasuarina Cunninghamiana, 
but both of these species are absent from many miles of the 
lower portions of the rivers of north Queensland and their 
place is taken by Melaleuca saligna. This tree is known 
as Willow Tea-tree and Drooping Tea-tree from its graceful 
pendulous habit. On the Etheridge, Gilbert, Flinders and 
other rivers, the Willow Tea-trees reach a height of from 
sixty to seventy feet and hang gracefully over the stream 
sometimes meeting overhead and forming a canopy, while 
charming vistas are produced between the avenues of 
papery-barked stems, the water and the pendulous 
foliage. 

Leichhardt first met with this tree on Hughs's Greek, 
near the Isaacs River, (op. cit., p. 140), and calls it "the 
drooping tea-tree (Melaleuca leucodendron?)." He writes: 
44 We found it afterwards at every creek and river." On 
the 9th June, 1845, when on the Lynd River, he wrote: — 
u We gathered some blossoms of the drooping tea-tree, 
which were full of honey, and when soaked, imparted a 
very agreeable sweetness to the water," (p. 286). He 
formed the opinion that " this tree cannot live on water 
entirely salt" (p. 390). 



422 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



Flying Foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) camp in some of 
the denser vegetation near the Gulf, and at night they 
visit the rivers for the purpose of obtaining the honey from 
the Willow Tea-tree flowers. 

Bentham included M. saligna as a variety of M. leuca- 
dendron, but Messrs. Baker and Smith point out that it 
should have specific rank. x In general appearance and habit 
the tree is quite distinct from various other Melaleucas 
which in the past have been placed under M, leucadendron. 

The trees identified as Melaleuca Cunninghamii Schau. 
(No. 3922) have leaves from four to eight inches long and 
up to two and a quarter inches wide, with six or seven 
prominent parallel veins, and are from twenty to twenty- 
five feet high at Croydon and Normanton. 

M. symphyocarpa (No. 3914) was seen where the road 
crosses the Gilbert River, a specimen being snatched off a 
tree from the passing coach. 

The trees provisionally identified as Eucalyptus gracilis 
(No. 3930) are growing a few miles to the east and south 
of Normanton on a sandy Cretaceous formation containing 
ironstone pebbles. They are small box trees from ten to 
thirty feet high, often with branching stems suggestive of 
mallee, leaves bright green and shiny, yielding no smell of 
oil when crushed, box bark on trunk and large branches, 
some small branches smooth and greenish, adult leaves from 
three to four and a half inches long, about 1 cm. wide, 
juvenile leaves up to three inches long and one and a quarter 
inches wide, fruits about 4 mm. long and 3 mm. in diameter. 2 
Leichhardt appears to have passed through this identical 
forest after crossing the Norman River, the native name 

1 "On the Australian Melaleucas and their Essential Oils." This 
Journal, Vol. xlvit, (1913) p. 200. 

2 See "Notes on Eucalyptus (with descriptions of New Species) No. 4," 
by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. This Journal, xlix, (1915), p. 326. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 423 

of which he gives as the "Yappar." He writes: — "The 

hills were composed of iron-sandstone The 

intervening flats bore either a box-tree with a short trunk 
branching off immediately above the ground," etc., (op. cit. 
p. 337). 

Eucalyptus pruinosa (Silver-leaved Box) is a common 
tree between Croydon and Normanton, and also at Donor's 
Hill, Cowan Downs and Boomarra on the Normanton- 
Oloncurry road. When observed at a distance it is identical 
in appearance with E. melanophloia (Silver-leaved Iron- 
bark), but at close range the barks are seen to be totally 
different, that of the latter being hard, dark and deeply 
furrowed, while that of E. pruinosa is a light grey box 
bark (Plate LXI). The branchlets of jE. pruinosa are 
usually very angular, often quadrangular, and fruits from 
Normanton measure as much as 9 mm. long by 8 mm. in 
diameter, while some from Cowan Downs are 1 cm. long 
by 6 mm. in diameter. 

Seedlings — Hypocotyl erect, terete, pale green, glabrous, 
up to 1*3 cm. long. 

Cotyledons slightly emarginate or almost reniform, 
entire, 5 to 8 mm. by 3 to 4 mm., upperside green, under- 
Side paler, glabrous; petioles 3 to 4 mm. long. 

Seedling foliage opposite, entire, glabrous, elliptical- 
lanceolate, tapering into a short petiole of not more than 
1 to 2 mm. long: midrib prominent on underside, lateral 
veins few, and arranged at angles of about 50° to 60° with 
midrib, reticulate between, intramarginal vein obscure on 
margin or absent. On a seedling six inches high the second 
pair of leaves measured about 1 cm. each, while those of 
the sixth to the tenth pair measured from 2 to 2*5 cm. with 
a width of 6 to 7 mm., the internodes increasing in length 
from about 1 to 1*8 cm. In one specimen the first internode 
measured 2 cm. 



424 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

The seedling leaves of this species are very similar to 
those of E. melanophloia, 1 and are of interest seeing that 
they taper towards the base into a very short petiole, while 
the adult leaves are sessile and cordate. 

The Boxes and Ironbarks have several characters in 
common, such as hard timbers, shape of anthers, and in 
general, a preference for basic rather than siliceous soils, 
and the two groups approach each other more closely in 
these two glaucous leaved species than in any others. 
There is no doubt, as Mueller points out, (Eucalyptographia) 
that Leichhardt records the Silver-leaved Ironbark on many 
occasions instead of the Silver-leaved Box. Near Normanton 
cemetery E. pruinosa is growing with E, tetrodonta on a 
soil rather more siliceous than that usually selected by 
box trees. 

Eucalyptus melanophloia is common near Durham and 
Cumberland between Georgetown and the Gilbert River, 
but was not noticed to the westward. 

The species referred to as White Box (No. 4162) was seen 
over a very wide area, but so far has not been identified 
and may be undescribed. It was first noticed near Frew- 
hurst, between Alma-den and Forsayth, and was afterwards 
seen at various points including Forsayth, Georgetown, 
Croydon and towards Normanton. It also occurs near the 
Corella River about thirty miles north of Cloncurry, but 
is absent from the black soil plains of the lower Flinders. 
Its average height is about thirty to forty feet and it has 
a light grey box-bark on the trunk and large branches. 

Juvenile leaves thick, ovate, up to four inches long by 
two and three-quarter inches broad, midrib prominent, 
lateral veins arranged at an angle of approximately 60° with 

1 "The Evolution of the Eucalypts in Eelation to the Cotyledons and 
Seedlings/' by Cuthbert Hall, m.d., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 
sxxix, 498,(1914). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 425 

the midrib, intramarginal vein very close to the edge, 
petioles about 6 to 8 mm. long. 

Adult leaves thick in texture, ovate-lanceolate'to lanceol- 
ate, from two to four inches long, greyish-green, lateral 
veins at angle of about 45° to 50° with midrib, intramarginal 
vein practically on the edge, petioles from about 1*5 to 
2*5 cm. long, the twigs sometimes glaucous. 

Fruits obconical, 4 to 5 mm. long, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter, 
in the Georgetown and Oroydon specimens, pedicels 2 to 
3 mm. long, valves exserted. Some of the fruits of the 
Corella River specimens (No. 4163) are 6 mm. long by 
7 mm. in diameter. These latter specimens would not 
have been obtained but for an accident which delayed the 
coach for half an hour. 

This species has some affinities with E. microtheca, 
(Coolabah) but its fruits are more conoid than those of the 
latter species, the pedicels and leaves much thicker, and 
the venation different. Moreover the Coolabah grows on 
the black soil plains, a situation which this White Box 
seems to avoid. Neither buds nor flowers have been seen, 
but an effort is being made to procure them. 

Eucalyptus miniata was observed at various points 
between Alma-den and Normanton on siliceous soils, and 
is usually known as Woolybutt, although that name is also 
given to E. clavlgera. It is sometimes spoken of as 
"Tobacco Pipe Gum," from the resemblance of the large 
ribbed fruits to the bowl of a pipe, and is the " Melaleuca 
Gum" of Leichhardt. The lower portion of the trunk is 
covered with a remarkable yellow, scaly to papery bark, 
and the branches are smooth (Plate LTX). 1 

Eucalyptus rostrata (River Red Gum) was noticed near 
Forsayth, but was not seen afterwards on either the 
Etheridge River, the Gilbert or the lower Flinders. 

1 See "Critical Revision of the G-enus Eucalyptus," by J. H. Maiden, 
F.li.s., Part xxn, p. 37. 



426 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



E. setosa is growing in, and around the town of Nor- 
manton, on a mixed siliceous and ironstone formation, and 
was not noticed to the eastward near Croydon or George- 
town. It is a low shapely spreading tree about thirty to 
forty feet high, and seems closely related to the Angophoras, 
having the general appearance of A. subvelutina, while its 
broadly winged seeds show its affinity with the bloodwood 
group of Encalypts. It is remarkable for its rusty hispid 
branchlets and inflorescence, and its sessile, opposite, cor- 
date leaves. The bark of this tree is rough and somewhat 
scaly, and a note made when near one of the trees reads: — 
"bark between that of an Angophora and Eucalyptus 
robusta." 

Ficus glomerata (Red Fig) was growing as large trees 
on the bank of the Etheridge at Georgetown. Clusters of 
fruits are attached to the stem or the thick part of the 
branches, and as they ripen they become red and are then 
about one inch in diameter and emit a most agreeable per- 
fume. Although these fruits are considered edible, their 
fragrance is superior to their taste. 

The plant provisionally identified as Pandanus aquations 
was noticed at intervals right from Cairns to Normanton 
on the Gulf of Carpentaria. It ranges from about fifteen to 
twenty feet high, the head being divided into several 
branches with leaves at least four or five feet long. The 
suspended fruits are collected in an ovate to globular head 
of about six inches' diameter. On the young plants the 
leaves grow spirally up the stem, but the trunks of the 
adult trees are bare although the spiral scars from the 
fallen leaves remain visible for a long time. Prom this 
feature this palm-like plant is sometimes called a Screw 
Pine. The particular plants noticed showed nothing of any 
adventitious descending roots, and were always found close 
to streams or on moist flats. In going southerly from 
Normanton to Cloncurry the Pandanus was not seen. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 427 

NORMANTON TO CLONCURRY. 

The distance from Normanton to Cloncurry is about 260 
miles south by west, and the journey, which was made by 
coach, occupied five days, practically the whole of the 
travelling being done in daylight. For the first fifteen 
miles or so the country is a somewhat sandy Cretaceous 
formation, but for the next hundred miles the rich soil of 
the lower Flinders is followed, a great portion consisting of 
black soil plains. A few low sandstone ridges are crossed, 
some curiously weathered limestone is seen at Granada, 
and towards Cloncurry some slate formation occurs. Gener- 
ally speaking the country is level, the ascent for the whole 
distance being 600 feet, Cloncurry being 633 feet above sea 
level. The rainfall around Normanton is upwards of thirty 
inches per annum, and about twenty inches at Cloncurry, 
the bulk of which falls between December and April. 

It was noticed at about eight or ten miles from Normanton 
that most of the Eucalypts were leaning to the westward, 
the inference being that some of the strongest winds blow 
in that direction while the ground is soft. Another feature 
connected with the winds around Normanton is that in 
some of the winter months, including August, the wind off 
the land is so strong as to hold back the water of the Gulf, 
which takes with it that of the lower portion of the Norman 
River, until it becomes too shallow for the regular trading 
steamers to come into the river. 

From observations made of the great quantities of sand 
in the beds of several rivers, which comes from granitic 
areas towards their sources and from Cretaceous sandstone 
hills lower down, it is evident that in the wet season 
enormous quantities of this sand must be carried into the 
Gulf and gradually lessen the depth of water around the 
coast. 



428 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

The following is the list of plants noticed near the road 
between Normanton and Oloncurry: — 

CAPPARiDACEiE : Capparis lasiantha R. Br., (No. 3938, a beautiful 
flowering woody climber, sometimes called Native Honey- 
suckle), C. Mitchelli Lindl., (Native Orange or Pomegranate). 

BixiACEiE : Cochlospermum Gillivrcei (Native Cotton, near Cowan 
Downs). 

SterculiacEtE : Melhania incana Heyne ? (at Quamby). 

Tiliace^e : Greioia polygama (Jelly Boys). 

Meliace^: : Owenia acidula F.v.M., (Emu Apple, the Gruie of 
the Bourke country, seen at intervals the whole way, some 
particularly shapely trees occurring at Granada). 

Rhamnace^e : Ventilago viminalis Hook., (Vine Tree or Supple 
Jack). 

Sapindace^e : Atalaya hemiglauca (Whitewood, seen at intervals 
most of the way), Heterodendron olecefolium Desf. ? (Western 
Rosewood). 

Leguminos.e : Tephrosia remotiflora F.v.M., (at Quamby), Bau- 
hinia Carronii (seen at intervals all the way), Acacia sentis 
F.v.M. , A. Cambagei R. T. Baker (Gidgea), A. stenophylla 
A. Cunn., A. hemignosta, A. Chisholmi Bailey, A. umbellata 
A. Cunn., (No. 4164), A. julifera ? (near Normanton), A. 
torulosal (No. 4165, at Granada), A. plectocarpa, (No. 3935, 
8 to 10 feet high, near Normanton), A. Farnesiana Willd., 
(Needle Bush or Prickly Mimosa), A, Sutherland^ (No. 3937, 
Corktree or Weeping Mimosa). 

Cmbretace^ : Terminalia platyphylla (Pear Tree). 

Myrtace^e : Melaleuca saligna (Drooping or Willow Tea-tree, 
very large trees on banks of Flinders River, seen also on 
Dugald River near Granada, and it is possibly also on the 
Cloncurry River, which however was crossed in the dark), 
M. Cunninghamiil (on gravelly ridge between Paddy's Lagoon 
and Donor's Hill), Eucalyptus gracilis (not seen after about 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 429 

seven miles from Normanton), E. pruinosa (Silver-leaved Box), 
E. sp. (No. 4163, a White Box near Corella River), E. micro- 
theca F.v.M., (Coolabah), E. pallidi folia F.v.M. (Mountain 
Gum or White Brittle Gum), E. rostrata (River Red Gum), 
E. clavigera (Apple-gum, seen at about fifteen miles from 
Normanton and near Hazel Creek between Cowan Downs 
and Boomarra), E. papuana (No. 3938, E. tesselaris var. 
Dallachiana, Cabbage Gum), E. setosa (seen in Normanton, 
also at about fourteen miles out, and again between Paddy's 
Lagoon and Donor's Hill on gravelly ridge), E. terminalis ? 
(Bloodwood, at intervals most of the way), E. dichromo- 
phloia ? (Red Bloodwood, noticed close to Normanton, also 
between Paddy's Lagoon and Donor's Hill on gravelly 
Cretaceous ridge), E. tetrodonta (Messmate or Stringybark, 
not seen after about fifteen miles from Normanton), Carey a 
australis. v 

CucuRBiTACEiK : Cucumis trigonus Roxb. ? (Wild Melon. Accord- 
ing to Mr. E. Palmer a form referred to as C. pubescens is 
called "Boomarrah" by the natives on the Cloncurry). 

LoRANTHACEiE : Loranthus longiflorus, L. quandang Lindl., 

(Mistletoe, near Boomarra). 
RubiacEjE : Gardenia edulis (Bread-fruit tree). 

Ebenace.e : Maba humilis R. Br., (Ebony, Donor's Hill to Boo- 
marra, with yellow ovoid fruits about 1 to 1*2 cm. long). 

Apocynace^e : Carissa ovata R. Br., (a spreading shrub known as 
Boorum Bush and Kunkerberry, black, oval, edible fruit, 
noticed from Donor's Hill to Boomarra and Cloncurry). 

MyoporacejE : Eremophila Mitchelli Benth., (Budtha or Budda of 
western New South Wales, noticed from Donor's Hill to 
Cloncurry), E. big nonice flora F.v.M. (Donor's Hill), E. longi- 
foliaF.v.MJ 

Verbenace^e : Vitex trifolia Linn., (specimen obtained at Quamby 
thirty miles north of Cloncurry, an Asiatic plant). 

Amarantace^e : Ptilotus spicatus F.v.M., (at Boomarra). 



430 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

Proteace^e : Grevillea striata (Beef wood of north-western New 
South Wales, seen at intervals from the lower Flinders), G. 
sp., Hakea arbor escens, H. Cunninc/hamii R.Br., (with terete 
drooping leaves one foot long, at Granada). 

Santalace^e : Santalum lanceolatum R. Br. 

Euphorbiace^ : Exccecaria parvifolia F.v.M., (Gutta-percha or 
Rubber tree, growing on the lowland). 

Urticace.e : Grinum flaccidum Herb. ? (known as the Plains 
Lily at Boomarra, comes up and flowers after the commence- 
ment of the wet season in December). 

Gramineje : Astrebla pectinata F.v.M., (Mitchell Grass of the 
Flinders River plains), and var. curvifolia Bail., (Curly 
Mitchell, both excellent pasture grasses), Anthistiria mern- 
branacea Lindl. 1 (Red Grass), Triodia irritans (Spinifex). 

Capparls lasiantha is a very different looking plant from 
0. Mitchelli. The latter grows into a large shrub or small 
tree, and is known as Wild Orange, while the former is a 
climber with hooked stipular prickles which aid it in hold- 
ing on to trees over which it scrambles. From this habit 
it is sometimes called Lawyer Vine, though it is quite dis- 
tinct from the Lawyer Vines of the coast brushes. It is 
spoken of as Native Honeysuckle from the slight resem- 
blance of its flowers and its climbing habit. 

Ventilago viminalis was seen intermittently the whole 
way from Normanton, and is known to extend southwards 
to Cobar in New South Wales. Although it only grows 
into a small tree of about twenty feet, the stems and 
branches of which often entwine, it has an exceedingly 
hard wood. In cutting into one of these trees having a 
diameter of about nine inches, the blade of a sharp axe 
may easily be broken beyond repair, portions of the broken 
blade remaining in the wood. An example of this once 
came under my personal observation. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 431 

Although the genus is widely spread over the tropics, this 
endemic species is the only Australian one and has a very 
extended range. 

Acacia sentis was first noticed around Boomarra, one 
hundred miles north of Cloncurry, and was seen afterwards 
at various points towards Oloncurry and near Hughenden, 
growing as little trees ten to twelve feet high, and some- 
times haviug stipular prickles. Its flowers are pale yellow 
and its somewhat linear phyllodes a light green. Towards 
the end of August 1913 the species was in full flower. 

Acacia Cambagei (Gidgea or Gidgee) was first met with 
at about eighty miles south of Normanton, which is the 
most northern locality recorded for this species. It comes 
as far south at least as the Wilcannia district in New South 
Wales, and often grows on low gravelly ridges and foot- 
hills, and although it sometimes extends on to the basic 
black soil, it prefers a slightly more siliceous formation 
than that selected by its sister trees A. pendula A. Ounn., 
(Myall), and A. homalopliylla A. Ounn., (Yarran). Around 
Donor's Hill, one hundred miles south of Normanton, the 
Gidgea is common on the Cretaceous gravelly, ironstone and 
somewhat sandy hills. Various writers have recorded this 
species from Queensland under the name of A. homalopliylla, 
a very distinct tree. 

Gidgea is remarkable for the very unpleasant smell of its 
leaves (phyllodes) in damp weather, but these are not with- 
out their virtue, for in north-western Queensland they are 
eagerly sought after and browsed upon by camels, and 
where that animal is concerned Gidgea trees are regarded 
as amongst the best fodder plants. The timber is freely 
used for fence posts, and at Cowan Downs it was being 
made use of for sleepers and ground plates of a new building. 
This species had ceased flowering on the Flinders by the 
end of August 1913, and young pods, often slightly falcate, 



432 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

bad just formed, so that the flowering period for Gidgeain 
this locality is towards the end of July. 

Acacia sbenophylla, the Eumung of western New South 
Wales, or River Oooba of the Lachlan, occurs to within 
eighty miles south of Normanton, and grows along the banks 
of streams, the long narrow pendulous phyllodes, sometimes 
bluish in colour, often hanging over the watercourse. It 
was noticed at various points including Richmond Downs 
and Winton to Longreach where it is called Native Willow. 
This species prefers basic to siliceous soils and is not com- 
mon along creeks in sandy areas. 

Acacia Chisholmi (No. 4111) was first noticed between 
Boomarra and Donaldson, and afterwards at various points 
towards Oloncurry, being known locally as Turpentine 
Bush. It was found at Quamby growing as shrubs six to 
eight feet high with rough crinkled bark like that of A. 
rigens A. Ounn. The species flowers in July, and the young 
pods obtained at the end of August were falcate, flat, 
exceedingly viscid, up to three and a half inches long, and 
three to four lines broad. Many of the flowers had been 
infested with a large, woolly-looking gall, formed by the 
larvae of a gall gnat, identified by Mr. W. W. Froggatt as 
Cecidomyia sp. 

Acacia umbellata is growing on a Cretaceous, gravelly, 
ironstone ridge about fifteen miles north of Donor's Hill, 
where it is an open spreading shrub of about eight to ten 
feet high. The only pod obtained is somwhat terete and 
measures one and a half inches. 

The plant identified as Acacia torulosa (No. 4165) grows 
close to the Dugald River at Granada, fifty miles north of 
Oloncurry, and is about ten feet high. Young pods were 
just forming at the end of August, and these were narrow 
and viscid. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 433 

Acacia Farnesiana (Needle Bush or Prickly Mimosa) 
was seen as spreading shrubs practically the whole way 
from Normanton to Oloncurry, and is a common Queensland 
species as well as being indigenous in other tropical coun- 
tries. Its seeds will germinate after having been immersed 
in sea water for six months. (This Journal 1915, p. 94). 

Acacia Sutherlancli is remarkable for its long pendulous 
branches (Plate LX), and is known as Cork Tree and Weep- 
ing Mimosa. It grows in clumps on the plains near the 
lower Flinders, and is from thirty to fifty feet high, the 
trunk being usually covered with a rough corky bark, very 
similar to that of A. Bidwilli, an erect tree. 

The trees identified as Eucalyptus microtheca (Ooolabah, 
No. 4002) extend for very many miles along the lower 
Flinders, often growing on low flat land subject to inunda- 
tion by floods. The trees range from thirty to forty feet 
high with a very dark grey box bark on the trunk, and a 
lighter grey on the branches, so that in general appearance 
they are exactly similar to trees of E. bicolor A. Ounn., 
(E. largiflorens F.v.M.). The fruits obtained are arranged 
in panicles on slender peduncles and are almost hemi- 
spherical, 3 mm. long, and 3 mm. across, the valves not 
protruding beyond the rim except in a very few cases and 
then only to the extent of about '3 mm. The wood examined 
is very deep brownish-red to almost black. 

These trees differ in two particulars from those recognised 
as E. microtheca on the Darling River around Bourke, in 
that the latter have smooth, perfectly white branches, and 
valves exserted in a most pronounced manner. Both favour 
basic rather than siliceous soils. The wood of the Bourke 
trees is brownish-red, of a lighter shade than that of the 
Gulf Ooolabah, but it is considered by some who live near 
the Flinders that those trees which are inundated during 
the wet season have darker timber than those above the 

Bb— December 1, 1915. 



434 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

flood-line. At the bead of the Flinders, near Hughenden, 
Ooolabah trees were seen with box bark on the trunk and 
lower portion of the large branches, the remainder being 
smooth, and having fruits with exserted valves. Similar 
trees were noticed between Hughenden and Winton, and 
are common around Longreach, and eastwards intermit- 
tently to Rockhampton, some of the young trees at Long- 
reach having the upper portion of the trunk white, as well 
as the branches. Briefly then, it would seem that the 
Bourke form of E. microtheca with the upper portion of 
the tree smooth, and having fruits with exserted valves, 
extends northerly to the upper Flinders with some variation 
in the extent of box bark on the trunk, while near the Gulf 
of Carpentaria the whole tree is covered with box bark and 
the fruits have scarcely exserted valves. These differences, 
although meriting further investigation as being possible 
adaptations to environment, cannot in themselves be con- 
sidered specific. 1 

Eucalyptus pallidifolia is an interesting species which 
was seen at various points on the slightly elevated 
Cretaceous sandy or gravelly areas, avoiding all basic 
formations. It was first met with about fifteen miles north 
of Donor's Hill, and was last seen near Cloncurry on what 
appears to be Silurian slate. Its local names are Mountain 
Gum, or White Brittle Gum, and in general appearance it 
resembles a spreading stunted form of E. maculosa R. T. 
Baker, its average height being about thirty feet. (Plate 
LVIII, fig. 1). The type came from North Western Aus- 
tralia, and Mr. Ross McLean of Bowen informed me that 
this species was very common towards the western border 
of North Queensland, but was rare east of the Flinders. 
The timber is hard, short grained, and red, the sapwood 

1 See " A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus/' by J. H. Maiden, 
Part xi. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 435 

pale yellow, and the white bark thin, measuring about 5 mm. 
in thickness. In August 1913, some Mountain Gums were 
pointed out by the coach driver which had suffered from a 
severe hailstorm about four years before. The effect on 
the thin bark was that the southern sides of the trees had 
been studded with hail marks as though hit with bullets, 
and after four years were still covered with brown scars. 

A seedling of this species, about one foot high, has 
developed a pair of nodules in the axils of the cotyledons. 

Eucalyptus rostrata (River Red Gum) was not noticed 
on the lower Flinders, but was met with near Cowan Downs 
at about one hundred and twenty miles from Normanton, 
and at various points to the southward. 

Hakea Cunninghamli and H. lorea have a remarkable 
appearance from the drooping habit of their long grey 
needle-shaped leaves, those of the former being one foot 
and those of the latter up to two feet long. In appearance 
the trees are suggestive of a species of Oasuarina, and on 
catching sight of small ones for the first time, an observer 
is likely to see a fancied resemblance between one of these 
melancholy looking plants, and an old grey haired lady 
standing in an attitude of dejection, with her hair streaming 
all round. 

The curious leaves of these species and others of the 
genus are fine examples of some of the xerophytic characters 
developed by Australian plants. H. Cunninghamii belongs 
chiefly to the Northern Territory, and does not appear to 
have been previously recorded for Queensland. 

A species of palm tree, said to be Cabbage Palm, possibly 
a Livistona, grows near Quamby, but I was unable to see it. 

CLONCURRY TO HUGHENDEN. 

The journey from Cloncurry to Hughenden was made by 
train, the latter portion, after passing Richmond, being 



436 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

travelled in the dark. For the first twenty miles or so the 
country is hilly, the formation apparently being Silurian 
slate, but the remainder is for the most part made up of 
great undulating open downs, including the famous Rich- 
mond Downs with their rich pasture in good seasons. These 
downs, which are really great plains in many portions, 
have a rich flora which is evident in the rainy season, but 
in August the grasses are usually dry and little can be 
identified from the train except trees and shrubs. 

The following plants were noticed: — Owenia acidula 
(Emu Apple), Ventilago viminalis (Vine Tree or Supple 
Jack), Atalaya hemiglauca (Whitewood), Bauhinia sp., 
Acacia sentis (in flower), A, Cambagei (Gidgea), A. steno- 
phylla (on creek banks between Julia Creek and Nelia), A. 
Chisholmi? (Turpentine Bush), A. Farnesiana (Needle 
Bush or Prickly Mimosa), A. sp., (like A. Sutherlandi), 
Eucalyptus sp., (a White Box, probably the same as No. 
4163, seen only near Oloncurry), E.terminalis? (Blood wood, 
at Oloncurry, and in flower between Kaampa and Oorindi), 
E. pallidifolia (Mountain White Gum, near Oloncurry), E. 
papuana (Cabbage Gum with boles white to the ground), 
Grevillea striata, Hakea arborescens (near Oloncurry), 
H. sp., (probably either H. Cunninghamii or H. lorea). 

HUGHENDEN TO PRAIRIE. 

Prairie is situated nearly thirty miles easterly from 
Hughenden on a tableland of chiefly sandstone formation, 
though only some portions of it appear to be sandy. The 
plants identified were: — 
Pittosporace^e : Bursaria spinosa Cav. 
Malvaceae : Fugosia australis Benth., (at Baronta). 
Rhamnace^e : Ventilago viminalis (Vine Tree). 

Sapindace^e : Atalaya hemiglauca (Whitewood), Heterodendron 
olecefolium (Western Rosewood). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 437 

Leguminos^; : Cassia pleurocarpa F.v.M., Bauhinia sp., Acacia 
sentis, A. Cambagei (Gidgea), A. Chisholmi? (Turpentine 
Bush), A. gonoclada F.v.M. (No. 3966), A. pityoides F.v.M. 
(No. 3962), A. cibaria F.v.M. (No. 3961), A. leptocarpa A. 
Cunn.?(No. 3963), A. Farnesiana, A. Sutlierlandi ? (between 
Jardine Valley and Baronta). 

Myrtace^e : Melaleuca leucadendron ? var. viridiflora (ten feet 
high, papery bark, flowers yellowish-green, on sandy soil, 
between Baronta and Prairie), Eucalyptus crebra (Narrow- 
leaved Ironbark, ■ with large fruits up to 7 mm. long by 6 mm. 
in diameter), E. microtheca (Coolabah, with the branches 
generally smooth), E. rostrata (River Red Gum, near Jardine 
Valley), E. papuana (Cabbage Gum, at Prairie), E. setosa, 
E. terminalis ? (Blood wood, at Prairie), E. dichromophloia ? 
(Red Blood wood, at Prairie). 

Loranthace^e : Loranlhus longiflorus (with Eucalyjrtus microtheca 

as host, at Prairie). 
Composite: Helichrysum apiculatum DC! 

Apocynace^e: Carissa lanceolatusH.Br. ,(Boorum Bush, at Prairie). 
Myoporace^e : Eremophila Mitchelli, E, longifolia. 
Proteace^e : Grevillea striata, Hakea lorea. ? 
Santalace^e : Santalum lanceolatum. 

The plants identified as Acacia gonoclada (No. 3966) were 
found on sandy soil near Baronta, at an elevation of about 
1400 feet, and reach a height of about ten feet. The 
cylindrical flower spikes are from three-quarters of an inch 
to one inch long with peduncles of about 4 mm. The young 
phyllodes and young pods are very viscid, the latter being 
flat, up to 5 cm. long by 5 mm. broad. The phyllodes 
measure from four to five and a half inches long, and from 
three-quarters of an inch to one and a half inches broad, with 
several prominent nerves confluent with the lower margin 
near the base. These dimensions are slightly in excess of 
those quoted by Bentham for flowers, pods and phyllodes. 



438 



R. H. CAMBAGE. 



Acacia pityoides (No. 3962) is growing near A, gonoclada^ 
reaching a height of ten feet, with a fairly smooth bark, 
and branching into six or eight stems. The linear-subulate 
phyllodes are from four to five inches long, rarely six inches, 
and the narrow pods average about two and a half inches 
long. 

Acacia cibaria (No. 3961, Wirewood) was also growing 
on the sandy tableland, some of the trees being fifteen feet 
high, with narrow linear phyllodes from six to thirteen 
inches long, and twisted pods (contracted between the 
seeds), from four to seven and a half inches long. The bark 
is scaly and somewhat furrowed, the wood, which is used for 
posts, is pale yellow near the outside and dark brown 
towards the centre. 

Eucalyptus setosa is growing on sandy soil between 
Baronta and Prairie, the trees being about twenty feet 
high, with a stem diameter of ten inches and the wood 
dark brown. 

HUGHENDEN TO WINTON. 

In going from Hughenden to Winton, the divide between 
the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Lake Eyre waters is crossed 
at Whitewood, where the elevation is 1,028 feet, Winton 
being situated on a tributary of the Diamantina River, and 
is 614 feet above sea level. For the whole distance the 
country is made up of undulating open plains or downs 
dotted with a few trees here and there. 

The following is a list of plants seen from the train : — 
Capparis lasiantha, Owenia acidula, Ventilago viminalis 7 
Atalaya liemiglauca, Bauhinia sp., Acacia Cambagei, A. 
stenophylla, A. Famesiana, Eucalyptus microtheca, Heli- 
chrysum sp.f , Eremopliila Mitchelli. 

WINTON TO LONGREACH. 

This portion of the journey was made by motor car, the 
distance being one hundred and twenty-five miles. For 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 439 

the first half the country is level, open, treeless plains, 
though several flat topped hills, possibly outliers of Upper 
Cretaceous formation, may be seen on the right. Not a 
single tree was recorded up to sixty-five miles, but beyond 
this point the following plants were noticed: — Capparis 
lasiantha, FUndersia maculosa (Leopard wood, Meliacese), 
Ventilago viminalis, Atalaya hemiglauca, Heterodendron 
olecefolium, Cassia sp., Acacia homalophylla A. Cunn. ? 
(Boree), A. Cambagei (Gidgea), A, stenophylla (Native 
Willow), A. Bidivilli ?, A. Farnesiana, Eucalyptus micro- 
theca (Ooolabah), E. terminalis ? (Bloodwood), E. rostrata 
(River Red Gum, towards Thomson River), Loranthus sp., 
Carissa ovata, Eremopliila Mitchelli, Grevillea striata, 
Santalum lanceolatum. 

At a little more than half way from Winton to Longreach 
the trees provisionally identified as Acacia homalophylla 
(Boree, No. 3971) are first met with, and are common 
around Longreach, reaching a height of about twenty feet. 
The linear, silvery phyllodes, finely striate with numerous 
parallel obscure veins, are about three to four inches long, 
by 2 to 4 mm. broad, and usually with slightly curved points. 
The species evidently flowers late in July, for on 4th Sep- 
tember young glaucous, flat, narrow pods were obtained, 
measuring from two to three inches long by 3 to 4 mm. 
broad. In general appearance these trees closely resemble 
the Gidgea (A. Cambagei), but the phyllodes and pods of 
the latter are broader and the veins more prominent, 
besides other differences. 

LONGREACH TO ROCKHAMPTON. 

Longreacli is 612 feet above sea level, and 428 miles by 
rail from Rockhampton, and is situated on the Thomson 
River, which, after being joined by the Barcoo, is known as 
Cooper's Creek and flows into Lake Eyre. The surrounding 



440 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

country consists of level to undulating plains, sparsely 
timbered, but after Barcaldine is passed the conditions 
change, and fairly well-timbered forest land may be seen on 
both sides of the railway line, practically all the way to 
Rockhampton. On a sandy area extending from near Geera 
to about Pine Hill there is a most interesting and varied 
flora, and owing to its sandy nature a considerable portion 
of this area is known as The Desert. The annual rainfall 
over a great portion of this tract of country, from Barcaldine 
to the Dawson River, ranges from about twenty to thirty 
inches, increasing to the eastward, and with less than 
twenty inches at Longreach. The Main Divide is crossed 
on a sandy plateau near Jericho at an altitude of scarcely 
1,200 feet above sea level, and about fifty miles to the 
eastward, the Drummond Range near Pine Hill reaches an 
elevation of about 1,500 feet. This comparatively low gap 
in the Main Divide allows the drier western conditions to 
come on to the eastern watershed, with the result that 
many of the interior plants have invaded the coastal area, 
and some occur as far east at Rockhampton. On the other 
hand, the presence of this drier western climate prevents 
the growth of such large areas of brush or jungle, as may 
be seen in other places on the eastern slope, where the 
divide is higher and the moisture greater. The first sign 
of a little brush is seen from the train between the forty- 
ninth and fiftieth mile-posts from Rockhampton, but at no 
point near the line does the Malayan element in the flora 
predominate as on many other portions of the east coast. 1 

Practically the only collecting done on this route was at 
Bogantungan, two hundred miles east of Longreach, and 
some specimens were sent from Geera by Mr. H. O. Oullen, 
so that considering the distance travelled, the appended 

1 For a general description of the vegetation over the eastern portion 
of this area, see a paper by P. A. O'Shanesy, f.l.s., " Contributions to the 
Flora of Queensland," (1880). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 441 

list of plants chiefly seen from the train is meagre, though 
sufficient to give an idea of the general character of the 
flora. Two or three beautiful flowering Acacias were seen 
in the desert but could not be identified from the train. 

The following plants were noticed between Longreach 
and Rockhampton: — 

Capparidace^ : Capparis lasiantha, C. Mitchelli (Pomegranate), 
Apophyllum anomalum F.v.M. 1 ? (near Dartmouth). 

Pittosporace^e : Pittospomm phillyrceoides DC, (near Geera), 
Bursaria spinosa. 

Sterculiace^: : Sterculia diversifolia G. Don (Kurrajong, near 
Alice River and Bogantungan), S. rupestris Benth., ( Bottle 
Tree, common from Emerald towards Rockhampton, some- 
times with a diameter of five to six feet). 

Tiliaceje : Grewia polygama (at Bogantungan). 

Rutace^e : Geijera parviflora Lindl. (Wilga, a beautiful shade 
tree, near Geera and Emerald). 

Meliace^e : Owenia acidula (at various points, trees up to 30 feet 
high between the 82 and 83 mile-posts from Rockhampton), 

CelastrinevE : Celastrus Cunninghamii F.v.M. 

Rhamnace^e : Ventilago viminalis (Vine Tree), Zizyphus jujuba 
(Jujubes, near Rockhampton), Alphitonia excelsa (near Jericho, 
Yamala and Stanley, a widely distributed species). 1 

Sapindace^e : Cupania anacardioides A. Rich., (trees 20 feet high 
at Bogantungan), Atalaya hemiylauca (Whitewood), Hetero- 
dendron olecefolium, Dodonaza attenuata A. Cunn. (Hopbush). 

Leguminos^e : Lotus australis Andr., (at Bogantungan. This 
endemic species belongs to a genus widely spread over the 
tropical and temperate regions of the world), Ccesalpinia 
Gillesii Wall, (near Geera), Cassia sp., Banhinia sp., Acacia 

1 Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales by E. H. Carnbage, 
Part ix, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxxvn, p. 649, (1912). 



442 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

salicina Lindl. var. varians (large spreading trees, the Cooba 
of the Lachlan River, seen at various places), A. decora 
Reichb., (at Bogantungan), A. homalophylla ? (Boree, from 
Longreach to Geera), A. Cambagei (Gidgea, Longreach to 
Jericho), A. stenophylla (near Geera), A. harpophylla F.v.M., 
(Brigalow, first met with between Alice and Jericho, after- 
wards seen at intervals to Rockhampton; near the Comet 
River there are miles of Brigalow scrub), A. excel sa Benth., 
(Ironwood, in The Desert), A. complanata A. Cunn.? (near the 
fifty mile-post), A. cibaria ( Wirewood, common in The Desert), 
A. doratoxylon (Lancewood, at various points), A. torulosal 
(near Geera), A. Cunninghamii Hook.? (Nos. 3984 and 3985, 
at Bogantungan), A. aulacocarpa (near Rockhampton), A. 
holosericea (near Rockhampton), A. polybotrya Benth. var. 
foliolosa (20 to 25 feet high, with bipinnate leaves, at Bogan- 
tungan, No. 3982), A. Farnesiana. 

MYRTACEiE : Calythrix longi flora F.v.M. (near Geera), Callistemon 
vimirialis (with red flowers, on creek bank between 38 and 39 
mile-posts from Rockhampton), Melaleuca saligna ? (Willow 
Teatree, on Dawson River, and probably again between 31 
and 33 mile-posts, seen only from train), M. genistifolia?, M. 
leucadendron var. viridiflora (near Walton), Eucalyptus 
Thozetiana F.v.M.? (between Weemah and Yamala), E. 
populifolia Hook,, (Poplar Box, or Bimble Box), E. hemi- 
phloia F.v.M., (Box, from Wallaroo to Rockhampton, the 
common Box around Parramatta), E. Cambageana Maiden 
(this Journal, 1913, p. 91, Blackbutt), E. melanophloia (Silver- 
leaved Ironbark, at various places from about the Alice River 
eastwards) E. sp., (a distinct looking species of Ironbark, 
somewhat resembling E. melanophloia, leaves rather lanceo- 
late, fairly common between Geera and Lochnagar), E. crebra 
(Narrow-leaved Ironbark, at Bogantungan and to the east- 
ward, doubtfully identified from the train between Jericho 
and Beta), E. Raver etiana F.v.M., (near Rockhampton), E. 
microtheca (Coolabah, at intervals from Longreach into the 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 443 

suburbs of Rockhampton), E. rostrala (River Red Gum, on 
many streams to Emerald, and doubtfully identified from the 
train on the Dawson), E. exserta F.v.M., (from Wallaroo to 
Rockhampton), E. tereticornis (Forest Red Gum, from Bogan- 
tungan to Rockhampton), E. alba (Poplar Gum, near Rock- 
hampton), E. tesselaris (Moreton Bay Ash, at Bogantungan 
and to the eastward), E. papuana (Cabbage Gum, at intervals 
from Barcaldine all the way, generally white to the ground), 
E. setosa ? (doubtfully identified from the train between Geera 
and Lochnagar), E. peltata? or E. Leichhardtii Bailey? (Yellow 
Jack, with rough scaly bark to branchlets, seen only from the 
train between Alice and Jericho, and again between Jericho 
and Beta), E. terminalis ? (Bloodwood, from Barcaldine at 
intervals the whole way), E. dickromophloia ? (Red Blood- 
wood, at Bogantungan and near Rockhampton), E. maculata 
Hook. var. citriodora, (Citron-scented or Lemon-scented Gum, 
near Coowarra and Wallaroo), E. trachyphloia F.v.M.? (small 
trees of the Bloodwood group, growing in spreading clumps 
between Lochnagar and Alice, identification doubtful), Tris- 
tania suaveolens Sm., (only seen near Rockhampton), Careya 
australis (near Rockhampton). 

CactacEjE : Opuntia sp. (Prickly Pear. Naturalised and in places 
extending for miles in the Emerald to Comet River and 
Blackwater districts). 

LoRANTHACEiE : Loranthus sp., (with Eucalyptus melanophloia as 
host, near Jericho), L. sp. (near Emerald). 

Composite : Minuria iutegerrima Benth., (near Geera), Olearia 
subspicata Benth., (near Geera), Helichrysum bracteattimVS il\d. , 
(at Bogantungan). 

Goodeniace^e : Goodenia ovala Sm., (at Bogantungan). 

Campanulace,e : Wahlenbergia gracilis (Blue Bell). 

Apocynace^e : Carissa ovata (Boorum Bush or Kunkerberry of 
Cloncurry), Ahtonia constricta F.v.M. ? (at Bogantungan). 



444 K. H. CAMBAGE. 

Myoporace^ : Myoporum sp. (near Geera), Eremophila Mitchelli 
(at various points), E. longifolia (near Longreach and Bogan- 
tungan), E. maculata F.v.M., (near Geera). 

Labiatje : Ajuga australis R. Br. (at Bogantungan). 

Amarantace^e : Gomphrena canescens R. Br.? (near Geera). 

Phytolaccace^e : Codonocarpus australis A. Cun.,( Bell-fruit, near 
Geera, Bogantungan and Herbert's Creek). 

Proteace^e: Grevillea chrysodendron (near Geera), G. striata (at 
Bogantungan and Dingo), G. sp. (near Jericho, with white 
flowers), Hakea lorea (Bogantungan), H. leucoptera R. Br., 
(near Geera ; the Needlewood of western New South Wales). 

Thymelace^e : Pimelea sericostachya F.v.M., (at Bogantungan). 

Santalace^e : Exocarpus cupressiformis Labill., (Native Cherry, 
at Bogantungan). 

EuphorbiacEvE : Petalostigma quadriloculare (Quinine or Bitter 
Crab, at various points between Bogantungan and Duaringa), 
Macaranga Tanaria J. Muell., (at Rockhampton). 

Casuarinace^e : Casuarina Cambagei (Belah, around Weemah 
and at intervals to Woodend near Rockhampton), C. Lueh- 
manni (Bull Oak, from Yamala to Coowarra), C. Cunning- 
hamiana (River Oak, from Bogantungan to near Rock- 
hampton). 

Conifers : Callitris robusta R. Br., (Cypress Pine, seen at various 
points). 

Orchidace^e : Cymbidium sp., (most of the way). 

Liliace^e : Xerotes longifolia R. Br., (at Bogantungan), X. leuco- 
cephala R. Br., (near Geera). 

Gramine^e : Themeda Forskalii Hack., (Anthistiria ciliata L., 
Kangaroo grass). 

Filices : Adidntum cethiopicum L., (Maiden Hair Fern), Cheil- 
anthes tenuifolia Sw., (both at Bogantungan). 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 445 

The trees provisionally identified as Eucalyptus Thozet- 
iana were seen only between Weemaii and Yamala, and 
the original note concerning them made in the passing 
train reads: — "An erect gum tree of fair size with narrow 
leaves slightly shining; white to ground; a fresh species." 
Their height averaged about fifty feet and they probably 
form the identical group referred to by Tenison-Woods in 
1882 as E. gracilis, (Op. cit., Vol. vn, p. 338), and also by 
P. A. O'Shanesy (Op. cit., p. 24). 

Eucalyptus Cambageana, the Blackbutt of the Comet 
River and Ooowarra districts was first noticed between 
Jericho and Beta, thence onwards at intervals to Gogango, 
often growing with Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow). 

Eucalyptus exserta was first noticed between Wallaroo 
and Duaringa. It is an umbrageous pendulous tree from 
forty to seventy feet high, with slightly fibrous, brown 
bark somewhat resembling that of the Peppermint group, 
and has fruits like those of E. tereticornis, but with 
remarkably exserted valves. 

Trees of Eucalyptus Raveretiana were seen on the creek 
bank between the seventeenth mile-post and Stanwell, and 
were noted as resembling a round-leaved Ooolabah (E. 
microtlieca). 

Eucalyptus populifolia, the Poplar Box or Shiny-leaved, 
or Bimble Box of western New South Wales, was not seen 
on the Flinders or Diamantina waters nor at Longreach. It 
was first met with between Salturn and Barcaldine to the 
east of Longreach, while between Barcaldine and Geera it 
is very common. How far northward of Geera it extends 
I unable to say, but, there are miles of it between Alice 
and Jericho, and it goes eastward to Rockhampton, and 
comes southerly to Wyalong and Wentworth in New South 
Wales. Although it is one of the well-known western 
species, it cannot be said to be common on the black-soil 



446 R. H. CAMBAGE. 

plains, but prefers a lighter, soil. This may account for its 
absence from Richmond Downs and around Winton. In New 
South Wales the eastern margin of the habitat of this 
species roughly coincides with the western margin of E. 
albens Mig., (the White Box of the western slopes), but in 
places the boundaries overlap. 

The Oymbidium, which was noticed growing in the hollow 
portions of trees at various points most of the way, was 
probably C. canaliculatum R.Br., which species is found in 
a somewhat similar though slightly cooler climate around 
Boggabri in this State. 

%■ ^ ^ >fc $z j}c ^ 

During the whole of the hurried journey described in this 
paper, and which covered some of the drier rather than the 
moist portions of Queensland, only about thirty-one species 
of Eucalyptus and forty species of Acacia were noticed, 
numbers which would be greatly exceeded for both these 
genera in a very much shorter distance in any portion of 
the eastern coast of Australia. It is of interest to note, 
as contrasting the flora of this tropical climate with that 
of the cooler southern latitudes, that not a single species 
of Eucalyptus or Acacia mentioned in this list is recorded 
for Tasmania. 

In travelling over the western portions of tropical Queens- 
land, and noting its general flora in which are many adaptive 
xerophytic characters, one cannot help being impressed 
with the hardiness of the vegetation in such a hot climate 
with, in places, only a moderate rainfall. The question 
naturally arises, how do the seedlings manage to survive ? 
The explanation appears to lie in the fact that the seeds 
germinate in the wet season during the early part of the 
year, and the seedlings grow rapidly during the moist 
period, so that by the end of the dry though temperate 
winter, many of them are sufficiently strong to survive 



Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., XLIX., 1915. 



Plate L VII. 









Fig. l.— Eucalyptus clavigera. 



Fig. 2.— Eucalyptus papuaua- 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. 



Plate LV I II. 




I 
oi 

6 

H 










o 

I 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol XLIX., 1915. Plate LIX. 




wmam 



'K 



• * %&' '> 



Eucalyptus miniata. 



Journal Royal Society ofN.S. W., Vol. XLIX., 1915. Plate LX. 




Acacia SutJi erlandi. 



Journal Royal Society of N . S. W. t Vol XL IX., 1015. Plate LXl 




m pi 





Eucalyptus pruinosa. 



NATIVE FLORA OF TROPICAL QUEENSLAND. 447 

until the return of rainy weather in December or January, 
and thus become established. 

The reason that many native plants have restricted 
habitats is not only owing to their preference for certain 
soils or to differences of rainfall in various localities, but 
because it is often difficult for the seedlings to establish 
themselves under fresh conditions, and many plants will 
thrive in localities away from their natural home if safe- 
guarded during their infancy. 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr. J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., 
and Mr. E. Cheel, for assistance and corroboration in the 
identification of a number of plants, to Miss K. Hillcoat of 
Boomarra, Oloncurry, and Mr. H. O. Oullen formerly of 
Geera, for supplementing my collection of specimens. 

Explanation of Plates. 



Plate LVI1, Fig 1. — Eucalyptus clavigera A. Cunn., Apple- 
Gum, showing tessellated bark at base. Alma-den, North Queens- 
land. 

Fig. 2. — Eucalyptus papuana F.v.M., Cabbage Gum. Alma-den. 
The bark of this species is often white to the ground and seldom 
rougher than that shown in photograph. 

Plate LVITI, Fig. 1. — Eucalyptus pallidifolia Fv.M., Moun- 
tain Gum or White Brittle Gum. Cowan Downs, Normanton- 
Cloncurry Road. 

Fig. 2. — Terminalia platyphylla F.v.M., Pear Tree, Georgetown. 

Plate LIX. — Eucalyptus miniata A. Cunn., Woollybutt or 
Tobacco-pipe Gum. Croydon, North Queensland. 

Plate LX. — Acacia Sutherlandi F.v.M., Cork-tree or Weeping 
Mimosa. Donor's Hill, Flinders River. 

Plate LXI. — Eucalyptus pruinosa Schauer, Silver-leaved Box, 
Boomarra, Normanton to Cloncurry. 



448 L. A. COTTON. 



SOME GEO-PHYSIOAL OBSERVATIONS AT 
BURRINJUOK. 

By Leo A. Cotton, b.a., b.Sc, 

Acting Professor of Geology, University of Sydney. 
With Plate LXII, and Three Text-figures. 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, December 1, 1915. ,] 



The problems relating to the strength of the earth's crust 
present an attractive field of investigation alike to the 
mathematician, the physicist and the geologist. Such 
investigators as Fisher, Darwin and Love have given atten- 
tion to the mathematical aspects of the question. In the 
realm of physics such men as Airy, Hecker and Hayford 
have respectively examined the problems from the stand- 
points of astronomy, seismology and geodesy. Among 
geologists, such names as Gilbert, Ohamberlin and Barrell 
are associated with these problems. 

In this communication it is desired to present a brief 
preliminary account of a new experimental line of investi- 
gation in this branch of science. 

The State Government of New South Wales have under- 
taken a large irrigation scheme, x the reservoir for which 
is being constructed on the Murrumbidgee River at Burrin- 
juck. The dam is to have a maximum height of 236 feet, 
and the water to be stored is estimated at 33,000,000,000 
cubic feet, a greater volume than the water contained in 
Sydney Harbour. The impounding of such a large mass of 
water, having such a great depth, will impose a certain 
strain on the earth's crust. 

1 For a brief account of this work see Handbook for New South Wales, 
published for members of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, 1914, pages 146, 147. 



SOME GEO-PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 449 

The opportunity which this engineering work offers for 
the investigation of the strength of the earth's crust was 
first realised by Dr. W. G. Woolnough, who was then a 
lecturer in Geology at the University of Sydney. He 
suggested that some suitable instrument be installed at 
the reservoir in order to ascertain whether any deflection 
of the earth's crust would take place under the water load; 
and he undertook to carry out the investigation. The 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 
granted financial assistance to further the project. The 
subsequent appointment of Dr. Woolnough to the Chair of 
Geology at Perth, rendered it impossible for him to proceed 
with the work. Some time later, the Rev. Father Pigot, S.J., 
suggested to Professor David that certain pendulums which 
he had seen during a visit to Europe would be suitable for 
the investigation, and it was decided to write to Geheimrat 
Helmert requesting the loan of these valuable instruments. 
Helmert with the co-operation of Hecker and Wolf most 
generously arranged to lend three instruments for this 
investigation, which was planned to extend over a period 
of three years. The pendulums were shipped to the care 
of Professor David free of charge, and were received a few 
months before the outbreak of war. It is a matter for the 
most profound regret that the spirit, of universal scientific 
brotherhood so well exemplified by this most generous loan 
has since been so conspicuously absent from the counsels 
of the German Government. 

Two of the pendulums lent were used by Hecker (Pots- 
dam) aad Schweydar (Heidelberg) in their classical investi- 
gations on the earth tides. These instruments are of the 
Rebeur-Ehlert type. The third pendulum was constructed 
to Hecker's design and is of the Zollner suspension type. 

The care of these valuable instruments brought with it 
a high degree of responsibility for their safe housing and 

Cc— December 1, 1915. 



450 L. A. COTTON. 

proper installation. It was decided that if possible they 
should be placed in tunnels in the steep hillsides as close 
as practicable to the high water level of the Burrinjuck 
reservoir. The steep slope of the hills (about 30°) would 
enable the instruments to be established at a sufficient 
depth from the surface to minimise or eliminate the effect 
of surface temperature changes. The State Government 
generously granted the aid necessary to the preparation of 
these tunnels. The greatest thanks are due to the late 
Commissioner for Irrigation, Mr. L. A. B. Wade, for his 
personal interest and help in connection with this work, 
and also to Mr. Dare, the present Acting Commissioner, at 
that time Chief Engineer to the Irrigation Commission. 
The tunnels were driven under the supervision of the 
resident engineer at Burrinjuck, Mr. D. P. Campbell. This 
gentleman has rendered the most invaluable service both 
in connection with the installation and the subsequent 
maintenance of the instruments. It is due to his enthusi- 
astic devotion and interest, that in spite of many difficulties, 
the records of the present year have yielded such satis- 
factory results. Thanks are also due to Mr. Goodwin for 
his valuable services in changing the records. 

The selection of the sites for the tunnels and the instal- 
lation of the instruments were carried out jointly by Pro- 
fessor David, Father Pigot, Mr. D. F. Campbell and the 
writer. The sites chosen are shown on the accompanying 
map (Plate LXII). The tunnels are placed from twenty 
to forty feet above high water level and are from sixty to 
eighty feet in length. Each tunnel is divided transversely 
into three compartments. The pendulums are housed in 
the compartment remote from the entrance, the lamp and 
photographic recording apparatus in the centre compart- 
ment, while the outer compartment serves as a storage 
room for accessories and as an additional protection to the 



SOME GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 451 

photographic records 1 in the centre chamber. This three- 
fold division also minimises the risk of air temperature 
changes affecting the instruments during visits necessary 
for changing the records. 

Both the pendulums and the recording apparatus are 
mounted on solid concrete piers and are roofed over to 
afford a protection against water seepage and small falls 
of earth. 

The recording apparatus 2 for two of the instruments had 
to be made in Sydney and the expenditure which this work 
necessitated was met by a further grant from the Austral- 
asian Association for the Advancement of Science. A full 
account of the instruments and their installation will be 
given in a later paper. 

The first of the instruments (the Heidelburg pendulum 
established at Dale's Tunnel), was installed by Father Pigot 
in May 1914, and all three instruments were recording in 
October of that year. The records, however, have only 
been yielding satisfactory results since February 1915. 
Although the records obtained since that date are not 
sufficiently extensive to be used as a basis for a quantitative 
investigation, there are certain results of a qualitative 
nature which are of extreme interest to both geologists 
and geodesists. As it is proposed to continue the observa- 
tions for a further period of two years before attempting a 
quantitative statement, the writer was requested to make 
such a preliminary statement as is now possible for the 
information of those who are interested in this research. 

As a preliminary step towards the investigation it would 
clearly have been desirable to ascertain as far as possible, 

1 Harrington's Limited are providing the photographic materials, and 
are kindly giving special attention to ensure the greatest possible speed 
for the paper. 

2 This recording apparatus was made by J. Cruikshank, Scientific 
Instrument Maker, No. 9 Nicholson-street, Wooloomooloo. 



452 



L. A. COTTON. 



the normal stability of the earth's crust at Burrinjuck. 
There are two methods of attacking this problem. 

The first is by obtaining a set of standard readings with 
the pendulums before any water load is imposed on the area. 

The second method is to apply geological tests as to the 
stability of the earth's crust. 

It has unfortunately not been possible to rigidly carry 
out the preliminary investigation by the first method. 
Owing, however, to a period of drought, and to the neces- 
sarily slow growth of the dam, the water load had not 
exceeded about one-sixteenth of the total load before the 
instruments were established. Moreover this load was 
maintained fairly constantly for about nine months since 
the first records were obtained. It is hoped that when the 
results are worked out, that this period will provide a 
sufficient test of the normal stability of the earth's crust 
in this area. 

The second method will be investigated fully in a later 
paper but may be briefly outlined here. 

A consideration of the topography and structural geology 
of the district is necessary for the solution of the problem. 
The Burrinjuck area is situated on a block faulted tableland, 
which is deeply entrenched by the Murrumbidgee at 
Burrinjuck. The rocks at Burrinjuck are of Devonian age, 
are strongly folded, and consist of slates and limestones 
into which are intruded granite, porphyrite and basalt. An 
account of the broad geological features of the reservoir area 
has been given by Harper. l The faulting is comparatively 
recent, and slight earthquakes have from time to time been 
felt in the south-eastern part of New South Wales. The 
most marked of these of recent years occurred in the Cooma 

1 L. F. Harper. The Geology of the Murrumbidgee District near Yass. 
Eecords Geological Survey New South Wales, Vol. ix, part 1. 



SOME GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 453 

and Bega area, on 18th January, 1912, at 6*9 a.m. This 
earthquake was felt over an area having a diameter of about 
100 miles, and was recorded at the Riverview Observatory. 
These earthquakes indicate that crustal equilibrium has 
not yet been attained in this area. 
The Records, 
The records of each instrument from 22nd February 1915 
to the 19th October of the same year are represented 
graphically in the accompanying diagrams. The water 
level is represented in each case by a curve, the ordinates of 
which are proportional to the actual water levels recorded 
at the dam. 

In the case of each pendulum boom the ordinates are 
proportional to the actual displacements of the booms as 
recorded on the photographic records. The actual deflec- 
tions of the vertical for each instrument for the period 
commencing 22nd February and ending 21st October 1915 
are represented on the accompanying map (Plate LXII). 

In the case of the No. 1 Pendulum (the Heidelberg pen- 
dulum established at Dale's tunnel), there was relatively 
little movement of the booms while the water level was 
slowly sinking, but both booms manifested considerable 
activity when the water load was increased. The sense 
of the movement is in the direction represented by an arrow 
on the accompanying map. 

In the case of No. 2 Pendulum (the Strassburg Zollner- 
suspension instrument, established at the Weighbridge 
tunnel) the deflections of the vertical are also represented 
on the map. The variations in the water level, however, 
do not exert any marked corresponding influence on the 
movements of the booms. This instrument is situated near 
the dam, and is therefore subjected to the maximum stress 
so far as depth of water is concerned ; and hence a small 
rise or fall of the water level would represent only a 



454 L. A. COTTON. 

relatively small fraction of the total water load. The 
variations in water level might thus be expected to affect 
the booms less than in the case of either of the other 
pendulums. 

In the case of No. 3 Pendulum (the Potsdam Pendulum 
established at the River Tunnel), both booms are deflected 
in a most marked manner. In this case also the amount 
and direction of the deflection of the vertical is represented 
on the map. This pendulum is twelve miles above the dam, 
and the water load is not great, being represented by a 
depth of about twenty-two feet of water at the commence- 
ment of the records. Small variations in the water level 
therefore represent large relative changes in the stresses 
imposed. This is consistent with the nature of the curves. 

Thus in the case of each instrument there is a degree of 
correspondence between the movement of the pendulum 
booms and the variation in the water load ; and this corres- 
pondence is so marked as to render a causal connection in 
a high degree probable. 

There are at least four types of earth movements which 
are being recorded by the pendulums. These are 

1. Earthtides. 3. Fault movements. 

2. Earthquakes. 4. Slow deflections of the vertical. 

The Earthtides. — As two of the pendulums were pre- 
viously used for the detection of the earthtides in Europe, 
it was to be expected that they would record this phe- 
nomenon at their present stations. This expectation has 
been fulfilled. 

As Burrinjuck is situated 125 miles due west from the 
coast of New South Wales at Jervis Bay, it is possible that 
the records may be slightly influenced by the load of the 
oceanic tides. It will be of great interest to compare the 
records of these instruments with those from the Standard 
Earthtide Station at Oobar. This station forms part of the 



SOME GEO-PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 455 

world scheme initiated by Hecker for the International 
Geodetic Association. It was established by Father Pigot 
at Cobar a short time before he commenced the installation 
at Burrinjuck. The Cobar instrument is of the Zollner 
suspension type and was set up in a disused mining drive 
at a depth of 450 feet from the surface. As Cobar is about 
360 miles from the coast it is anticipated that the effect of 
the oceanic tides will be quite negligible at this station. 
If the oceanic tides do exert a measurable effect at Burrin- 
juck, a comparison of the records with those of Cobar should 
provide a means of ascertaining the magitude of this effect. 
If, on the other hand, the oceanic tides exert no appreciable 
influence at Burrinjuck, the records will be of value in 
supplementing those at Cobar. Unfortunately the Cobar 
mine has been closed during the greater part of the past 
year, so that simultaneous records from Cobar and Burrin- 
juck are not yet available. The mine is, however, now 
being re-opened, and the installation of the pendulum will 
be shortly re-established by Father Pigot. 

Earthquakes are readily recorded by all the pendulums. 
The periods of the booms in the different instruments vary 
from about eighteen to twenty-six seconds for a relatively 
small arc of oscillation. These records have of course no 
time value, as the travel of the photographic paper is only 
from one to three centimetres per hour; nor are the ampli- 
tudes of much value as the pendulums are undamped. 
Nevertheless the earthquakes are of importance in their 
possible relation to faulting. Earthquakes of large ampli- 
tude have on several occasions been accompanied by sudden 
displacements of the zero of the booms under conditions 
which sometimes suggest fault movements rather than 
instrumental errors. As a rule the earthquakes are not 
accompanied by displacement of the zero position of the 
booms. 



456 L. A. COTTON. 

Fault movements are represented on the records by 
relatively rapid movements of the booms. In most cases 
the movement occupies only a few hours, resulting in a 
permanent displacement of the zero position of both booms, 
these faults are generally unaccompanied by any earth- 
quake shocks. They sometimes occur in the same sense 
as the preceding slow movements of the pendulum booms 
and at other times in the opposite direction. The position 
of the fault plane and the direction of the downthrow with 
regard to the position of the instrument no doubt deter- 
mines this relation. It is hoped that the chief lines of 
fracture may be located by observations from all three 
instruments. 

It is, however, in the slow deflections of the vertical 
that the main interest of the investigation lies. These 
movements may be related chiefly to the water loads or 
may be due to other causes, but it seems almost certain 
that the former cause is in operation. More light will no 
doubt be cast upon the problem by further investigation. 

Interpretation of the Becords. 
It is as yet premature to offer definite conclusions, but 
there are certain suggestions that may be considered. Is 
it possible that the deflections of the vertical, which are 
undoubtedly taking place at Burrinjuck, are due to isostatic 
adjustment ? 

In this connection we have involved the question of local 
versus regional isostacy. Barren's investigations of the 
strength of the earth's crust are strongly opposed to the 
possibility of such a relatively small mass as the water 
content of the Burrinjuck Reservoir having any isostatic 
effect. On the other hand Hayford and Bowie consider 
that isostatic adjustment may affect areas as small as one 
square mile in extent. 

Is it possible that both these views may be reconciled? 






SOME GEO-PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 457 

In an area such as that of Burrinjuck, where the earth's 
crust has been proved to be fractured by many large faults, 
there is not that strength of the crust postulated in Barrell's 
investigations. Even small areas are divided in blocks by 
fault planes, and it is conceivable that each small area may 
work into a position of isostatic adjustment more or less 
independently of its neighbour. Conditions such as these 
would favour Hayford's limits for isostatic compensation 
in areas of this type. 

If isostatic adjustment is not responsible for the deflec- 
tions observed, are these to be explained by the elasticity 
of the earth's crust ? 

The instruments are certainly sensitive to small loads 
close to their bases of support. After spending about 
twelve or fifteen hours within a distance of from three to 
fifteen feet of the pendulums, it was found that the records 
always showed a gradual recovery from the strain imposed 
on the rock floor by one's weight. It may be that the 
movements of the booms are to be attributed to the water 
load operating in the same way. It is hoped that a quan- 
titative examination of an extended series of records will 
enable the nature of the deflections of the vertical to be 
ascertained. 

In the meantime it is certainly a matter of interest that 
such deflections are taking place, and that these appear to 
be related to the water load. 

In conclusion, I would desire to express my great in- 
debtedness to both Professor David and Father Pigot for 
constant advice and assistance in connection with this 
work ; to the latter especially for his advice and guidance 
in completing the installations which he himself commenced 
but was unable to complete owing to his visit to Europe ; 
and for his most generous help in the preparation of this 
paper. 



458 



L. A. COTTON. 



Explanation of Figures and Plate LXII. 

Figure 1.— Pendulum No. 1 (Heidelberg Pendulum). 
The deflections of the vertical registered by both booms 
are represented by the changes in the ordinates of the 







curves, which are drawn to a scale on which one centimetre 
represents about 1*48 seconds of arc. The amount of 



SOME GEO-PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 459 

deflection prior to the 22nd February is not known. In the 
case of the meridian boom an increase in the ordinate 
represents a deflection of the boom towards the east. In 
the case of the east and west boom a decrease in the 
ordinate corresponds to a deflection of the boom to the 
north. The curve representing the water level is drawn 
to a scale on which one centimetre represents twenty feet 
of water. The actual water level on 22nd February was 
fifty-two feet above the river bed at the site of this 
pendulum. 

The abscissae represent the times corresponding to the 
ordinates of the curves and are drawn to a scale of twenty 
days to one centimetre. 

Figure 2. — Pendulum No. 2 (Strassburg Pendulum). 

The deflections of the vertical registered by both booms 
are represented by the changes in the ordinates of the 
curves. These are drawn to a scale on which one centi- 
metre represents about 0*64 seconds of arc. The amount 
of the deflection prior to 22nd February 1915 is not known. 
In the case of the meridian boom an increase in the ordinate 
represents a deflection of the boom towards the east. In 
the case of the east and west boom a decrease in the 
ordinate represents a deflection towards the south. The 
curve representing the water level is drawn to a scale on 
which one centimetre measures twenty feet of water. An 
increase in the ordinate corresponds to a rise of the water 
level. The actual water level at the 22nd of February, 
1915, was eighty feet above the river bed at the site of 
this pendulum. The abscissae of all the curves represent 
the times corresponding to the ordinates, and are drawn 
to a scale of twenty days to one centimetre. 



460 



L. A. COTTON. 















/ ^ 














/ ^ 














/ -^ 














/ f 




E| 










^ 




ol 










— 












y 


CO 


, 




^A 








^> 


<M 












^> 


bb 












'~~ 


£ 




Y 


T 






ex 



Figure 3.— Pendulum No. 3 (Potsdam Pendulum). 

The deflections of the vertical registered by both booms 
are represented by changes in the ordinates of the curves. 
The curve for the meridian boom is drawn on a scale on 
which one centimetre corresponds to 1*74 seconds of arc. 



SOME GEO-PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AT BURRINJUCK. 



461 



While the curve for the east and west boom has a scale of 
1*26 seconds of arc to one centimetre. The amount of 
deflection prior to 24th February 1915 is not known. In 
the case of the meridian boom an increase in the ordinate 
represents a deflection of the boom to the west. In the 
case of the east and west boom an increase in the ordinate 
corresponds to a deflection of the boom towards the south. 




462 L. A. COTTON. 

The curve of the water level is drawn to a scale on which 
one centimetre measures twenty feet of water. An increase 
in the ordinate corresponds to a rise of the water level. 
The actual water level at the 24th February, 1915, was 
twenty-two feet above the river bed at the site of this 
instrument. The abscissae represent the times correspond- 
ing to the ordinates and are drawn to a scale of twenty 
days to one centimetre. 

Plate LXII. 

This map indicates the position of the Murrumbidgee 
River and its tributaries within the area affected by the 
Burrinjuck Water Conservation Scheme. The positions of 
the river channels are marked in firm lines, and the area 
which will be submerged when the dam is full is repre- 
sented by the dotted lines. The three pendulums (numbered 
1, 2 and 3) are situated at the intersections of the three 
rectangular crosses marked on the map. The deflection of 
the vertical for each instrument for the period, 22nd 
February to 21st October, 1915, is stated in seconds of arc, 
and the direction of the deflection is shown by an arrow 
marked at each station. 




Plate LX 1 T 




Scale 

80 120 160 CY\a\V\S 






I 



J„„riml /.',.«'"' Sun, 1 1, ti/X.S.Jl Jul. ALIA'., 




NOTES ON ACACIA. 



463 



NOTES ON ACACIA, (WITH DESCRIPTION OP NEW 
SPECIES), No. I. 

By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, December 1, 1915.] 



SYNOPSIS. 
Introductory. 

Extra-floral Nectaries (glands). 

Funicle and Arillus. 

Proposed New Species : — 

1. Acacia Carnei (Pungentes — Uninerves). 



2. 


33 


Mabellce (Uninerves — Racemosse). 


3. 


5 J 


Flocktonice ,, ,, 


4. 


>5 


Chalkeri „ ,, 


5. 


33 


Kettle wellice ,, „ 


6. 


33 


Clunies-Rossice „ ,, 


7. 


J) 


Boormani ,, ,, 


8. 


J3 


Currani (Juliflorse — Stenophyllse). 


Notes 


on Various Species: — 


a. 


Acacia crassiuscula Wendl. (see under A. Flocktonice). 


6. 


3) 


leptopetala Benth. 


c. 


)» 


linearis Sims. 


d. 


5J 


pycnantha Benth. 


e. 


53 


lineata A. Cunn. 


/. 


33 


imbricata F.v.M. 


9- 


33 


Bynoeana Benth. 


h. 


„ 


ixiophylla Benth. 


i. 


33 


7/iontana Benth. 



Introductory. 

I have been led to a detailed study of Australian Acacias 

partly because half a century has elapsed since Bentham's 

revision of the genus, during which period additional species 

have been recorded from every State in the Commonwealth, 



464 J. H. MAIDEN. 

the descriptions being published in and out of Australia, 
and material has accumulated in the National Herbarium 
of New South Wales that demanded attention. We have, 
in addition to New South Wales plants, some of which 
have been dealt with in this paper, a quantity of material 
from Western and Northern Australia, some of which 
promises to be interesting. The species from the Northern 
Territory are being dealt with for Professor Ewart's Flora 
of that area. 

There is much work to be done in regard to the revision 
of many species, and this work, as well as the description 
of species deemed to be new, may, it is hoped, lead to a 
better grasp of the facts concerning the largest genus of 
Australian plants. Perhaps this work may culminate in 
suggested improvements in affinities and therefore of 
classification. 

I have not absolutely correct figures in regard to Aus- 
tralian species, or even New South Wales; indeed, it is one 
of the great objects of this research to obtain evidence on 
these points, but the following figures are approximate: — 
New South Wales 128, Rest of Australia 283, Total for 
Australia 411 (1910). Bentham (B. Fl. ii, 1864), gave the 
number for Australia as 293; Mueller in 1889 (Second 
Census) 313. 

In the Engler-Gilg "Syllabus der Pflanzen-familien" 
(1912) we have the estimate of the World's Acacias as 500, 
of which there are about 280 Phyllodineae in Australia and 
the Islands. 

About two-thirds of all known Acacias are Australian. 
Section i, (Phyllodinese) is the largest, and is confined to 
Australia with the exception of a few North Australian 
species, which extend to Papua and some of the Pacific 
Islands (Greater Australia, in fact). The Acacias of all 
Other sections have bipinnate leaves. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 465 

Section ii, Botryocephalese, and Section iii, Pulchellse,are 
all Australian, and are far less numerous than Section i. 

Section iv, Gummiferse and Section v, Vulgares, are all 
African, American, or Asiatic species, with the exception 
of the cosmopolitan species A. (Vachellia) Famesiana, 
which extends to Australia. 

The Gummiferse (Section iv) are especially common in 
North Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia, and Tropical Africa; 
they are the group that yield the Acacia gum of commerce, 
and the thorn-bushes characteristic of the African flora. 

Section v (Vulgares), forms the Section next most numer- 
ous to the Phyllodinese, and is distributed over Africa, 
Mexico, and Tropical America, India and Asia generally. 
This section is not so thorny as the Gummiferse, and if 
thorns are present, they are not of stipular origin. 

Section vi,Filicinse,is a small section confined to America. 

Extra-floral Nectaries (the so-called glands). 
In this paper I have, in some species, drawn especial 
attention to the gland which, in Acacia, may be both petiolar 
and phyllodineous. The term gland refers to a secreting 
body, and is somewhat loosely used. Bentham used it in 
reference to Acacia (and other plants) and says "The name 
of glands is given to several different productions, and 
principally to the four following": — which he proceeds to 
define (B. Fl. i, xxiii). At the outset I may say that the 
term gland, as applied to Acacias, sliould be disused as 
unscientific, and the word nectaries used instead. A more 
descriptive term is "Extra-floral nectaries," but this is too t 
long for frequent use, and hence it is probable that the 
term nectaries will be employed, leaving the context to 
explain whether the particular ones referred to are extra- 
floral or not. In my present paper I will continue to use 
the term gland for convenience. 

Dd— December 1, 1915. 



466 J. H. MAIDEN. 

My paper is in part a plea for more attention to be given 
to the gland for diagnostic (taxonomic) purposes. At the 
outset I am met with the following statement: — "The 
glands on the upper edge of the phyllodia and on the com- 
mon petiole in the compound leaf seldom afford even a 
specific distinction . . . and I have therefore in the 
description seldom mentioned them." (B. PL ii, 301). A 
statement from such a source demands respect, but I think 
I shall be able to show that some glands are remarkable 
and characteristic. I am aware that many glaDds are ill- 
developed, and afford no special characters for description. 

It is such as these that, when speaking of phyllodineous 
(in contradistinction to petiolar) glands, Mr. Reginald 
Kelly (op. cit. infra) states they are now "almost obliter- 
ated." One of the objects of my paper is to ask botanists 
to give further consideration to glands in Acacia, for it 
seems to me that they merit further notice. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy truly says 1 that the glands of the 
Acacias have received but little attention, and he makes a 
valuable contribution to the subject. His paper is illus- 
trated by one plate, in which the glands are not figured or 
described in detail, but only indicated as regards their 
number and position on the phyllode, which was, indeed, 
his object. A large number of species are referred to. At 
p. 30 there is a useful summary of the paper. 

This paper was followed up by Mr. Reginald Kelly, 2 who 
dealt with the function of these glands. He joins issue 
with those who call them glands, and reminds us of the use 
of the term " extra floral nectaries" by some authors. He 
quotes Solederer that petiolar glands in Acacia have 
secretory functions; he (Mr. Kelly) found them, rarely, to 
be tenanted by insects. 

1 " The distribution of leaf glands in some Victorian Acacias," (Vict. 
Nat. xxix, 26). 

2 "Observations on the function of Acacia leaf glands/' lb., xxx, 121. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 467 

He adds that there is no evidence that the insect is a 
symbiont by virtue of any protection it affords. He con- 
cludes that these organs perform excretory functions, and 
that they are not, in his opinion, strictly speaking, glands 
or nectaries. He suggests the name "vents" for them. 
44 In the phyllode they are mere relics— not yet altogether, 
but almost obliterated, and now functionless." 

There is a valuable paper, 1 with excellent illustrations, 
of nectaries on both petiole and leaf, the illustrations chosen 
being those of the Cherry leaf and its petiole. Commencing 
With references to floral nectaries, the author passes on to 
a brief sketch of the literature of extra-floral nectaries, 
touching on the work of Belt and Delpino. He points out 
that microscopical examination of these organs at various 
stages shows that their development takes quite different 
courses in different species, and there seems no single 
underlying principle governing their appearance. Their 
secretions also vary widely, or they may be absent. 

The idea that the presence of these nectaries is to divert 
the attention of ants from the richer nectaries in the flowers 
themselves (baits to insects engaged in the work of pollin- 
ation) appears to have little basis in fact as far as obser- 
vation goes. 

It is also pointed out that in some of the broad-beans 
(Vicia), it has been found that bees visit the extra-floral 
nectaries in preference to those in the flower. 

But, speaking generally, the conclusion of the anonymous 
author is that extra-floral nectaries must be looked upon 
as little better than accidents in the development of the 
plant ; they may of course have been more useful at some 
earlier stage in the plant's evolutionary history, but at 
present we can hardly avoid the conclusion, in many cases, 

1 " Extra-floral Nectaries," Journal of Heredity, August, 1915, p. 367. 



468 J. H. MAIDEN. 

that they have no vital function, and that the plant would 
probably get along just as well without them. They may 
of course have some diagnostic value nevertheless. 

I am putting my opinions to the touch by suggesting 
(see my remarks under A. Kettlewellice, below), that the 
"gland" be a character, in combination with others. When 
a field botanist makes up his mind that a certain plant differs 
from every other plant known to him, this difference may be 
made up of one or more outstanding characters, or it may 
consist of an aggregation of smaller characters. A minor 
character may be represented by the gland, and there is a 
degree of specialisation of form in this organ which should 
not be lightly brushed aside. 

Funicle and Arillus. 
Bentham (B. Fl. i, xxii) defines the funicle as the stalk 
by which the seed is attached to the placenta. It is 
occasionally enlarged into a membranous, pulpy, or fleshy 
appendage, sometimes spreading over a considerable part 
of the seed, or nearly enclosing it, called an aril. At B. PL 
ii, 302, he further defines it, and speaks of " the small fleshy 
aril, usually described as a strophiole." He describes some 
of the foldings of the funicle and adds that " All these and 
other modifications appear to be constant in each species, 
but only rarely available for specific diagnosis, for in many 
species the funicle is as yet unknown." 

Speaking from some experience, I endorse Bentham's 
remarks as to the importance of the funicle, and would 
point out that Australian botanists have opportunities for 
the examination of the fresh seed that were denied to him, 
and I would like to interest my colleagues in this part of 
the subject. It is best to collect the pods when the seeds 
are dead ripe, then the shape, colour and lustre of the seed 
can be best noted, the funicle best examined, and the 
colour and shape of the fresh aril observed. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 469 

Within certain limits I have observed a good deal of 
variation in the length and folds of the f unicle in the same 
species, but many more observations require to be made in 
this direction. 

It is stated that the long funicle, i.e., where it encircles 
the seed twice or thrice, is peculiar to Australian Acacias, 
but the precise number of species with long funicles has 
not been ascertained. 

The following list includes most of the species with 
encircling or nearly encircling funicles. It will be observed 
that they mainly belong to the series Uninerves and PlurL 
nerves, and mostly, though by no means inclusively, belong 
to regions of comparatively high rainfall : — 

Pungentes (Uninerves) — A. genistoides A. Cunn. and A. tetra- 
gonophylla F.v.M. 

Uninerves (Brevifolise) — A. Meissneri Lehm. 

Uninerves (Racemosse) — A. penninervis Sieb., A. falcata Willd., 
A. gladiiformis A. Cunn., A. Wattsiana F.v.M., A. 7iotabilis 
F.v.M., A. retinoides Schlecht., A. Mabellce, n. sp., A. rubida 
A. Cunn., A. Flqcktonice, n. sp., A. amoena Wendl., A. 
Chalkeri, n. sp., A. Harveyi Benth. 

Plurinerves (Nervosse) — A. cyclopis A. Cunn., A.homoclada F.v.M., 
A. melanoxylon R. Br. 

Plurinerves (between Dinridiatse and Nervosa) — A. or aria F.v.M. 

Plurinerves (Dimidiatse) — A. binervata DC. 

Juliflorse (Falcatse) — A. auriculiformis A. Cunn. 

Juliflorse ( Dimidiatse) — A. cincinnata F.v.M. 

I am much indebted to Miss Margaret Flockton, Artist, 
Botanic Gardens, for the valuable assistance she has 
rendered with her drawings (not reproduced) of all the 
species referred to. 



470 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



Proposed New Species. 

Pungentes (Uninerves). 

1. Acacia Oarnei n. sp. 

Frutex diffusus, ramis subteretibus, ramulis pubescentibus. 
Phyllodiis tetragonis pubescentibus, super et infra sulcatis minime 
profundis, angulis rotundatis. Phyllodiis rigidis vix curvatis, in 
apicem acrum rigidum acute attenuates, 4-5 cm. longis, 1-1*5 
mm. latis. Capitulis non numerosis, 45 - 50 noris. Calyce simile 
poculo formata villoso. Petalis ovato-spathulatis calycem duplo 
superantibus, paucis villis diffusis tectis. Pistillo villoso. Legumine 
non viso. Species A. quadrisculatce F.v.M., proxima videtur. 

A straggling shrub, with nearly terete branches, the 
branchlets covered with a fine tomentum. 

Phyllodes tetragonous, covered with a fine tomentum, 
sometimes of scattered hairs. The sides of the phyllodes 
with shallow grooves, with rounded ridges at the angles. 
The phyllodes rigid, hardly curved, terminating somewhat 
abruptly in a sharp, rigid point, reddish-brown at the tip. 
Length of phyllodes 4 — 5 cm., 1 - 1*5 mm. wide or thick. 

Flower-heads not numerous. Peduncles always (?) 
solitary, about *5 cm., bearing each a globular flower-head 
of 45 — 50 flowers. 

Flotvers 4 or 5 merous. 

Calyx cup-shaped, hairy. Petals ovate-spathulate r 
slightly incurved, twice the length of the calyx, clothed 
with a few scattered hairs; pistil hairy. 

Pod not seen. 

Habitat. Thackaringa, twenty-two miles from Broken 
Hill, towards the extreme western part of New South 
Wales. Joseph Edmund Oarne No. 16, October 1907. 

I have pleasure in associating this interesting species 
with the name of my old friend Mr. Oarne, Government 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 471 

Geologist, and that of his son Walter Mervyn Carne, one 
of my zealous botanical assistants, who is now in training 
for the defence of his country. 

Affinities, 
This wattle belongs to the series Pungentes, sub-series 
Uninerves. Of members of this sub-series I have contrasted 
it with A. quadri sulcata F.v.M., a Western Australian 
species to which (in absence of pods) it seems to be closest 
related. I have also compared it with A. striatula Benth., 
— Pungentes (Plurinerves), and also A. gonophylla Benth., 
— Oalamiformes, (Uninerves), with both of which it displays 
some obvious superficial resemblance. 

1. With A. quadri sulcata F.v.M. The phyllodes of this 
species are shorter, finer and more deeply grooved, the 
peduncles are longer and have only about half as many 
flowers in the head. The sepals are distinct, very small 
and narrow, linear-spathulate; petals united above the 
middle. It is obvious that A. quadrisulcata is markedly 
different from the new species. 

2. With A. striatula Benth. This is another species 
that invites comparison, but the phyllodes are shorter and 
not so tetragonous, and the sepals are free, very thin and 
linear-spathulate. 

3. With A. gonophylla Benth. This is another tetragon- 
ous species, but the phyllodes of A. gonophylla are less 
flattened, narrower, shorter, less rigid, and with a shorter 
more rigid point than the new species. The flower heads 
also are in pairs, and each head has only twelve to twenty 
flowers. The calyx lobes are narrow and the pistil smooth. 

Uninerves (Racemose?). 

2. Acacia Mabell^e, n. sp. 

Arbor umbrosa mediocriter alta, trunco usque ad 1' diametro, 
surculis junioribus et rhachibus inflorescentise brevibus pilis aureis 



472 J. H. MAIDEN. 

tectis. Phyllodiis longis angusto-lanceolatis apice obtuso, ad 30 
cui. longis et longioribus, circa 1 cm. latis. Nervis mediis mar- 
ginalibusque prominentibus, lateralibus obscurissimis. Glandula 
non conspicua basi 1 cm. remota. Inflorescentia racemosa, capi- 
tulis circa 9-13 floris. Calyce corollae aequilonga, calyce trun- 
cata vel fere truncata. Sepalorum apicibus pubescentibus, petalis 
glabris, pistillo laeve. Legumine longiusculo latiusculoque (circa 
13 x 1 cm.) subfalcato, seminibus longitudinaliter dispositis; 
seminis filiforme funiculo semen bis circumcingente, in clavatum 
arillum apice seminis terminante. Species A. retinodes Schlecht, 
proxima videtur. 

An umbrageous tree of moderate height (up to 30 feet), 
with a trunk diameter up to a foot. Branchlets angular. 
The young shoots and the rhachises of the inflorescence 
densely covered with short, golden-yellow hairs. The bark 
of young growing trees is usually glaucous. 

Seedling. The seedling will be described by Mr. R. H. 
Oambage in his papers on Acacia seedlings, but its differ- 
ences from that of A. penninervis and A. rubida may be 
briefly stated in the following words: the young phyllodes 
of A. Mabellce are longer and much narrower than those of 
the other two species, and the venation is quite distinct 
from either. 

Phyllodes. Long narrow-lanceolate and slightly falcate. 
Up to 20 cm. and even longer. Width for the greater por- 
tion of the length about 1 cm. Rather thin in texture, 
blunt-pointed. Mid- and marginal-veins prominent, the 
lateral veins very faint, though visible under a lens, spread- 
ing. A not very conspicuous gland about 1 cm. from the 
base, the margin of which is slightly kinked at the place 
of the gland, and from which a rudimentary oblique vein 
sometimes proceeds. No stipules observed. 

Inflorescence racemose, the flowers borne in profusion, 
of a pale yellow colour, and sweet-scented. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 



473 



Flowers about nine to thirteen in the head, pentamerous, 
calyx and corolla of about equal length, calyx truncate or 
nearly so, glabrous except for the tips of the sepals, which 
are tufted with hairs. Petals glabrous, slightly keeled, the 
tips a little thickened. Pistil smooth. 

Pod moderately long, and broad, (say 13 X 1 cm.), slightly 
curved. Margins of the valves thickened and somewhat 
grooved, the valves more or less wrinkled, the seeds 
arranged longitudinally, distending the valves without 
making the pods moniliform. 

Seed with filiform funicle twice encircling it, and termin- 
ating in a clavate arillus at the top of the seed. The 
length and contour (whether kinked or not) of the funicle 
is subject to variation, as in A. rubida. 

Synonym. A. penninervis Sieb., var. angustifolia Maiden 
in "Wattles and Wattle-barks," 3rd Edition, p. 49 (1906). 
It was described in the following words: — 

"A long narrow-phyllode form, found only on the South Coast, 
so far as I know. Phyllodes commonly six: inches long, and under 
half an inch wide, straight or slightly falcate. The pods are 
narrower than in the normal form. The young shoots and the 
rhachises of the inflorescence are sometimes densely covered with 
golden yellow hairs." 

For a photograph of the tree see Part 50 of my " Forest 
Flora of New South Wales." 

Habitat. Twelve to twenty feet high, Mogo about eight 
miles from Bateman's Bay township (W. Baeuerlen, Sep- 
tember, 1890). Bateman's Bay (J. H. M., November, 1892). 
Conjola (W. Heron, September 1898, and February 1899). 

"Black Wattle." Tree good for tan bark. Up to about 
thirty feet high. Milton (R. H. Oambage, No. 784, Decem- 
ber, 1902 ; No. 4113; November, 1914; No. 4151, August, 
1915). 



474 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Mr. Cambage informs me that in going south from Nowra, 
the Black Wattle is first met with by the roadside at about 
seventeen miles north of Milton. Around Milton this 
species avoids the most basic soils and grows on a sandy 
soil which is mixed with a better soil, but does not occur on 
the poor, highly siliceous Permo-Oarboniferous formation. 

I constitute the Milton specimens type of the new 

species, which is named in honor of my young friend Miss 

Mabel Fanny Oambage. The naming of a wattle after her 

is appropriate, because she is Honorary Treasurer of the 

New South Wales Branch of the Wattle Day League in 

connection with which she has done admirable service, and 

this particular wattle has associations for her in that many 

specimens occur on the South Coast property of her grand 

parents. 

Affinities. 

This wattle belongs to the series Uninerves and the long 
sub-series Racemosae. Because of the general similarity 
of the structure of the flowers, Acacia Mabellce has hitherto 
been assumed to be a form of A. penninervis; the seed and 
seedling show that it is not closely related to that species. 
From the point of view of the seed, with its encircling 
funicle, its affinity must be sought for near A. retinodes 
Schlecht., and A. rubida A. Oann. 

1. With A. retinodes Schlecht. The phyllodes of the 
new species are longer, the marginal veins more marked, 
and the lateral veins different. The lateral veins in A. 
retinodes (a Victorian and South Australian species) are 
more or less parallel to the mid-rib; in A, Mabellce they 
are attached to the midrib at an acute angle. 

The flowers of the new species are fewer in the head and 
are more squat than those of A. retinodes, which also have 
the tips of the petals recurved and the pedicels glabrous. 
The rhachises of the inflorescence are without the golden 
yellow pubescence to be seen in A. Mabellce. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 475 

The pods of A. retinodes are narrower, but the funicles 
are not dissimilar. 

The two species bear, however, such general and detailed 
resemblance to each other that it is obvious that they are 
closely related. At the same time I am satisfied that the 
species are sufficiently distinct from each other. 

2. With A. rubida A. Ounn. A. Mabellce resembles it in 
the seedlings and encircling funicle to the seed only. The 
phyllodes of A. rubida are much coarser, of a different 
colour, and they generally have a fine more or less hooked 
tip. They have not the pendulous appearance of A. Mabellce 
neither is the persistent bipinnate foliage of A. rubida so 
obvious. The stems and rhachis of A. rubida are waxy 
smooth except at the extreme tips which have a yellow 
pubescence. 

The flowers also of A. rubida are of a rich golden yellow, 
while in the new species they are of a pale whitish cream 
colour, and the rhachis matted with hair. 

3. With A. penninervis Sieb. The rhachis of the new 
species is densely clothed with a golden pubescence ; it is 
smooth in A, penninervis, though there is a tomentum of a 
similar character (though less copious), in the variety 
falciformis of A. penninervis. 

The venation of the phyllodes is indistinct, but similar 
to that of A. penninervis; there is no intramarginal vein, 
but the edges of the phyllodes are nerve-like and the mid- 
rib prominent on both sides. There is a gland as in A. 
penninervis. The phyllodes are much longer than those of 
A. penninervis. 

As regards the new species, the flowers are cream- 
coloured and sweet scented; those of A. penninervis have 
less odour. The petals are five or six in number, glabrous, 
broader than those of A, penninervis, and much more frail 
in texture. 



476 J. H. MAIDEN. 

The seeds of the new species have a double funicle com- 
pletely surrounding them; those of A, penninervis have a 
shorter funicle. Bentham (B. PI. ii, 362) says, " funicle 
long, dilated and coloured nearly from the base, extending 
round the seed and bent back on the same side, so as to 
encircle it in a double fold." 

I have not been able to confirm Bentham's observations 
in this respect. In the specimens belonging to the typical 
form that I have been able to examine, the funicle has 
hardly extended half round the seed. In var. falciformis 
I have observed funicles that I cannot distinguish from 
those of the normal form and, in addition, doubly folded 
funicles extending more than half way round the seed, but 
never doubly encircling funicles as in A. Mabellce. 

The seedlings of the two species may be briefly contrasted 
as follows: — the phyllodes of the former are shorter and 
very much broader and have a distinct venation. 

Uninerves (Racemosse). 
3. Acacia Flocktonl<e n. sp. 

Frutex gracilis 6-12' altus, habitu debile pendulo, ramulis 
teretibus glabris. Phyllodiis lineari-lanceolatis, 6-8 cm. longis, 
circa 3 mm. latis, in apicem acutum attenuatis, basin versus 
angustatis, nervo principale medio paullo remote-, glandula basin 
versus phyllodise. Floribus in racemis folia superantibus, rhache 
glabro, capitulis 25 - 30 floris, calyce turbinata paullo lobata* 
angulata, glabra praeter angulos et apicem. Petalis glabris, 
sepalis dimidio aequilongis, pistillo glabro. Legumine stipitato, 
valvarum marginibus paullo incrassatis, piano plerumque recto, 
6-11 cm. longo 6 mm. lato, valvis inter semina contractis sed non 
moniliformibus, seminibus longitudinaliter dispositis, funiculo 
semen bis vel saepius circumcingente. Species A. rubidce A. Cunn., 
proxima videtur. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 477 

The over-used name Acacia crassiuscula has long had a 
fascination for me; it has been applied by different botanists 
to at least four different plants, viz: — 

(a) By Wendland to a presumably Western Australian 
plant which is now usually attributed (and I think correctly) 
to A. pijcnophylla Benth. (B. Fl. iii, 368). The same plant 
was also called crassiuscula by Meissner. 

(b) By Sieber 1 to a New South Wales plant which I have 
since named A, obtusata Sieb. var. Hamiltoni. It is Sieber's 
No. 464. 

(c) By Allan Cunningham 2 to a New South Wales plant 
made by him a variety of his A. adunca. 

(d) In B. Fl. iii, 372 the A, crassiuscula Wendl., probably 
covers several species. It should be called A. crassiuscula 
Benth., and I am satisfied that Bentham's description 
applies more or less to more than one species. 

A. adunca A. Ounn., has already been referred to. 

It will be observed that Bentham refers A. crassiuscula 
to Queensland, New South Wales, and Tasmania. Let us 
examine some of the plants referred to by him under the 
various States. 

1. Queensland — Fitzalan's Moreton Bay specimen I 
have not seen. Bailey ("Queensland Flora") contents 
himself with repeating Bentham's statements in the "Flora 
Australiensis." Certainly there is no A, crassiuscula in 
Queensland and what Fitzalan's plant is should be enquired 
into. 

2. Neiv South Wales — Sieber's No. 464 I have already 
referred to. Robert Brown's Port Jackson to Blue Moun- 
tains specimen I have been trying to trace home for many 
years with the following result. 

1 See my "Forest Flora of New South Wales," Vol. v, pp. 114 and 153. 
3 lb., p. 114. 



478 J. H. MAIDEN. 

I received a piece of the original from the late Mr. J. G. 
Luehmann of the Melbourne Herbarium, in 1898, labelled, 
"Acacia crassiuscula Benth. non Wendl. (A. lunata Sieb. 
Mueller's addition). Banks of the Nepean River, Robert 
Brown (1802-4)." 

I carried a portion in my pocket book for years, but 
failed to match it in my wanderings. It is in flower only. 
On a special occasion (September 1906) Mr. R. H. Cambage 
and I accepted the hospitality of the Hawkesbury Agricul- 
tural College, got a rowing boat, searched the banks of the 
Nepean in the vicinity, and also of the Grose River (which 
we know Robert Brown ascended), but could not find the 
wattle. Later on (1909) Mr. Cambage collected the plant 
at Yerranderie, but it was only recently that I identified 
it with Brown's plant, and it proves to be new. Speci- 
mens of Bentham's further record of " barren brushy hills 
of the Blue Mountains " (Cunningham and Fraser) I have 
not seen, but I find I collected the wattle at Mount Vic- 
toria in December, 1896. I do not remember the precise 
part of Mount Victoria, but it will give a clue as to where 
Cunningham and Fraser found it. 

3. Tasmania — Fliuders' Island, Bass' Straits (J.D.Hooker). 

Bentham follows Hooker (Flora of Tasmania, p. 108) in 
this matter. Loc. cit., Hooker quotes Guun's 1957 for A. 
crassiuscula, and I have a specimen before me. It is 
Joseph Milligan's No. 581 and was collected 6th March, 
1845, and is labelled "Flinders' Island at Establishment." 
What this locality means, may be seen from my notes on 
Dr. Milligan's career in Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. for 1909, p. 
22. He superintended the removal of the aborigines from 
Flinders' Island to Oyster Cove in 1848. 

It is a poor specimen, and I have a better one, in bud 
only, without fruit, from Archer's Herbarium. The material 
may be described as follows, and it slightly supplements 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 479 

Hooker: — Gland of phyllode near base. Flowers twenty- 
three in the head, 5 or 6-merous. Calyx turbinate, hairy at 
the apex. Petals glabrous, free, thickened at the top. 
Pistil hairy. 

I hope that someone will re-colleet the plant from the 
vicinity of the site indicated in Flinders' Island. My 
material is not sufficient to say if it is a species hitherto 
recorded from Tasmania, but it is not A. crassiusculaWendl., 
which should be removed from the flora of Tasmania. The 
linear pods should be collected. 

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald makes a contribution 1 to the 
"crassiuscula" confusion. He says that to A. crassiuscula 
Wendl., " should be referred A. subbinervia Meissn., and 
Bentham's A. crassiuscula and pycnophylla." 

I have a portion of Preiss' No. 924 before me, which is in 
flower only, and is the type of A. subbinervia Meissn. I 
do not know what evidence there is to upset Bentham's 
conclusion (B. Fl. ii, 368) that A. subbinervia is a synonym 
of A. rostellifera Benth. 

As to A, crassiuscula Benth. being a synonym of A. 
crassiuscula Wendl. I have abundantly shown the contrary, 
nor was I the first to do so. 

I will now proceed to describe Robert Brown's "Port 
Jackson to Blue Mountains " specimen, or to be more pre- 
cise, the Yerranderie plant with which I have identified it. 

A slender shrub of six to twelve feet high, of weak, 
pendulous growth, with few branches, and these usually 
borne towards the ends of the stems. It has something of 
the habit of A. lint folia Willd. Branchlets rounded, angular 
towards the tips, glabrous. 

Phyllodes linear-lanceolate, gradually tapering from the 
middle towards the apex and the base, 6 — 8 cm. long and 

1 Journal W. A. Nat. Hist. Soc, No. 1, Vol. n, p. 49 (May, 1904). 



480 J. H. MAIDEN. 

about 3 mm. broad, the apex forming a sharp point, which 
is rarely hooked. Texture thin, the principal vein usually 
not situated along the middle of the phyllode, but a little 
from the median line: lateral veins few and inconspicuous. 
No stipules observed. Very small gland near the base of 
the phyllode. 

Flowers bright yellow, often borne at the ends of the 
branchlets, in racemes, exceeding the leaves. Rhachis 
glabrous. The individual flowers are very frail and trans- 
parent in texture. They are 25 — 30 in the head. 

Calyx turbinate, slightly lobed, angled, the sutures of the 
sepals well marked, glabrous except on the angles and at 
the top, sepals about two-thirds the length of the petals. 

Corolla. The petals are glabrous, half the length of the 
sepals. 

Pistil glabrous. 

Pod stipitate, margin of the valves slightly thickened, 
flat, usually straight, sometimes curved, 6 — 11 cm. long, 
and 6 mm. broad. Valves constricted between the seeds, 
but not moniliform. 

Seeds arranged longitudinally in the pod. The funicle 
encircling the seed twice or more, and terminating in a 
white slightly swollen club-shaped aril towards the top of 
the seed. 

Habitat. I have specimens from— 

1. Banks of the Nepean River, N.S.W., (Robert Brown, 

1802-4). In flower. 

2. Mount Victoria (J. H. M., December, 1896). In flower. 

3. Six to eight feet high, Byrnes' Gap, Yerranderie on 

Permo-Oarboniferous formation, (R. H. Oambage, No. 
2188, 7th June 1909). In flower. 

4. Same locality and collector, No. 2189. A narrow leaved 

form of No. 2188. 



NOTES ON ACACTA. 481 

5. Same locality and collector, No. 3126 (2nd December, 

1911). In fruit. 

6. Six to twelve feet, Yerranderie, (J. L. Boorman, July, 

1915). In flower. 

So that the range at present ascertained can be stated 
as Mount Victoria, thence due south for about forty miles 
as the crow flies to Yerranderie. The Nepean River locality 
cannot be traced. 

I constitute the Yerranderie specimens the type. Named 
in honour of Miss Margaret Plockton, the talented artist 
of my "Forest Flora of New South Wales," "Critical 
Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus" etc., who adds to her 
artistic skill the capacity of working out botanical points 
in a most intelligent manner. 

Synonyms — A. crassiuscula Benth., non Wendl., (in part). 
A. lunata Sieb., var. crassiuscula Maiden and Betche, in 
Maiden's "Wattles and Wattle Barks," 3rd Edition, p. 82 
(excluding the Tasmanian reference), 

Affinities. 

1. With A. rubida A. Ounn. In such an important 
character as the double-encircling funicle of the seed, A. 
Flocktonice seems to be closest allied to what I may term 
the "Acacia rubida group " (I will define what species I 
propose to place in this group in a later paper). From A. 
rubida, perhaps its nearest ally, it is separated by the 
larger, gland-indented phyllodes of A. rubida, the more 
hairy flowers, of somewhat different shape. 

2. With A. adunca A. Ounn. This is a species, figured 
at plate 173 of my "Forest Flora of New South Wales." It 
is one of the species brought into the "Crassiuscula" con- 
fusion as already explained. It aud A. Flocktonice are 
sharply separated in phyllodes and seeds (which have non- 
encircling funicles in A. adunca) and, to a less extent, in 
flowers. 

Ee— December 1, 1915. 



482 J. H. MAIDEN. 

3. With A. lunata Sieb. I mention this because Mueller 
first suggested the affinity, and the late Mr. Betche and I 
followed him. He and we had only the flowers (and the 
affinity of these is not very close), but discovery of the 
seeds shows that the two species are sharply separated, A. 
lunata having a short non-encircling funicle terminating in 
a fleshy aril on the top of the seed. 

Uninerves (Racemosae). 
4. Acacia Ohalkeri n. sp. 

Frutex dumosus circa 6', ramulis angulatis. Phyllodiis oblan- 
ceolatis, apice breve mucronata, ad 4*5 cm. longis et 9 mm. latis. 
Inflorescentia racemosa phyllodios non superante, capitulis non 
numerosis circa 18-floris. Calyce paullo corolla longiore, corollae 
apice brevibus pilis fimbriata, petalis glabris, pistillo laeve. Legu- 
mine fere piano rec toque circa 7 cm. longo 7 mm. lato, seminibus 
longitudinaliter dispositis. Funiculo semen bis circumcingente, 
in arillo clavato terminante. 

Species A. retinodes Schlecht., et A. rubidce A. Cunn., amDis 
videtur. 

A small bushy shrub of about six feet, with angular 
branchlets. 

Phijllode. Oblanceolate, the apex with a short mucrone, 
which is sometimes turned a little on one side. Up to 4*5 
cm. long and to about 9 mm. in its widest part. Tapers 
gradually into the point of attachment to the branchlet. 
Margin slightly thickened, midrib distinct, lateral veins 
attached to the midrib and almost feather-veined. A gland 
a little way up the phyllode, but the phyllode is not con- 
stricted or bent at the place of the gland. 

Inflorescence racemose, not exceeding the phyllodes. 
No stipules observed. 

Flowers about eighteen in the head, heads of flowers not 
numerous. Calyx a little longer than the corolla, fringed 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 



483 



with short hairs at the top. Petals glabrous. Pistil pale 
green when fresh and very smooth. 

Pod. Nearly flat and straight, slightly constricted 
between the seeds, which are disposed longitudinally. About 
7 cm. long and 7 mm. broad. 

Funicle thread-like ; at the end of the first kink it is 
sharply bent and twice encircles the seed, finally termin- 
ating in a club-shaped arillus. 

Habitat. Wombeyan Oaves, N. S. Wales, on the lime- 
stone, (R. H. Oambage, B. C. Andrews and J. H. Maiden, 
October, 1905). The only known locality at present. 

Named in honour of Mr. Thomas Michael Ohalker, Oare- 
taker of Wombeyan Oaves. 

Affinities. 

It belongs to the series with the funicle twice encircling 
the seed, and hence it is related to A. retinodes Schlecht., 
and A. rubida A. Ounn. 

1. With A. retinodes Schlecht. The phyllodes are very 
different, being linear lanceolate and much longer; the 
funicles are not dissimilar; the flowers are somewhat 
similar, but usually hexamerous in A. retinodes, while some- 
times pentamerous. 

2. With A. rubida A.Ounn. It has resemblances in regard 
to the funicle and arillus. It also agrees in the truncate 
calyx and smooth pistil, but the foliage of the two species 
is very different. 

3. With A. amcena Wendl. A. amcena differs in the 
flower, the calyx-lobes separating to the base in the pistil 
which is hairy, and in the seed with encircling funicle more 
than twice round, but this is a somewhat variable character. 

The phyllode of A. amcena has two or three very prominent 
glands and is of a very different shape to that of the new 
species. 



484 J. H. MAIDEN. 

4. With A. prominens A. Cunn. A much larger plant, 
with the gland much larger and placed higher up the 
phyllode and the funicle very different. 

5. With A. obtusata Sieb. The two species differ in the 
funicle and also in the pod, both being very different. The 
flower is somewhat similar, so also is the phyllode. 

Uninerves (Racemosae). 

5. Acacia Kettle wellijE, n. sp. 

Arbor parva ad 20' alta, foliis argenteis ramulis angulatis. 
Phyllodiis oblanceolatis paullo falcatis 6 — 8 cm. longis, 6-8 mm. 
maxima longitudine, gland ula pulchra conspicua "Weaver-bird" 
nido simile. Nervo medio prominente, nervis lateralibus paten tibus. 
Floribus in racemis densis phyllodios vix superantibus, capitulis 
globosis circa 10-floris. Floribus 5-meris, rhache glabra. Calyce 
late conoidea, subangulata, brevibus pilis sparsis. Calycis lobis 
petalis aequilongis. Petalis glabris liberis paullo incurvatis, 
pistillo laevo nitente. Legumine piano glauco, seminibus longi- 
tudinaliter vel oblique raro transverse dispositis. Semine funiculo 
breve filiforme in arillum albidum pulvino similem seminis apice 
terminante. Species A. prominenti Willd. proxima videtur. 

A tall shrub or small tree up to twenty feet high, with 
silvery foliage and angular branchlets. 

Phyllodes oblanceolate, slightly falcate, the marginal 
vein on the ventral side bent in, where there is a remark- 
able gland about two-thirds of the way to the insertion of 
the phyllode. Midrib prominent with lateral veins spread- 
ing. From 6 — 8 cm. long and 6 — 8 mm. in greatest width. 
No stipules observed. 

The large gland on the margin is reminiscent of a weaver 
bird nest, and is the first I have noticed of this precise 
shape. It is a beautifully constructed gland, with the 
mouth opening downwards. At page 466 I have suggested 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 485 

that examination of the glands in Acacia should be given 
more attention in future. 

Floivers in dense racemes, scarcely exceeding the 
phyllodes; in globular heads, flowers five-merous, about 
ten in the head. Rhachis glabrous. 

Calyx broadly conoid; slightly lobed, the length of the 
calyx-lobes about equal to that of the petals. Somewhat 
angular, besprinkled with a few scattered hairs. 

Petals glabrous, free, slightly incurved. 

Pistil smooth and shiny. 

Pod flat, glaucous, more or less netted, veined, when ripe 
the edges of the valves with a narrow raised rim, the seeds 
disposed longitudinally or obliquely and occasionally trans- 
versely. 1 

Seed with a rather short filiform f unicle terminating in a 
cushion-shaped white arillus at the top of the seed. 

The type is from St. Bernard's Hospice to Harrietville» 
Victoria, (R. H. Cambage's No. 3714, 18th January, 1913). 
It is in fruit only and the flowers have been described from 
Buffalo Mountain, Victoria (Charles Walter, October 1902). 
I have it also in fruit from Buckland River, Buffalo Moun- 
tains (O. Walter, January 1899); I should have made this 
the type, but the specimen is so sparse that I cannot divide 
it. Also in fruit from Mrs. T. McCann, Snowy Creek, New 
South Wales, via Tallangatta, Victoria. 

I have it in the youngest stage of bud, or in phyllodes 
only, from Thredbo River, Jindabyne, New South Wales (W. 
Baeuerlen, February 1890); Mount Kosciusko, N. S. Wales 
up to 5,500 feet (J. H. M., January 1898); Jindabyne (J. H. 
M. and W. Forsyth, January 1899); Mount St. Bernard, the 
type locality (J. H. M., January 1900); Back Creek, Tum- 
barumba (R. H. Cambage, No. 861, March 1903). 

1 I emphasise this as showing that the position of the seed in the pod 
in Acacia varies like every other character. 



486 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



I dedicate this species in honour of Mrs. Agnes Kettle- 
well who, with Mrs. Clunies-Ross and myself founded the 
Wattle Day League, who was the first Honorary Secretary 
of the Sydney Branch and who still remains in office. 

Affinities. 

1. With A. prominens A. Ounn. This new species comes 
very near to A. prominens, but has a longer and narrower 
phyllode with a quite different gland, which has the orifice 
at the top, and descending, instead of in the middle of the 
gland as in A. prominens. In the new species there is 
generally a narrowing of the phyllode where the gland 
occurs, until the gland touches the midrib. 

The flowers in both species are nearly glabrous, with 
scattered hairs on the calyx, but in the new species the 
calyx is more angular and the petals more or less constricted 
where they meet the top of the calyx. The seeds are alike 
in both species. 

2. With A. Clunies-Rossice Maiden. The two species 
are separated by the tomentum of the phyllocles in A. 
Clunies-Rossice, and the very different shapes of the glands. 
The structure of the flower is very different in the two 
species, the shape of the calyx and the relative proportions 
of its parts to the corolla, being marked and fundamental. 

I am much obliged to my assistant, Mr. E. Oheel, for 
useful criticism in regard to this species. 

Uninerves (Racemosse). 

6. Acacia Glumes-Rossis n. sp. 

Frutex 15' vel altior. Phyllodiis fere oblanceolatis, subfalcatis, 
plerumque apice fere curvata, apicibus juvenibus exalbidis bre- 
vibus pilis argenteis. Phyllodiis 4-5 cm. longis, 5 mm. - 1 cm. 
latis, nervo nedio distincto paucis nervis lateralibus obscuris. 
Glandula unica reniforme phyllodiae basin versus. Capitulis in 
racemis phyllodios non superantibus, circa 9-floris, rhache pilosa. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 487 

Calyce obtuse spathulata, sepalis circa dimidio petalis aequilongis 
liberis vel fere liberis, parte superiore pilosa. Petalis cymbae 
similibus formatis, glabris paullo carinatis, pistillo omnino glabre." 
Leguminibus planis rectis vel sub-falcatis, circa 7 cm. longis 7 mm. 
latis, maturis non visis, giaucis, valvarum marginibus incrassatis. 
Seminibus leguminis medio longitudinaliter dispositis. Funiculo 
duabus plicis in arillum carnosum clavatum lateralem terminante 
seminis apicem partim circumcingente. 

Species A. prominenti Willd. proxima videtur. 

A tall dense, pale foliaged shrub of fifteen feet high or 
more with rounded hoary branchlets, angular towards the 
tips. 

Phyllodla slightly oblanceolate, slightly falcate, usually 
with a slightly hooked point, the young tips nearly whitish, 
through the presence of an abundance of short silvery hairs, 
the rest of the phyllode uniformly but more sparsely covered 
with similar hairs, which are almost absent in very old 
phyllodes. Length 4-5 cm., width about 5 mm., up to 
fully 1 cm. in young phyllodes. 

A distinct midrib, a few lateral spreading veins scarcely 
visible except with the aid of a lens. No stipules observed. 

One almost reniform gland near the base of the phyllode, 
perhaps a quarter of the way up, the margin of the phyllode 
scarcely bent or recessed at the gland-place. 

Flowers in racemes, not exceeding the phyllodes. Buds 
nearly spherical, about nine in the head; rhachis hairy. 

Calyx bluntly spathulate, the sepals about half as long as 
the petals ; free to the base, or nearly so, besprinkled with 
hairs on the upper part. 

Corolla petals boat-shaped, glabrous, with a slight keel. 

Pistil quite glabrous. 

Pods not seen quite mature, flat, straight or oftener 
slightly curved, about 7 cm. long by 7 mm. broad, glaucous, 
rims of the valves thickened. 



488 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Seeds longitudinally arranged in the centre of the pod. 
Funicle almost thread-like to the first kink, then a short 
slightly broader expansion to another kink, then a fleshy, 
clavate, lateral aril partly encircling the top of the seed. 

Habitat. Near the Kowmung River, close to Yerranderie, 
N. S. Wales. The locality is in the southern highlands, 
about thirty miles in a direct line westerly of Camden. It 
is the only locality known at present. All collected by 
R. H. Oambage, and the numbers and comments (in inverted 
commas) are his. 

1. "Like A. prominens. Devonian quartzite 2,000 feet. 
Kowmung (River), Yerranderie, N.S.W., 7th June, 1909, 
(No. 2743. I fully believe this to be the same as No. 2296)." 
Phyllodes only. 

2. "Kowmung River, Yerranderie, 6th October 1909, 
(No. 2296)." In flower. 

3. "Towards Kowmung, 2nd December, 1911, (No. 3129; 
same as 2296). Foliage of young tree, eight feet." Young 
phyllodes only. 

4. "Fifteen feet high. Towards Kowmung, 2nd December 
1911, (No. 3128; same as 2296)." Phyllodes and nearly 
mature pods. 

5. "Foliage of young trees, six to eight feet. Towards 
Kowmung, 2nd December 1911, (No. 3127)." Phyllodes only. 

I dedicate this species in honour of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Clunies-Ross who, with Mrs. Kettlewell and myself, founded 
the Australian Wattle Day League in the year 1909, and 
who was, for some years, Honorary Treasurer of the Sydney 
Branch. It also commemorates her late husband, an 
esteemed member of this Society for many years and a 
Vice-President of the League. 

Affinity. 
With A. prominens A. Ounn. This seems its closest 
affinity. The phyllodes of A. prominens are broader and 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 489 

free from hairs, the gland of that species is different in 
shape, and projects beyond the margin of the phyllode. The 
sepals of A. prominens are united for the greater part of 
their length and the tips of the petals are markedly thick- 
ened. The pods of A. prominens are broader and the seeds 
are arranged transversely in the pod, but the funicle and 
arillus are not dissimilar in the two species. 

Uninerves (Racemosse). 

7. Acacia Boormani n. sp. 

Frutex debilis erectus, nitore argenteo distinguente. Ramulis 
subangulatis glabris. Phyllodiis atigusto-linearibus, circa 3 cm. x 
2 mm., uno nervo haud prominente, apice saepe falcata curvataque. 
Racemis phyllodias vix superantibus vel brevioribus, capitulis 
breve pedunculatis circa 7 floris. Floribus 5-meris. Calyce 
patente, angulata fere hemisphserica, prope truncata, sepalorum 
apicibus paullo pilosis. Corolla calyce bis aequilonga, petalis 
latiusculis, glabris, basi disjungentibus, saepe imbricatis. Stam- 
inibus filamentis brevibus. Pistillo glabre, fructu non viso. 
Species A. linifolice Willd. proxima videtur. 

A weak upright-growing shrub somewhat denuded of 
leaves at its base, but becoming very leafy towards the 
head. Branchlets subangular and glabrous. It grows to 
about nine to ten feet high in some localities, but is usually 
three to five feet high. Stems smooth, not seen above an 
inch in diameter. It forms numerous sucker growths. It 
is exceedingly floriferous, but, like some other species that 
propagate themselves vegetatively, is shy to set its fruit, 
and I have not yet obtained fruits although they have been 
diligently sought for. The whole plant has a distinctive 
silvery lustre which affords a ready means of distinguishing 
the plant from all other species in the district. 

Phyllode. Narrow-linear, not long (about 3 cm.x2 mm.) 
with one not very prominent nerve; often with a bent, 
sometimes hooked point. The lower portion of the phyllode 



490 J. H. MAIDEN. 

» 

slightly tapering to the point of attachment. A not very 
conspicuous gland rather low down on the phyllode. Minute 
lanceolate stipules observed in the phyllodes when the 
flower-buds are very young. 

Flowers. Racemes scarcely exceeding the phyllodia or 
shorter. Inflorescence golden yellow. Budsnearlyspherical. 
Heads of flowers shortly stalked. About seven flowers in 
the head, 5 or 6-merous. 

The calyx spreading, angled, nearly hemispherical, almost 
truncate (i.e., the lobes of the calyx very blunt), the tips 
of the sepals slightly hairy. 

The corolla twice as long as the calyx, the petals broadish, 
glabrous, separating to the base, where they are strongly 
united; often imbricate, which is very unusual. 

The stamens with short filaments. 

The bracts at the base of the flower of a bright red- 
brown when quite fresh. 

Pistil glabrous. 

Fruit not seen. 

Habitat. Shrub about four feet high, in early bud. Slate 
formation, Oowra Creek, near Cooma, (Macanally Range) 
N.S.W. (R. H. Oambage, No. 1878, 10th February, 1908). 

In bud a little more advanced. The glaucous character 
of the buds is very evident. Banks of the Snowy River at 
Tom bong, near Bombala (W. Forsyth, May 1908). In flower 
(R. Bornstein per R. H. Oambage, No. 1878a, September, 
1908. Identical with 1878 above). In flower. Fairly 
plentiful on the sides of Mount (Macanally) and en route 
to the Macanally Mines (J. L. Boorman, 25th September, 
1913). Mr. Boorman also collected it in December, 1914, 
when it was past flowering, but no pods could be obtained. 
With the exception of the Tombong specimens, all the 
specimens came from the same district, which may be 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 491 

referred to as the Macanally Range, fifteen to twenty 
miles from Oooma. The Tombong locality is fifty miles to 
the south. Between Tombong and the Macanally Range 
is the course of the Snowy River, and the species will 
doubtless be found along its course. 

I have chosen the specimens J. L. Boorman, 25th Sep- 
tember, 1913, as the type, because I have adequate material 
of it, and name the species in honour of John Luke Boor- 
man, Collector on the staff of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

Affinities. 

Its affinities must be uncertain until such time as the 
pods are available, but I have waited over seven years for 
them, and feel, after due consideration, that the species is 
undescribed. 

1. With A. linifolia Willd. A. linifolia has the phyllodes 
more sparse, the flowers fewer in the head, and the pedun- 
cles and pedicels longer. The corolla is proportionately 
longer than the calyx. The inflorescence of A. linifolia is 
cream-coloured, not yellow; the plant is more wand-like. 
Variations in the phyllodes appear to be owing to environ- 
ment; I do not notice any fundamental differences in these 
organs. 

A. Boormani is a plant of cold regions (Monaro); A. 
linifolia comes from warmer localities, the Hunter to the 
Picton districts. Nevertheless, in the present state of our 
knowledge, it would appear that A. Boormani comes closest 
to A. linifolia. 

2. With A. decora Reichb. A good deal of the northern 
New South Wales material of this species has very narrow 
phyllodes, (Cf. figs. L and M of plate 169 of my "Forest 
Flora of New South Wales,") but the shape of the phyllodes 
and the structure of the flower are different. 



492 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



Juliflorse (Stenophyllse). 

8. Acacia Ourrani n. sp. 

Frutex videtur, ramulis longis tenuibus subteretibus, pilis 
sericeis mollibus tectis. Phyllodiis 12-17 cm. longis linearibus 
obtuso-acutis, planis striatis pallido sericeo tomento pilorum dis- 
persorum. Floribus pentameris, calyce fere ad basem lobata infra 
vix constricta, parte superiore pilosa, inferiore sparse pilosa. 
Pistillo parte superiore pilosa, inferiore sparse pilosa. Leguminibus 
rectis 4-6 cm. longis 3 — 4 mm. latis, pilis albis dense tectis, 
pedunculis pedicellisque pariter pilosis. Seminibus longitudinaliter 
dispositis, funiculo circa semen bis plicato, plica una breve altera 
longa. Species A. Burkittii F.v.M. proxima videtur. 

Apparently a shrub with long wisp-like roundish branch- 
lets, slightly compressed towards the tips. Silky-downy 
all through, except on the old wood. 

Phyllodes long (12 to 17 cm.), linear, blunt pointed, flat- 
tish, striate, with a pale silky tomentum of scattered hairs. 
Rhachis densely matted in hair. Stipules not observed. 

I have not seen a complete spike of flowers, although 
Mueller, ("Iconography of Australian Acacias," under A. 
cyperophylla, left hand figure), figures spikes which are 
shortly stalked, are barely 1 cm. long, and which may be 
intended for A. Currant. 

All the specimens that I have seen are a mat of over-ripe 
flowers, but Mueller, by placing it on the A. cyperophylla 
plate assumes that it is spicate ; (spikes short and about 
three times as long as broad; he figures it pedunculate in 
the enlarged details). 

Flowers pentamerous; the various parts of the flower 
are glabrous or nearly so at the bases, and get increasingly 
hairy towards the tops. 

Calyx lobed nearly to the base, hardly constricted below, 
hairy on the upper half, very sparsely on the lower half. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 493 

Petals united two-thirds of the way up, hairy on the 
upper half, very sparsely on the lower half. 

Pistil hairy on the upper half, sparsely hairy on the lower 
half. 

Bracts large, coarse, some of them bent, and all covered 
in hair. 

Pods stipitate, straight, 4-6 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; 
covered with a mat of white hairs, the stem also, but not 
matted. The peduncles and pedicels are also hairy. 

Seeds longitudinally arranged in the pod; the funicle 
folded twice round the seed, in a long and a short fold. 

Habitat. Oobar, N.S. Wales (Rev. J. Milne Ourran, P.G.S.). 
So far as I know, only two specimens are in existence and 
they are in the Melbourne Herbarium. 

1. Is labelled (A. cyperophylla by Mueller), and "Oobar 
N.S.W., Rev. Milne Ourran, 1887." It is in pod and has 
over-mature flowers. 

2. It is further labelled "Acacia No. 308. Bark peels 
off portion enclosed (not available, J.H.M.) with remains 
of withered flowers." 

The label of specimen No. 2 is in Father Ourran 's hand- 
writing, which I know well. Nos. 1 and 2 are identical in 
origin, though whether sent at the same time I do not know. 
I wrote to Father Ourran for further particulars of the 
plant, and for additional material but, owing to his absence 
from Sydney, I have had no reply. 

I then wrote to the Ven. Archdeacon Haviland, now of 
Oobar, formerly of Bourke, and an authority on the plants 
of both places. He replied, " I am at a loss to know where 
he (Father Ourran) could have got it; I am pretty well 
certain it was not in either Bourke or Oobar districts." 

This introduces an element of doubt into the locality, but 
it was not stated how near the township at Oobar the 



494 J. H. MAIDEN. 

specimen was obtained, and as special attention has only 

been drawn to this plant by me, and it could easily have 

been passed over in the bush for other plants, particularly 

when not in flower, all that remains is to be on the look 

out for it. 

Affinities. 

The affinity of this new species appears to be closest to 

A. Burkittii, but the final word in classification cannot be 

said until fresh spikes of flowers are available. At present, 

judging from the pods, it would appear that the spikes 

are arranged in a racemose manner, and that they are 

pedunculate. 

1. With A. Burkittii F.v.M. It is sharply separated 
from A. Burkittii, which is glabrous. The phyllodes of A. 
Burkittii are more rigid and more terete. The heads of 
flowers in A. Burkittii are in pairs. The seeds are different. 

2. With A. cyperophylla F.v.M. Let us examine the 
plate of A. cyperophylla F.v.M. in Mueller's "Iconography 
of Australian Acacias, etc." The plate consists of three 
twigs, and it is a remarkable statement for me to make 
that each twig is probably a different species. 

(a) The central twig is typical A. cyperophylla F.v.M., 
and I will explain matters in Part 60 of my "Forest Flora 
of New South Wales." 

(b) The right hand twig is Acacia Currani Maiden, and 
most (probably all) of the analytical drawings belong to 
that species. 

(c) The left hand twig is probably A. Burkittii F.v.M. 
(the "portions of phyllodia" alongside belong to A. Currani). 
One cannot speak with certainty because the drawing does 
not enable one to do so. 

Notes on Various Species. 
a. Acacia crassiuscula Wendl. 
(See under A. Flocktonice supra, p. 477.) 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 495 

b. Acacia leptopetala Benth. (Syn. A.Murrayana F.v.M.) 

I concur in Bentham's observation that A. Murrayana 
differs "from A. leptopetala in little besides the long narrow 
phyllodia." 

This dry country wattle has now been found in a number 
of New South Wales localities. Mr. W. A. W. de Beuzeville, 
in recently sending it from Wambaduli, Pilliga, remarks 
44 the bark is rather peculiar, being of a mealy white appear- 
ance; the only other Acacia that I have seen with a bark 
at all similar is A. spectabilis, I may remark that the 
Western Australian plants of A. leptopetala are similarly 
glaucous. 

c. Acacia linearis Sims. 

Hooker, in recording it 1 from Tasmania, says 44 This 
appears to be a very rare Tasmanian plant, and has never 
been found in fruit. Mr. Gunn, who alone has gathered it, 
says that he has seen a very few bushes of it, which have 
since been burnt down ; and as the place where they grew 
has been fenced in, and turned to a pasturage, it is probable 
that it will become extinct there." 

I have a specimen of Gunn's No. 677, which is the plant 
referred to by Hooker; it is labelled 44 C.Hd" (Circular 
Head) and was collected in the year 1837. I have care- 
fully examined this specimen and do not see in what detail 
it differs from A. suaveolens Willd., and recommend that 
Hooker's record of A. linearis for Tasmania be withdrawn. 

Mr. L. Rodway records 2 A. linearis from George's Bay, 
Tasmania, and also makes the interesting suggestion that 
it constitutes a variety (linearis), of A. mucronata Willd. 
I have dealt with A. mucronata in Part 57 of my 44 Forest 
Flora of New South Wales" now in the press. 

i "Flora of Tasmania/' i, p. 109. 3 "The Tasmanian Flora/' p. 42. 



496 J. H. MAIDEN. 

What I have seen from Tasmania attributed to A. linearis 
has phyllodes 3-4 cm. long, instead of the phyllodes of 
8-13 cm. of the typical form. Typical A. linearis has 
scarcely visible lateral veins, while in the Tasmanian plants 
attributed to A. linearis the lateral veins are almost 
reticulate and the texture apparently thicker. I concur 
in Mr. Rodway's opinion to merge such a form as this in 
A. mucronata Willd., and suggest that A. linearis Sims be 
not adopted as a Tasmanian plant without further evidence. 

d. Acacia pycnantha Benth. 

Bentham records this species only from South Australia 
and Victoria. The New South Wales specimens I have 
seen have not been entirely satisfactory, and, being an 
important species for tan-bark, it has been tested from end 
to end of New South Wales, and it is growing in innumer- 
able places where it is not spontaneous. It is therefore 
desirable to give authentic records for New South Wales. 

Tree of twelve feet, on slopes at head of Outtagee Lake 
and Creek, near Bermagui, South Coast. 

In flower August, and fruit December 1915 (W. Dunn). 

I asked Mr. Dunn, who is a shrewd observer, if there 
was any possibility of the plant having been artificially 
sown and he replies emphatically in the negative. 

e. Acacia lineata A. Cunn. 

This was originally described in G. Don's "Gen. Hist, of 
Dichlamydeous Plants," n, 403, 1832. The locality for the 
type was not stated in that work (it can of course be 
laboriously traced in Allan Cunningham's Mss.), but Ben- 
tham quoted "Liverpool Plains, Wellington Valley etc." 

It is somewhat variable and occurs from the Mallee 
country of Victoria through the mid-west of New South 
Wales to southern Queensland. It is not noted from 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 497 

Queensland by Bentham, but Bailey records it from 
Eumundi, and I add Inglewood to it. 

The South Australian localities of Bentham are those of 
A. imbricata P.v.M., a form which, if conspecific with A. 
lineata, which is open to doubt, is furthest remote from 
that species of all the forms. See below, p. 499. 

With the help of Miss Flockton and Mr. W. F. Blakely 
(my assistants) I have examined a good deal of material of 
A. lineata, and the following notes will show the amount 
of variation observed in the species. 

I have divided the material into groups of specimens (pro- 
visional groups for the purpose of this paper, and more or 
less empirical). These groups run into each other a good 
deal, but there is a sequence in them, beginning at Group 1 
until we come to Group 5, which contains the forms nearest 
to A. imbricata F.v.M. 

Pictorial illustration is necessary to describe them fully, 
but I trust that the following notes will be helpful. 

Group 1, Phyllodes hairy, nearly all with a gland at base 
on the inner side about a quarter way up. Mid-nerve nearly 
central, and the tip straight or nearly so, not hooked. 
Peduncle sparingly hairy. 

Flowers in heads on peduncles (hairy) shorter than the 
phyllodes. Calyx irregularly lobed, hairy. Petals free, 
glabrous. Pistil hoary or smooth. 

Parkes (J. L. Boorman). 

Group 2. Phyllode hairy and hooked at tip. Mid-vein 
nearer to the lower edge, gland towards base. 

Flowers on glabrous peduncles, exceeding the phyllodes. 

Peak Hill (J. L. Boorman), Tomingley to Narromine 
(J.H.M.) With these may be associated : — Not exceeding 
the phyllodes, phyllodes hairy, gland; four feet high, spread- 
ing habit. Bygo Run via Wagga Wagga (J. R. Taylor). 

Ff— December 1. 1915. 



498 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



Group 3. Phyllodes 1-nerved, covered in long weak hairs, 
"an oblique callous mucroneat the apex," stipules minute, 
very deciduous. 

Flower heads on glabrous peduncles not so long as the 
phyllodes, large sheath-like bracts at the base of the 
peduncle. Calyx narrow, irregular, free nearly to the base, 
hairy. Petals free, glabrous, flve-merous. Pistil hoary or 
rather papillose. 

Liverpool Plains (?Allan Cunningham); Near Dubbo (E, 
Betche); Gulgong (F. E. Haviland). 

Group 4. Phyllodes clammy, one-nerved, a few scattered 
hairs, minute deciduous stipules; "oblique-callous mucrone 
at the apex," gland near base. 

Flowers in heads, on glabrous peduncles exceeding the 
phyllodes, and with a large sheath-like bract at the base. 
Flowers small and frail. Calyx irregularly lobed, fringed 
with hair. Petals five-merous, glabrous. Pistil hoary. 

Bogan Gate and Wyalong (J. L. Boorman), Wyalong and 
Temora (Rev. J. W. Dwyer). , There are two different look- 
ing forms from Temora, one compact in habit and more 
pubescent than usual (? A. dasyphylla A. Cunn.) the other 
of a more open habit, the phyllodes further apart. 

I may remark that Group 3 is closely related to Group 4, 
but the phyllodes of Group 3 are thinner in texture, and 
have a marked nerve. In Group 4 the phyllodes are thicker, 
with thick margins, and the nerve although present is not 
distinct, but is lost in the thickness of the margin. 

I am of opinion that both No. 3 and No. 4 are very near 
the type of A. lineata. It may be desirable to bring under 
notice the original description of A. lineata, which is as 
follows : — 

A. lineata (Cunningh. Mss.), stipulas wanting or decidu- 
ous; phyllodia linear, ending in an oblique, callous mucrone 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 



499 



at the apex, glandless, one-nerved, the nerve parallel with 
the superior margin and contiguous with it; phyllodia as 
well as the branches hairy; heads of flowers usually twin; 
peduncles filiform, longer than the phyllodia; phyllodia half 
an inch long. (Don, "Gen. Hist. Dichlamydeous Plants," 
ii, 403, 1832). 

I am further of opinion that A. dasyphylla A. Ounn., 
which is a more pubescent form of A. lineata, comes under 
Group 3 or 4. 

Group 5 (a glabrous form). Phyllodes glabrous except 
a few hairs at the base, one-nerved, one thick nerve-like 
edge, point oblique, but not pronounced, gland near base. 

Flowers in heads, on glabrous peduncles not exceeding 
the phyllodes. Calyx narrow, irregular, hairy, free nearly 
to the base. Petals free, glabrous, five-merous. Pistil hoary. 

[This includes A, runciformis A. Cunn., in part.] 

Specimens falling in Group 5 come from Mallee country 
of Victoria (St. Eloy d'Alton, C. Walter); Goonoo (Mudgee 
to Dubbo) (J. L. Boorman); also Dubbo (J. L. Boorman); 
Gunnedah (J. L. Boorman); W. L. Waterhouse, Ticketty 
Well, between the Gwydir and Mclntyre Rivers (E. H. F. 
Swain); Inglewood, Queensland (J. L. Boorman). 

An affinity of A. lineata to A. aspera Lindl. is worthy of 
. note. They are in two sub-groups in Bentham's classifica- 
tion, viz.: — subseries Armatse and Brevifoliae respectively 
of the Uninerves, but the latter species may have phyllodes 
so small, and of such a shape that they may readily be con- 
fused with the latter. 

f. Acacia imbricata F.v.M. 

I have examined a specimen of the type (in fruit) from 
Tumby Bay, Spencer's Gulf, S.A., through the kindness of 
Professor Ewart, and have a flowering specimen (cultivated) 
from another source. 



500 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Following is a translation of the original description : — 

Glabrous, branches crowded, with acute angles, stipules obsolete, 
phyllodes small, crowded, sessile oblong or cuneate-linear, with 
one nerve, veinless, obtuse, having a gland at the apex, obliquely 
cuspidate apiculate, peduncles solitary in the axils, exceeding the 
phyllodes; pods broadly linear, papery, somewhat sessile, slightly 
compressed, full or many seeded, the suture straight, seeds round- 
ovate, slightly compressed, shining, blackish, twice as long as the 
acuminate cymbiform aril. 

In scrub near Tumbey (Tumby) Bay on the shore of Spencer's 
Gulf. (C. Wilhelmi). 

A dense shrub three to four feet high. Phyllodes two to six 
lines long, half to one line broad. Peduncles thin, often half an inch 
long. Pod two to three lines broad. Seeds about one and a half 
lines long, distinctly areolate. 

The species certainly belongs to the Uninerves, and has affinity 
with A. lineata. According to the illustrious Bentham, I.e., it is 
allied to A. confer ta (series Brunoidese) which only flourishes in 
eastern Australia, but it differs from it. It is of much taller 
habit, the pubescent branches are not distinctly angled, the phyl- 
lodes are acute without a terminal gland, with scarcely any nerve, 
and with a sufficiently distinct margin, pod very much compressed, 
crowded, much broader, hoary, few seeded, the sutures flexuose, 
the larger seeds less shining and more compressed, not distinctly 
areolate and perhaps in the flowers also. ("Fragm." I, 5, 1858). 

A. imbricata is more willowy, less rigid than A. lineata. 

It comes next in the series (of the groups of A. lineata) 
to Group 5. Its points may be briefly set out. 

Phyllode glabrous, one-nerved with a gland on the upper 
portion of the phyllode, at the apex between the nerve and 
the margin. This is appressed to a small "oblique callous 
mucrone" at the apex between the nerve and the lower 
margin. The apex, with this gland and callous mucrone, 
appears thickened and bifid. This is very unusual and may 
be unique. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 501 

The phyllodes are imbricate to the extent that I have 
never seen in A. lineata; indeed the appearance is very 
different. 

Flowers in heads, on glabrous peduncles exceeding the 
phyllodes. Oalyx narrow-linear, hairy. Petals free, 
glabrous, five-merous. Pistil smooth and shiny. 

The pod is straight and smooth with a short funicle 
terminating in not a large aril. The pod of A. lineata is 
much twisted, is covered with glandular hairs and has a 
larger more folded aril. 

It seems to me that a strong case has been made out for 
the recognition of A. imbricata F.v.M. as a species distinct 
from A. lineata. 

g. Acacia Bynoeana Benth. 

This species is in the " Flora Australiensis" only recorded 
from the type locality (North West Australia), and also 
from the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Some years ago, I received from the late Mr. O. Walter 
of Melbourne, an undated specimen collected by Mr. St. 
Eloy D'Alton at Nhill, in the Mallee country of Victoria. 
He (Mr. Walter) had marked it " calamifolia var. Wilhelm- 
siana or nematophylla." This specimen is A. Bynoeana, 
and there is a reference to an "A. Wilhelmsiana" from 
the Murray Scrub by Bentham under A. Bynoeana. 

I received the same species from South Australia from 
Mr. Walter Gill in January and December 1909. It came 
from the same general district as Mr. D'Alton's specimen. 
The following note was furnished by Mr. Gill : — 

"It is very common in the Parilla Forest, and all about the 
Mallee scrub, over a wide extent of the Pinnaroo district, which 
lies between Tailem Bend (on the Melbourne- Adelaide line) on 
the west, and the Victorian border on the east." 



502 



J. H. MAIDEN. 



It is also found in New South Wales. There is a speci- 
men in this Herbarium from the Lachlan River, dated 
September 1882, by an unknown collector. It was also 
received from P. E. Lewis of Shuttleton near Oobar in 
January 1908, and from Archdeacon P. E. Havilaud from 
the same locality in September 1911. There is a note by 
the latter in "Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W." xxxvin, 645, (1913) 
under the name A. lineata A. Cunn., which is my fault. 

Both Mr. Gill's specimens (No. 1) and Archdeacon Havi- 
land's (No. 2), are quite satisfactory, but as the species is 
so little known, I trust that the following notes on them 
will be helpful : — 

No. 1 — Phyllodes narrow, semi-terete or thick, two dis- 
tinct parallel nerves, hooked or curved apex, gland near 
base, very resinous, stipules minute. 

Flower-heads on a peduncle with golden hairs and sheath- 
ing bracts. Calyx irregularly lobed, thick, hairy. Petals 
with a few hairs. Pistil hoary, i.e., not very pubescent. 

No. 2 — Phyllode, sometimes one, usually two-nerved T 
curved or hooked very much, resinous, a few hairs on the 
edges and nerves, chiefly on the lower half of the phyllode. 
Phyllode articulate between two minute stipules. 

Flowers in heads, hairy, the peduncles short, covered in 
a golden pubescence and subtended by a large bract. The 
peduncle does not exceed the phyllode. Calyx turbinate^ 
hairy, i.e., similar to the Parilla specimens, but the calyx 
more expanded. Petals hairy on the upper half. Pistil 
pubescent. 

li. Acacia ixiophylla Benth. 

(Syn. A. glutinosa F.v.M. and A. fuliginea R. T. Baker). 

i. A. Montana Benth. 

I desire to invite attention to the very great confusion 
which has arisen in regard to the above species. That 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 503 

confusion, which Mr. Baker tried in part to clear up by the 
proposal of a new species (fuliginea), was acquiesced in by 
me, and much material was distributed from this herbarium 
under that name, but I will show that it is a synonym of 
A. ixiophylla. The confusion of A. ixiophylla and A. 
montana is brought under notice for the first time. 

To clear the ground, I give translations of the original 
descriptions of A. ixiophylla, glutinosa and montana. 
(A) Acacia ixiophylla Benth., Lond. Journ. of Bot., I, 364 (1842), 

Very branched, glabrous or minutely pubescent, viscid, phyllodes 
narrow oblong-lanceolate, subfalcate, obtuse with an oblique apex 
and minutely mucronulate or glandular, thinly multinerved, 
narrowed at the base, peduncles downy, solitary or very shortly 
racemose, capitula under twenty flowers in the head. 

Phyllodia under an inch in length, scarcely two lines broad, 
subcoriaceous and much thinner than A. sclerophylla. Most of 
the racemes two to three headed. North of Liverpool Plains, 
New South Wales. Cunningham (Allan). 

(B) Acacia glutinosa F.v.M., in Fragm. iv, 6. 
[N.B. the italics are those of the original.] 
A shrub somewhat glabrous and viscid, the branchlets at first 
angular. Stipules obsolete, phyllodes oblong -linear, gradually 
narrowed towards the base with many fine veins which are uniform 
and immersed (immerse), obtuse, minutely apiculate, straight or 
slightly curved, the two finely-downy peduncles about as long or 
a little longer than the many flowered capitula. The stipes of the 
bracteoles hair-like and the lamina sub-cordate or rhombic. Sepals 
linear, almost free, more than half as large as the corolla, pods 
somewhat papery curled and flexuose, rather short, viscid, broadly 
linear, with two valves continued within, seeds ovate, dark black, 
shining, arranged longitudinally and marked on either, side with a 
large oblong faint areole, with a dark sub-lateral cymbiform 
strophiole about a third as long as the seed. In New Holland, 
South West Australia, (Maxwell). 



504 J. H. MAIDEN. 

A shrub many feet high. Phyllodes thinly coriaceous, 1 — 2" 
long, 1J - 2£'" broad, somewhat sessile. The common peduncle 
very short or none, individual peduncles 2 — 3'" long. Bracteoles 
somewhat glabrous, corolla 5 fid, and shorter. Pods glabrous, at 
the most 1 — 1 J" long, 1 - T' broad, compressed, very undulate, 
brownish. Seeds about 1J'" long. I have found no species in our 
large collection of Eastern Australian Acacias which I could con" 
sider to be the same. I much doubt, however, that it is that 
species concerning which the illustrious Bentham in (Linnsea xxvi, 
p. 625) notes a likeness to A. ixiophylla. (Fragm., iv, 6.) 

(0) A. fuliginea R. T. Baker is described in English in 
Proe. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxxi, 712 (1906), and he gives 
figures of A. fuliginea and of what he deems to be A. 
ixiophylla. 

At page 507 I will consider, seriatim, all the points to 
which Mr. Baker draws attention (at p. 713) in con- 
trasting A. fuliginea and A. ixiophylla. 
(D) Acacia montana Benth. in Lond. Journ. of Bot , I, 360 (1842). 

Very viscid, branchlets subangular and with pubescent peduncles, 
phyllodes oblong or oblong-lanceolate, very obtuse, scarcely with a 
callous apex, narrowed at the base, glabrous, two-nerved, peduncles 
short, brownish, very short, bracts at the base, capitula small, 
multinowered. 

Affinity to A. exsudans (A. verniciflua A. Cunn. var. latifolia 
Benth.) 

Phyllodia more obtuse, shorter (1-1J inches), veins more 
obscure. Peduncles thinner than the bracts at the base. Capitula 
much smaller. Highlands near the Liverpool Plains, New South 
Wales, Fraser. 

A. IXIOPHYLLA Benth. and A. MONTANA Benth, 

Mueller figured A. montana in his "Iconography of Aus- 
tralian Acacias" but did not figure A. ixiophylla. 

The most obvious points of A. montana Benth. are: — 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 



505 



1. Hairy pod. 

2. Peduncles with few or scattered hairs. 

3. Laminae of bracteoles rhomboid or foliaceous. 

4. Phyllodes with two main nerves. 

Contrasting with A. ixiophylla Benth., we have in the 
latter: — 

1. Smooth, narrower pods. 

2. Peduncles with short, dense tomentum. 

3. Laminae of bracteoles capitate (like the head of a 

nail, i.e., with not much lateral expansion). 

4. Phyllodes with three or more nerves, anastomosing 

more than in A. montana. 

Following are the specimens of A. montana in the National 
Herbarium of New South Wales : — 

Neiv SouthWales. — Angledool (Miss Newcomen)near the 
Queensland border. 

Brigalow scrubs on the Severn (Leichhardt). [This is 
near the Queensland border]. Liverpool Plains 
(without collector's name. Perhaps a fragment 
of the type). 

Deepwater and Emmaville Hill (J. L. Boorman). 

Mount Lindsay (at 4,500 feet), Nandewar Mountains 
(R. H. Oambage, No. 2400). Phyllodes up to 2%". 

Warrumbungle Ranges (W. Forsyth). Phyllodes 
broader than the type and with slightly fimbriate 
margins. 

Tarn worth (Revd. H. M. R. Rupp), Moor Creek near 
Tamworth (W. M. Carne). 

Merriwa (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). 

Elsmore, ten miles east of Inverell (R. H. Oambage, 

No. 1772). 



506 J. H. MAIDEN. 

The above are northern New South Wales. Then we 
have a gap to the south, with the following one as an 
intermediate locality: — 

Wirlong-N ymagee (R. H. Oambage, No. 141 ; i n bud only). 

"Growing in bunches four or five feet high," five miles 
east of Temora (R. H. Oambage, No. 615). Temora 
(Rev. J.W.Dwyer,Nos. 223, 224, 230). Some of the 
phyllodes of Father Dwyer's specimens are under 
one inch as are also some of the Victorian ones. 

Victoria. — Grampians (A. J. Campbell). Pomonal (J. 
Staer). Dimboola (St. Eloy D'Alton and J. Staer). 

South Australia. — Murray Bridge (J. H. M. phyllodes 
only). 

Drummond's specimens. — I now come to Drummond's 
fifth collection No. 13, referred to under A. ixiophylla by 
Bentham in B. Fl. ii, 387. Indeed he describes the pods 
("very flexuose, hispid or glabrous, two to three lines 
broad") and also the seeds. These pods (the hispid ones) 
and seeds are not distinguishable from those of A. montana* 
The pods are, however, not fully grown, and the seeds seem 
to be arranged obliquely. The phyllodes are viscid, and 
are more pubescent than those of typical montana, but I 
think the material available is fairly referable to that 
species. Certainly it is not A. ixiophylla. 

My specimen is fairly well represented by the right hand 
figure of Mr. Baker's Plate LXVI of A . ixiophylla. 

This determination would extend the range of A. montana 
in a westerly direction from St. Vincent's Gulf to Western 
Australia. 

Following are the specimens of A. ixiophylla in the 
National Herbarium of New South Wales: — 

Queensland. — Miles, Dalby district (Collector of F. M. 
Bailey) in flower and fruit. Phyllodes 1-2" by 4 mm. Pod 
as figured for A. fuliginea by Mr. Baker. Condamine River 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 



507 



(Leichbardt); Six to eight feet of weak, pendulous growth, 
Inglewood (J. L. Boorman). 

New South Wales. — Brigalow scrub beyond the Severn 
(Dr. Leichhardt); Warialda (W. A. W. de Beuzeville No. 8 
of 24th October, 1913). Pod as figured for A. fuliginea. 
Most phyllodes a little broader than those of the preceding 
specimens. "Middle sized shrub," Yagobie, between Moree 
and Warialda (District Forester). Wee Waa (T. W. Taylor, 
No. 5). 

The following from the Pilliga Scrub: — (a) Brigalow 
Greek, eight to ten miles from Outtabri (Dr. H. I. Jensen, 
No. 44). (b) On red soils between Wongan and Baradine 
(Dr. H. I. Jensen No. 71). (c) Twelve to eighteen feet (?) 
common in the Pine Scrub (J. L. Boorman). (cl) eight to 
ten feet, much branched, common throughout the scrub, 
always liable to a smut. Outtabri (J. L. Boorman). (e) 
About ten feet. In sandy clay with Pine and Ironbark. 
Outtabri (E. H. F. Swain, No. 46). (f) Ten feet, Goona 
Creek (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 2). 

The following are co-types of Mr. Baker's A. fuliginea 
and I cannot see in what respect they differ from A. ixio- 
phylla. They simply continue the series of ixiophylla 
specimens. The position is that either A. ixiophylla or A . 
fuliginea cannot stand. 

Bylong Ranges, also Oamboon, seven miles north of 
Rylstone, October 1893 (R. T. Baker); also Goulburn River 
1896, same collector. 

A. IXIOPHYLLA Benth. and A. FULIGINEA R. T. Baker. 

We now come to consideration of the points Mr. Baker 
advances (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxxi, 713) as differences 
between these two species. 

1. Floivers in the head. — Of A. ixiophylla Bentham says 
(Lond. Journ. Bot.) "under 20 flowers." In B. Fl. ii, 337, 
he says, "15 to 20 or rarely more." 



508 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Mr. Baker says — (a) " It (fuliginea) has twice as many 
flowers in the head " as A. ixiophylla, and at p. 712, A. 
fuliginea has "about 40 flowers." 

The material at my disposal has been very carefully 
examined with the following results: I have seen no head 
with as few as 20, but various numbers up to 35. On the 
evidence I should give the limits as 24 and 35. All in the 
following list have been hitherto regarded as A. ixiophylla 
(some have actually passed through the hands of Bentham, 
Mueller and F. M. Bailey). The co-types of A. fuliginea 
fall into the series quite naturally. 

Bylong Ranges and Rylstone, co-types of A. fuliginea 
R. T. Baker, flowers in the head 35. All the rest are A. 
ixiophylla. 

Brigalow Greek, Pilliga (Jensen), flowers in the head 
average 24 ; Wongau and Baradine (Jensen), flowers in the 
head between 30 - 35; Pilliga (J. L. Boorman), an average 
of 25 flowers in the head ; Outtabri, Pilliga (J. L. Boorman), 
an average of 30 flowers in the head ; Pilliga Scrub (E. H. 
F. Swain), flowers in the head 30; Goona Greek (W. A. W. 
de Beuzeville), flowers in the head 30; Wee Waa (T. W. 
Taylor) flowers in the head not less than 35; Brigalow 
Scrub beyond the Severn (Dr. Leichhardt, seen by Bentham 
and Mueller), flowers from 30 to 35 in the head; Condamine 
River (Leichhardt, seen by Bentham and Mueller), flowers 
in the head 30; Inglewood (J. L. Boorman), flowers in the 
head 25; Miles (seen by F. M. Bailey), flowers in the head 
35. 

2. Phyllodes. — For the original description of them in 
Lond. Journ. Bot. i, 364, see above. 

Iq B. Fl. ii, 387, Bentham adds a few modifications, the 
principal of which are, "•§ to 1 \ or near 2 in. long, 2 to 3 or 
rarely 4 lines broad." 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 509 

Mr. Baker (loc. cit.) says (b) "The phyllodes (of A. ixio- 
phylla and A. fuliginea) have quite a different shape and 
are larger in size." Let us consider these points seriatim* 

Shape. — The original shape is "narrow oblong lanceolate, 
sub-falcate, with an oblique apex." 

Bentham later (B. PI. ii, 387) does not alter this descrip- 
tion in an important manner. Mr. Baker figures A. ixio- 
phylla much longer and narrower than A. fuliginea. 

After examining a long series I fail to find any difference 
between A. ixiophylla and A. fuliginea in respect of shape. 

Size. — The original description for A. ixiophylla says 
"under an inch in length, scarcely two lines broad." In 
B. Fl. ii, 387, he alters it to f to 1|- or rarely nearly 2 in. 
long, 2 to 3 or rarely 4 lines broad. 

Mr. Baker gives the size of A. fuliginea as "2 to 3 or 
even 4 cm. long, and varying up to 1 cm. wide." These 
figures are included in Bentham's as regards the length, 
and, as regards the width, Bentham's are ■§■ to f- inch, and 
Mr. Baker's are "varying up to § inch." I find phyllodes 
of A. ixiophylla agreeing with Bentham's dimensions for 
A. ixiophylla and with Mr. Baker's figure of A. ixiophylla, 
and with his description and figure of A. fuliginea. 

Venation. — Bentham in the original says "thinly multi- 
nerved." In B. Fl. ii, 387, he amplifies this into "striate, 
with numerous fine but prominent nerves, anastomosing 
when the phyllodium is broad." 

Mr. Baker says of his A. fuliginea "with several nerves 
and intermediate reticulations." These words are simply 
Bentham's in another form. In his figure, however, Mr. 
Baker figures A. ixiophylla with three or more nerves, and 
A. fuliginea with three to five. I fail to note any differ- 
ence between them. 



510 J. H. MAIDEN. 

It is sometimes difficult to say how many nerves there 
are in A. ixiophylla as the texture of the phyllodes may be 
thickish and resinous, and it is difficult to distinguish 
between the nerves and the striae. Mueller expresses the 
idea in the use of the word "immerse" when speaking of 
the veins of A. glutinosa. One sees long fissures but one 
cannot exactly state their character with a lens. 

Gland. — Mr. Baker, in describing A. fuliginea speaks of 
" gland wanting," but that is a slip. There is in all A. 
ixiophylla material (whether attributed to A. fuliginea or 
not), a rather large gland, but it is near the base of the 
phyllode and not easy to see unless the phyllode is detached. 
The liability to pass it over is enhanced by the ruggedness 
of the surface of the phyllode owing to the glandular pro- 
tuberances. 

Indument. — There is variation in the species. Bentham 
expresses it as " glabrous or pubescent glutinous." This 
is worthy of emphasis. The name fuliginea is owing to the 
sootiness of the phyllodes, which can be observed in A. 
ixiophylla from widely separated localities. 

Inflorescence. — (c) The inflorescence is referred to by 
Bentham, . . . "solitary, or very shortly racemose." . . . 
Most of the racemes 2-3 headed." In B. PI. ii, 387, 
"Peduncles in pairs on short racemes of three or four." 

Mr. Baker says of A. fuliginea (d) "The inflorescence is 
not in racemes," and again ..." Solitary or in pairs on 
the end of the newly formed branchlets." 

Careful examination of a long series of A. ixiophylla (in- 
cluding specimens labelled A. fuliginea by Mr. Baker) shows 
that the flower-heads are in pairs on short racemes. In 
one case (viz. Miles, Queensland, P. M. Bailey), the flower- 
heads are solitary, in pairs or threes, on short racemes. It 
will be seen that they all come under A. ixiophylla as 
described by Bentham. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 511 

Pods. — Bentham in describing A. ixiophylla does not 
describe the pods. In his later and amplified description 
(B. Fl. ii, 387) he adds a description of Western Australian 
pods (Drummond's in fact, which do not belong to this 
species, and which I attribute to A. montana). 

Mr. Baker (loc. cit.) contrasting the pods of A. fuliginea 
with those as described by Bentham says: — 

(e) "The pods are much longer and narrower." 

I have already referred to specimens which are A. ixio- 
phylla, have its narrow pod, and which in no way differ 
from the flowering and fruiting specimens attributed by 
Mr. Baker to his A. fuliginea, and credit is due to that 
gentleman for prominently drawing attention to the pod of 
ixiophylla (fuliginea). 

A. glutinosa F.v.M. A translation of Mueller's original 
description has been already given. It is quite clear, and 
Professor Ewart has favoured me with a portion of the 
type. (Maxwell, Western Australia). 

It will be seen that Bentham (B. Fl.ii, 387) has referred it 
to A. ixiophylla, qualifying it by "the western specimens," 
but, so far as I am aware, no specimens other than those 
from Western Australia have ever been referred to A. 

glutinosa. 

I have also a specimen from Kellerberrin, West Australia 
(R. B. Leake). As these Western Australian specimens 
are but little known and seem to be conspecific, I will 
describe them in a few words: — 

1. Type. — Phyliode finely veined, two nerved, sharp 
mucrone, glabrous. 

Flowers about thirty-five in the head. 

Bracteole slight, oblique-capitate, glandular or hoary on 
the top. 



512 J. H. MAIDEN. 

Calyx-lobes divided half way down or more, nerved, hairy 
at the top. 

Petals free or united near the base, glabrous. 

Pistil hoary at the top. 

Pod much twisted (convolute), smooth, with transverse 
veins. 

Seed placed longitudinally in the pod, with short funicle. 

2. Kellerberrin specimen. — Phyllode entirely glabrous, 
with oblique sharp-pointed tip, two maiu nerves. 

Flower-heads in pairs on a short peduncle about twenty- 
three in the head. A narrow bract at the base of each 
head of flowers. Each bracteole capitate or with a slight 
point, and having a few hairs. Flowers five merous. 

Calyx cup-shaped, lobed, extremely thin and transparent, 
thickened at the tip, a few hairs at the apex, no central 
nerve. 

Petals thickened at the top, with a central nerve, glabrous. 

Pistil smooth, sometimes hoary at the top. 

As regards the pods of A. ixiophylla, Bentham never saw 
them, but assuming that the Western 'Australian specimens 
are that species, he described the pod as "very flexuose, 
hispid (A. montana Benth., J.H.M.) or glabrous, (A. gluti- 
nosa F.v.M., J.H.M.) two lines broad." He is thus combin- 
ing the pod of Drummond's fifth Coll. No. 13 1 which is A. 
montana and which is hispid (see Mr. Baker's figure of A. 
ixiophylla), and Maxwell's specimen of A. glutinosa which 
Mueller tells us has "Legumina glabra." (Fragm. iv, 7.) 

1 Drummond's specimens were unaccompanied by localities as every 
botanist knows, and as regards Maxwell's, Mueller often labelled them 
"South West Australia" as in the present case, and often " "West Aus- 
tralia." Maxwell collected chiefly in the King George's Sound and 
Stirling Eange district and accompanied Drummond to the Stirling Kange. 
See Proc. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1909. 

As regards Drummond, some of his fifth collection undoubtedly came 
from the King George's Sound- Stirling Eange district. 



NOTES ON ACACIA. 513 

Allowing for some variation in plants separated from 
each other by the width of a continent, I think that the 
resemblance of A. glutinosa F.v.M. to A. ixiophylla Benth., 
is remarkably close, and concur in Bentham's proposal to 
combine them. 

The range of A. ixiophijlla, as we know it, affords a 
remarkable instance of geographical distribution. The 
species is a denizen of moderately dry localities, and we 
have it from central Queensland south to the Rylstone 
district in New South Wales. Then we have a gap until 
Western Australia is reached and I would invite the atten- 
tion of botanists to the matter. It (and indeed A. montana, 
when not in fruit) are species which can readily be passed 
over for allied species. 

I have a specimen from the Mallee, Wimmera River, 
Victoria, O. Walter, 10th March 1887, which that gentle- 
man sent to me as A. montana. It is in pod, without seeds. 
I have little doubt that it is one of the localities destined 
to bridge the present A. ixiophylla gap. 



Gg— December 1, 1915. 



514 R. T. BAKER AND H. G. SMITH. 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA, Sp. Nov. (" Narrow- 
leaved Peppermint") and its ESSENTIAL OIL. 

By R. T. Baker f.l.s. and H. G. Smith, f.c.s. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales. December 1. 1915.'] 



Introduction. 

When studying the Eucalypts of Tasmania for our paper 
on those of that Island, 1 Labillardiere's species of E. amyg- 
dalina necessarily received much attention, as it was from 
that Island he obtained his material, which, of course, 
stands as the authenticated species. The name, however, 
has long since been also given to a tree on the mainland, 
and it was only when investigating the species for the 
above research, that differences were detected in the two 
trees, and these have since been followed up. In fact, the 
differences were so marked that even then we raised the 
continental form to varietal rank under the name of 
Eucalyptus amygdalina var. australiana, being loath to 
introduce another species name to the already long list of 
Eucalypts. We were prepared to let it stand at that, but 
the technology of this Eucalyptus has since come so much 
to the front in the commercial world, that we think it best 
in the interest of applied, as well as pure science, to give 
it specific rank, for which we propose the name Eucalyptus 
australiana for the mainland tree. 

A systematic description is added so that the species 
upon which the research is made might be clearly under- 
stood. It is figured in "Research on the Eucalypts and 
Essential Oils," 1902, under " Messmate," Eucalyptus 
amygdalina, p. 168. The broad-leaved form is restricted to 
the Ovens district of Victoria. 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 1912, 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIaNA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 



515 



The differentiation of the species from that of Labil- 
lardiere of Tasmania is justified, we think, on both botanical 
and chemical grounds, as mentioned by us in our paper on 
the Tasmanian Eucalypts. 

The commercial world is no longer satisfied with common 
names to plants, but looks to the botanical name as defi- 
nitely placing not only the tree but also the products 
obtained from it. Orders for our botanical products placed 
in Australia from Europe and America invariably now give 
the specific name of a species, and as there is a great com- 
mercial future before the oil of this tree, it is only right 
we think, that the opportunity should be taken to bring 
commerce into line with science. 

Systematic Description. 

It attains forest tree height, but more often is only a 
medium sized tree. The bark is persistent on the stem, and 
well out on the branches. It has what is known as "pepper- 
mint" bark, and quite characteristic, being of a compact, 
fibrous nature, but yet distinct from the ordinary " Stringy- 
bark." It more nearly approaches that of the "Boxes," 
but the fibres are straight, not checkered as obtains in that 
group of Eucalypts. 

The "sucker" leaves are sessile, opposite, cordate- 
lanceolate, normal leaves narrow lanceolate to broadly 
lanceolate (Victoria), venation distinct, lateral veins mostly 
at an angle of about 40° with occasionally a few at a very 
acute angle and long spreading, intramarginal vein removed 
from the edge. 

Peduncles axillary with a varying number of flowers. 
Calyx turbinate, short. Operculum obtuse, flattened. 
Stamens all fertile, anthers kidney-shaped. Fruit pilular 
to turbinate, rather small comparatively, from two to three 
lines in diameter, with red rim, and a thin contracted 
edge, valves not exserted. 



516 R. T. BAKER AND H. G. SMITH. 

It differs from E. amygdalina Labill. in the shape of the 
fruit, lacking the slightly domed rim of that species, and 
is less inclined to top-shape, whilst the leaves are longer, 
and the lateral veins less acute than in that species. Labil- 
lardiere's species has a bluish tint after drying, a character 
not occurring in this species. Systematically, it might be 
placed next to E. piperita. 

Timber. — The timber is pale but darkening to a light 
chocolate on exposure, is very fissile, and subject to gum 
veins. Among Eucalypts it might be ranked as a second 
class timber. It is light in weight, and suitable for general 
building purposes. Opinions vary as to its durability in 
the ground. 

Distribution. — It has an extensive geographical distribu- 
tion on the ranges of Victoria and New South Wales, and 
probably it extends into Queensland, the localities being 
too numerous to publish here. 

Essential Oil. 
The production of an excellent pharmaceutical Euca- 
lyptus oil from this species depends largely upon a fact 
which was first demonstrated by us in 1902, and published 
in the " Research on the Eucalypts," p. 170. We were 
able, at that time, to show that by fractional separation at 
stated times during the primary distillation, an oil richer 
in cineol could be obtained, particularly if the portion which 
came over during the first hour was separated. The cineol 
was thus more easily distilled than the alcoholic bodies 
and other oil constituents in the leaf. By taking advant- 
age of this peculiarity, and working the trees growing at 
Nerrigundah, Yourie, and neighbouring districts of New 
South Wales in the same way, it has been possible to pro- 
duce a product of a fairly constant character, high in cineol 
content, and answering to the requirements demanded for 
a first class pharmaceutical Eucalyptus oil. The results 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIAN A AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 517 

have been so satisfactory that the species is, at the above 
localities, now worked in this way, the first hour oil being 
sold for pharmaceutical purposes, the remainder being 
employed for mineral separation and for other industrial 
uses. The chemical results obtained with this oil, separated 
as nearly as possible one hour after commencing to distil, 
are remarkably constant, so much so that it is not difficult 
to decide whether the distiller has extended the time of 
separation beyond the hour. 

The remarkably high yield of oil given by this species 
enables this mode of working to be profitably undertaken, 
and the amount obtained during the first hour is almost as 
great as that from many other cineol producing species 
when these are distilled right out. The second hour oil 
thus becomes practically a subsidiary product. Little 
advantage appears to be derived from distilling the leaves 
for a longer period than two hours, as the amount of oil 
thus obtained is but small. The first hour oil, when properly 
prepared, is almost water- white, which fact appears to be 
due to the presence of the phenol, Tasmanol, — common to 
this class, — containing a methoxyl group, a constitution 
which does not permit the formation of a quinone, as is the 
case with the oils of the other large class of cineol produc- 
ing Eucalypts. The amount of volatile aldehydes in the 
crude oil is but small, so that altogether no rectification 
of the first hour oil is needed before placing it on the market. 
This species of Eucalyptus, considered as a pharmaceutical 
oil producing tree, thus becomes of considerable importance 
from an industrial point of view, particularly as the country 
where it grows plentifully is usually of little value for 
agricultural purposes. This area might profitably be set 
apart for the preservation of this species of Eucalyptus, 
and for the establishment of a permanent industry in the 
production of this particular Eucalyptus oil. 



518 R. T. BAKER AND H. G. SMITH. 

Our attention was first directed to an increased amount 
of cineol in the oil of this species in trees growing in the 
Southern Coast District of New South Wales, by Mr. W. T. 
Farrell, early in 1913. He had collected his specimens at 
Nerrigundah, in which locality the "Narrow-leaved Pepper- 
mint" or "Black Peppermint" occurs somewhat abund- 
antly. Arrangements were soon made to distil the oil in 
commercial quantities, and for some time analyses were 
made at the Technological Museum on the oil collected 
each mouth. In November of that year the Museum Col- 
lector sent material from Yourie and Tanto, in the Cobargo 
district. This was distilled at the Museum, and the results 
of the analysis of the oil are given in this paper. Later, 
one of us paid a visit to this portion of New South Wales, 
and by the courtesy of the District Forester at Moruya, 
Mr. Olulee, and of his assistant, Mr. Harrison, who drove 
his car, was enabled to make extensive observations, over a 
considerable area of country, concerning this Eucalyptus. 
Since that time, numerous analyses of the oil have been 
made for distillers, who have prepared the oil for market, 
and quite a minor industry has been established in the 
production of this particular Eucalyptus oil. 

The determinations of rotation so far made has mostly 
shown the first hour oil to be slightly dextro-rotatory, 
although if the distillation be continued longer, the resulting 
oil may be slightly laevo-rotatory. This result appears to 
be due to the phellandrene not distilling so readily as does 
the cineol. Further improvements in this method of first 
distillation, will result in the production of a pharmaceutical 
oil from this species growing in other localities, and already 
experiments, in a small way, have succeeded in producing 
an oil containing as much as 70% of cineol, although the 
whole oil would not contain more than about 45% of that 
constituent. The separation of the phellandrene from the 
cineol by direct distillation cannot be so satisfactorily 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 519 

accomplished, as the boiling points of the two substances 
are too closely in agreement, so that it must be to the 
modification of the process of steam distillation that 
improved results may be looked for from this species, in 
districts where the oil contains more phellandrene and 
consequently less cineol than does that from trees growing 
in the Nerrigundah and Yourie districts. 

It is perhaps due to climatic influences, in addition to 
those of altitude and soil conditions, that the increased 
cineol content in the oil of the Nerrigundah trees has 
become sufficiently distinct to be noticeable as a general 
rule. In our work on the Eucalypts, p. 275, we drew 
attention to some remarkable features shown by the oil of 
this species, particularly that of solubility in 70% alcohol, 
a result which placed the species in that class yielding 
Eucalyptus oils richest in cineol, thus practically predicting 
the present results. This high solubility of the phellandrene 
bearing oil of this Eucalyptus is evidently largely due to 
the presence of an, at present, undetermined alcohol. This 
is suggested from the increased saponification numbers of 
the acetylated higher boiling fractions, and is also shown 
from the results with the Nerrigundah second hour oil. 
For comparison with this, the results of the second fraction 
of the oil of this species, distilled for us by Mr. Douglas, at 
Moss Vale in November, 1915, are given. This fraction 
boiled between 193° and 210° C. 

Saponification number for esters in second hour oil =11*4 
„ „ for same fraction acetylated = 95*1 

„ „ for esters, second fraction, 

Moss Vale oil = ll'l 
„ „ for same fraction acetylated = 94*4 

The changes in constituents which can thus be observed 
seem to be between the cineol and the phellandrene. Fur- 
ther research may decide in what manner this has been 
brought about. 



520 R. T. BAKER AND H. G. SMITH. 

Yield of Oil. 

The yield of oil from the Yourie-Tanto material agrees 
with that of this species from other localities, and our 
sample, distilled at the Museum, gave 4*4% for leaves with 
terminal branchlets, collected in the month of November, 
when the temperature is usually high. The material, 
which had dried somewhat, was weighed into the still and 
the amount of oil correctly determined. These figures may 
perhaps be considered as the maximum yield. The greatest 
quantity of oil from most species of Eucalyptus is obtained 
during the summer months, and the least yield during the 
winter. From a series of results obtained by Mr. E. 
McGrath of Yourie, during the months of June, July, August, 
September and October, these differences are strongly 
brought out. Mr. McGrath uses a pair of tanks coupled 
together and worked at the same time. These tanks are 
the usual 400 gallon square iron tanks fitted in the simple 
manner customary with the majority of Eucalyptus oil 
distillers in New South Wales. During the month of June 
the average weight of oil he obtained from the two tanks 
was, first hour oil 28 lbs., second hour 12 lbs., or an average 
per tank for each distillation of 20 lbs. During July the 
average yield was, first hour 37 lbs., second hour 11 fibs, or 
an average yield per tank per distillation of 24 fibs. During 
August the average yield was, first hour 39 lbs., second 
hour 12 fibs., or a yield of 25-§- pounds per tank per distilla- 
tion. During September the average yield was, first hour 
42 lbs., and second hour 12 lbs., or 27 lbs. per tank per 
distillation. For twenty-two days in October the average 
yield was 41 lbs. for first hour, and 11 fibs for second hour, 
or an average per tank per distillation of 26f fibs. 

The actual weight of green leaves with terminal branch- 
lets packed into the tanks was not taken, but if this weight 
be considered as 800 fibs, per tank, which as an average 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 521 

would probably be nearly correct, then for June an average 
yield of 2*5% was obtained; for July 3%; for August 3*2%; 
for September 3*4%; and for a part of October 3*3%. 

We have been informed that as much as 90 fbs. of oil have 
been obtained from two tanks at one distillation with this 
species, 50 lbs. for the first hour, and 40 lbs. for second 
hour, but we have no other data by which to confirm this 
statement. Of course, if the leaves were more closely 
packed in the tank a greater amount of oil would neces- 
sarily be obtained from the distillation, although the amount 
of second hour oil seems out of proportion to that of the 
first hour. 

Analysis of the Oil. 
The crude oil of the Yourie and Tanto material, distilled 
at the Technological Museum, was of a very light lemon 
tint, had quite a pleasant odour, the volatile aldehydes not 
being at all pronounced. The oil contained a large amount 
of cineol. The reaction for phellandrene was not distinc- 
tive at this time of the year, although indications for the 
presence of that terpene were obtained with the first 
fraction. 

The crude oil, which had been distilled right out, had a 
specific gravity at 15° O. of 0*9157; rotation a D = + 2*8°; 
refractive index at 20° O. = 1*4644; and was soluble in 1*2 
volumes of 70% alcohol. On fractionation only 2 cc. of acid 
water and some oil containing aldehydes came over below 
172° O. (corrected). Between 172° and 193° O. 84% dis- 
tilled. This fraction had specific gravity at 15° = 0*9119; 
rotation ch, = + 2*7°; and refractive index = 1*4623. It 
was very rich in cineol. The second fraction only repre- 
sented 5% of the total oil, and this distilled between 193° 
and 220°. It had specific gravity at 15° - 0.9165; rotation 
a„ = + 0*8°; and refractive index = 1*4679. The third 
fraction was also 5%, distilling between 225° and 260°. This 



522 K. T. BAKER AND H. G. SMITH. 

had specific gravity e 938; rotation a D = + 0*6; refractive 
index = 1*4861. 

The cineol was determined by the resorcinol method in 
the first fraction, and calculated for the whole oil, the 
result showed the crude oil to contain 70% of that constitu- 
ent. The higher fraction contained a little piperitone (the 
constituent of peppermint odour), a small amount of ester, 
and some free alcohol. The saponification number for the 
esters plus free acid in the crude oil by boiling was 8*9. A 
portion of the crude oil was acetylated in the usual manner, 
when the saponification number had risen to 51*3. This 
result indicates the presence of an alcohol in fair quantity, 
to which constituent the aromatic and somewhat charac- 
teristic odour of the oil is evidently largely due. The 
presence of this alcohol is more distinctly shown with the 
second and third hour oils, which were distilled and collected 
for us by Mr. Gough, of Yourie. 

First Hour Oil. 

As previously mentioned, the commercial distillation of 
this species has resolved itself into a fractional separation 
during the primary distillation of the oil from the leaf. 

The first hour oil is practically water-white, as are all 
the rectified oils of this group; it is rich in cineol, of good 
odour, and is fairly constant in composition, as can be seen 
from the following tabulated results. The average specific 
gravity of the first hour oil taken by Mr. McGrath at his 
works for twenty-six distillations during the months of 
September and October was 0*919, the highest being 0*920, 
the lowest 0*917. 

The following analyses were made at the Technological 
Museum on the first hour oil of this species. The dates of 
distillation, the distillers, and the various localities are 
given. Nerrigundah, Yourie, and Reedy Creek are all situ- 
ated in the south-eastern portion of New South Wales, 
between the Moruya and Oobargo districts. 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 



523 









Solu- 


Refrac- 




Locality and date. 


Sp. gr. 
at 15°C. 


Rotation 


bility 
in 70% 


tive 
Index 


Cineol. 








alcohol. 


at20°C. 




Nerrigundah 












Mr. Farrell 






vols. 






1/1913 


0-9188 


+ 1-7° 


1-1 


1-4614 


over 70% 


Do. 4/1913 


0-9188 


+ 0-3° 


1-i 


1-4621 


do. 


Do. 5/1913 


0-9190 


- +0-0° 


1-1 


1-4622 


do. 


Do. 6/1913 


0-9190 


+ 1-3° 


1-1 


1-4633 


75% phosphoric 
acid method. 


Do. 7/1913 


0-9200 


+ 1-5° 


1-05 


1-4627 


over 70% 


Do. 8/1913 


0-9193 


+ 0-9° 


1-1 


1-4628 


84%resorcinol 


Yourie 










method. 


Mr. Farrell 












8/1913 


0-9186 


+ 0-5° 


1-05 


1-4624 


over 70% 


Do Mr.McGrath 


0-9186 


-0-5° 


1-1 


1-4620 


69-5% phos- 


8/1913 










phoric acid 
method. 


Do. do. 9/1913 


0-9195 


+ 0-4° 


1-1 


1-4622 


over 70% 


Nerrigundah 












Mr. Davidge 












8/1913 


0-9198 


+ 0-3° 


1-1 


1-4617 


do. 


Do. Mr.O'Toole 












7/1913 


0-9191 


+ 1-3° 


1-1 


1-4633 


73% phosphoric 


Do. Mr. Davidge 










acid method. 


4/1914 


0-9193 


+ 1-5° 


1-15 


1-4631 


over 70% 


Yourie 












Mr. McGrath 












4/1914 


0-9199 


+ 0-1° 


1-1 


1-4622 


do. 


Do. Mr. Gough 












8/1914 


0-9202 


-1-2° 


1-15 


1-4636 


71%phosphoric 


(sampled from 










acid method. 


10 eases ) 












Do. do. 8/1914 


0-9211 


+ 1-4° 


11 


1-4628 


74% do. 


one case. 












Nerrigundah 












Mr. Coleman 












3/1914 


0-9179 


+ 1-6° 


1-15 


1-4632 


over 70% 


Do. Mr. Davidge 












3/1914 


0-9195 


+ 1-4° 


1-1 


1-4631 


do. 


Reedy Creek 


0-9196 


+ 1-2° 


1-1 


1-4625 


81% resorcinol 


Mr. Young 










method. 77% 


9/1915 










by phosphoric 
acid method. 



524 K. T. BAKER AND H, G. SMITH. 

These samples of first hour oil did not readily give definite 
reactions for the presence of phellandrene, although the 
laevo-rotation of some of the samples, and the slight rota- 
tion to the right of the others, suggest the presence of that 
terpene. The alcohol for the solubilities was 70% by 
weight. The resorcinol determination of the cineol was 
taken in the fractionated oil in that portion distilling below 
190° O. The results are altogether too high if taken with 
the commercial sample directly, as higher boiling con- 
stituents are absorbed by the resorcinol. Where the per- 
centage amount of cineol is definitely stated the results 
were carefully determined. In those cases where the 
amount is stated as being over 70% the percentage is 
approximate only. The specific gravities were corrected 
for 15° C, the factor 0*00075 for each degree above that 
temperature being used. 

Second Hour Oil. 

This sample of the second hour oil was forwarded to us 
by Mr. O. Gough of Yourie, and was a portion of the second 
hour oil he had commercially distilled. It was but little 
coloured, and had quite an aromatic odour. It had specific 
gravity at 15° C. == 0*9291; rotation a D + 2*2°; refractive 
index = 1*4720; and was soluble in 1*1 volumes 70% alcohol. 
On distillation, 64% came over between 172° and 193° (cor- 
rected). This fraction had specific gravity 0*9131 at 15°; 
rotation a D + 3*3°; refractive index 1*4655, and contained 
31% cineol by the phosphoric acid method, representing 
20% cineol for the second hour oil. 25% came over as the 
second fraction, boiling between 193° and 227° O. This had 
specific gravity 0*9283; rotation a D - 0*2°; and refractive 
index 1*4760. 

The saponification number for the esters in the second 
hour oil was 11*4, while in ^he acetylated oil it was 95*1. 
This latter figure represents 33% of ester if calculated for 
a OioHi 7 OH alcohol. 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 525 

Third Hour Oil. 

This sample was also forwarded by Mr. Gough. It shows 
but slight chemical differences from the oil of the second 
hour, except that the alcohol is a little more pronounced. 
It had specific gravity at 15° == 0*9266; rotation a B + 2*6°; 
refractive index = 1*4747, and was soluble in 1*1 volumes 
70% alcohol. Addition of more alcohol determined the 
presence of paraffin in both the second and third hour oils. 
The saponification number for the ester plus that of the 
free acid was 9*7; while with the acetylated oil it was 
116*03. 

On distillation 55% came over below 193°, and 35% 
between 193° and 225°. 26% of cineol was found to be 
present iu the first fraction. The specific gravity of the 
first fraction was 0'9145; and the refractive index =1*4669. 
The second fraction had specific gravity 0*9267; rotation 
■a D — 1*4; refractive index — 1*4770. The saponification 
number for the ester plus that of the free acid was 9.4. A 
portion of the second fraction of the third hour oil was 
acetylated, when the saponification number had increased 
to 124*5. This indicates an ester percentage of 43*6 if the 
alcohol has the Oi H 17 OH molecule. 

The determination of this alcohol is reserved for a later 
communication. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Art. XII. — Continued ... ... 257 

Art. XIII. — The Australian "Grey Mangrove" (Avicmnia officin- 
alis, Linn.). By E. T. Baker, f.l s. [With Plates XXVII- 
XLVI] ... .'; 257 

Art. XIV. — The Origin of the Heliman or Shield of the Coast 
Aborigines, N.S.W. • By Thomas Dick. (Communicated by 
E. T. Baker, f.l.s. [With Plates XLVII - LI.] 282 

Art. XV. — Cerussite Crystals from Broken Hill, N.S.Wales and 
Muldiva, Queensland. By C. Anderson. m..a., dsc. [With 
Plates LII—LIV and six text figures.'] 2S9 

Art. XVI. — Notes on Eucalyptus, (with descriptions of new 

species) No. IV. By J. H. Maiden, f.l. s. 309 

Art. XVII. — Geology of the Jenolan Caves District. By C. A, 

Sussmilch, f.g.s., and W. G. Stone. [With Plates LV, LVI] 332 

Art. XVIII. — Two Lord Howe Island Polypodia. By the Eev.W. 

Walter Watts 385 

Art. XIX. — Notes on the Native Flora of Tropical Queensland. 

By E. H. Cambage, f.l.s. [With Plates LVII—LXIand map.] 389 

Art. XX. — Some Geo-physical Observations at Burrinjuck. By 
Leo A. Cotton, b.a., b.sc. [With Plate LXII and three text 
figures], . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 448 

Art. XXI.— Notes on Acacia, (with description of new species), 

No. I. By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s ... 463 

Art. XXII. — Eucalyptus australiana sp. nov., (Narrow-leaved 
Peppermint) and its essential oil. By E. T. Bakeb, f.l.s., 
and H. G. Smith, f.c.s. ... ... ... ... 514 



FINAL FART OF VOL XLIX. 

ISSUED MAY 30th, 1916. 



Vol. XLIX. 



Part IV. 



JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



FOB 



1915 



PART IV., (pp. (i.)-(xxii), i.-xxxviii). 

COMPLETING VOL. XLIX. 

Containing Abstract of Proceedings, Title Page, Contents, 
List of Publications, List of Members, etc., and Index. 




^oman m^/^N 



JAN 3 19 



SYDNEY : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH STREET, SYDNEY. 

LONDON AGENTS : 

GEORGE ROBERTSON & Co., PROPRIETARY LIMITED, 

17 Warwick Square, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 

1915. 



P. WHITE Typ., 344 Kent Street Sydney. 



EUCALYPTUS AUSTRALIANA AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL. 525 

Third Hour Oil. 

This sample was also forwarded by Mr. Gough. It shows 
but slight chemical differences from the oil of the second 
hour, except that the alcohol is a little more pronounced. 
It had specific gravity at 15° = 0*9266; rotation a D + 2*6°; 
refractive index = 1*4747, and was soluble in 1*1 volumes 
70% alcohol. Addition of more alcohol determined the 
presence of paraffin in both the second and third hour oils. 
The saponification number for the ester plus that of the 
free acid was 9*7; while with the acetylated oil it was 
116*03. 

On distillation 55% came over below 193°, and 35% 
between 193° and 225°. 26% of cineol was found to be 
present iu the first fraction. The specific gravity of the 
first fraction was 0*9145; and the refractive index = 1*4669. 
The second fraction had specific gravity 0*9267; rotation 
a D — 1*4; refractive index = 1*4770. The saponification 
number for the ester plus that of the free acid was 9.4. A 
portion of the second fraction of the third hour oil was 
acetylated, when the saponification number had increased 
to 124*5. This indicates an ester percentage of 43*6 if the 
alcohol has the Oi Hi 7 OH molecule. 

The determination of this alcohol is reserved for a later 
communication. 



* JAN 3 191, 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

Jojml j&oaetg of Jhfo j^otttj) Males. 



MAY 5th, 1915. 

The Annual Meeting, being the three hundred and 
seventy-second General Monthly Meeting of the Society, 
was held at the Society's House, 5 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, 
at 8 p.m. 

Mr. C. Hbdley, President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-six members and six visitors were present. 

The minutes of the General Monthly Meeting of the 2nd 
December, 1914, were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three candidates for admission as 
ordinary members were read for the first time. 

Professor R. D. Watt and Mr. J. E. Carne were appointed 
Scrutineers, and Mr. H. G. Smith deputed to preside at 
the Ballot Box. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected Honorary 
Members of the Society: — 

Sir J. J. Thomson, o.m., d.Sc, p.r.s., Nobel Laureate, 
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics in the 
University of Cambridge, and Andrew Gibb Maitland, 
f.g.s., Government Geologist of Western Australia. 

The President announced that on account of the War, it 
had been decided not to hold the Annual Dinner this year. 

It was also announced that the following members had 
either gone or were preparing to go to the front: — 



IV. ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Dr. H J. W. Brennand, Sir Alexander MacOormick, 

Dr. J. A. Dick, Mr. A. M. McIntosh, 

Dr. Thomas Fiaschi, Dr. John S. Purdy, 

Mr. O. F. Laseron, 

and Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. Onslow Thompson (killed in 

action). 

The recent death of Mr. B. Du Faur was referred to, as 
well as that of Lieutenant-Colonel Onslow Thompson, and 
it was resolved that letters of sympathy be written to the 
relatives of the deceased members. 

On the motion of Professor Pollock it was unanimously 
decided that the special thanks of the Society be conveyed 
to Dr. Quaife for his handsome donation of a valuable 
lantern, automatic lamp, and projecting microscope. 

The President tendered the congratulations of the Society 
to Professor David and to Mr. J. H. Maiden, who had been 
awarded the Wollaston Medal by the Geological Society of 
London, and the Linnean Medal by the Linnean Society of 
London, respectively, and mentioned that these gentlemen 
had thereby become the first Australian recipients of the 
respective medals. 

The receipt, during the recess, of 509 parts, 14 volumes, 
35 reports, 3 maps, 2 catalogues and 1 calendar was 
reported. 

The President congratulated Mr. E. C. Andrews on 
behalf of the Society, on his having been awarded the 
David Syme Prize. 

It was announced that a series of Popular Science Lec- 
tures would be delivered. 

The Annual Financial Statement for the year ended 31st 
March, 1915, was submitted to members, and, on the motion 
of the Honorary Treasurer, Dr. H. G. Chapman, seconded 
by Mr. Sussmilch, was unanimously adopted: — 



ABSTRACT OP PROCEEDINGS. 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 



Receipts. 

To Subscriptions 

„ Rents — 

Offices 305 14 

Hall and Library 241 16 6 


£ s. 
545 13 

547 10 
10 11 


d. 


6 
3 


£ 

1103 
799 

270 


s. 

14 
19 




d. 


„ Sundry Receipts... 


9 

10 




„ Government Subsidy for 1913 and 1914 
„ Clarke Memorial Fund — 

Advances for the year 


£ 

21 
9 


s. 

6 
8 


d. 







£2173 


14 


7 


Payments. 
By Balance brought forward 1st April, 1914 — 

Unpresen ted cheques 

Less .- — Credit Balance at Union Bank 


£ 
11 

418 

68 

138 
191 

106 
62 


s. 
18 

12 

3 

5 



17 



d. 


11 

4 

1 


1 
2 


„ Salaries and Wages — 

Office Salaries and Accountancy Fees ... 
Assistant Librarian... 
Caretaker 


155 

156 
106 


16 

6 

10 


8 
3 



.„ Printing, Stationery, Advertising, Stamps etc 
Stamps and Telegrams 

Office Sundries, Stationery, &c 

Advertising 


40 
15 
12 



13 
10 




4 



„ Rates, Taxes and Services — 
Electric Light 

Gas ... ... ... 

Insurance ... 

Rates ... 

Telephone 


19 

6 

20 

85 
6 


12 

1 

3 

10 

17 



8 
9 


8 


„ Printing and Publishing Society's Volume — 

Printing, &c. .. 
„ Library — 

Books and Periodicals 

Bookbinding... 


33 

72 


18 
18 


6 

7 


„ Sundry Expenses — 
Repairs 

Lantern Operator ... 

Sundries 


13 
10 
38 


5 

2 

11 


9 

6 

11 










Carried forward 


996 


16 


7 



VI. ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Payments — continued. £ s. d. j£ s. d. 

Brought forward 996 16 7 

„ Fixtures & Electric Light Fittings in Library 210 17 6 

„ Interest on Mortgage 70 6 8 

Clarke Memorial Fund 6 3 4 



6 10 0- 



Australasian Association for the Advancement 

of Science — On account of repayment of Loan 200 

Clarke Memorial Fund — 

Refund of Loan 620 

Balance — 
Credit Balance, Union Bank of Australia, Ltd. 67 5 

On hand 2 5 6 

69 10 6 



£2173 14 7 



Compiled from the books and accounts of the Eoyal Society of New- 
South Wales and certified to be in accordance therewith. 

(Signed) H. G. CHAPMAN, m.d., Honorary Treasurer. 

W. PERCIVAL MINELL, f.cp.a. 
Sydney, 13th April, 1915. Auditor. 

BUILDING AND INVESTMENT FUND. 

Receipts. £ s. d. 

To Loan on Mortgage from the A. A. A. Science — 

Balance as at 31st March, 1914 2500 

„ General Fund — 

Amount received to date ... 70 6 8 



.£2570 6 8 



Payments. £ s. d. 
By A. A. A. Science — 

Amount repaid during the year... ... ... ... 200 

„ Interest Account — 

Amount paid to A. A. A. Science... ... ... ... 70 6 8 

„ Balance owing at this date ... 2300 



£2570 6 8 

CLARKE MEMORIAL FUND. 

Balance Sheet, 31st March, 1915. 

Liabilities. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 
Accumulation Fund — 

Amount at 31st March, 1914 ... 574 8 2 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. Vll. 



£ 
Brought forward ... 
Additions during- the year — 

Interest Savings Bank ... 3 
„ Government Savings 

Bank 1 

„ Commonwealth Sav- 
ings Bank ... ... 

„ General Fund ... 6 


s. 

2 

15 

7 
3 


d. £ 
.. 574 

5 

1 

6 

4 
1 1 


s. 

8 

8 

d. 


d. £ s. 

2 

4 
— 585 16 


d. 






£ s. 


6 




£585 16 


6 


Assets. 
Society General Fund 


£ s. 
50 


d, 




Cash Deposited in Savings Bank of N. S. W. 197 8 5 

„ Government Savings Bank 187 17 3 

Commonwealth ,, „ 150 10 10 



Statement of Receipts and Paymi 
Eeceipts. 
To Balance at 31st March, 1914— 

Savings Bank of N.S.W 

Government Savings Bank 
Commonwealth Savings Bank 
„ Interest to date (Six Months) — 
Savings Bank of N.S.W. ... 
Government Savings Bank 
Commonwealth Savings Bank 
General Fund on Advances 
„ General Fund — 

Amounts refunded to date... 





RCH 








£585 16 


6 


31st Ma 


:, 1915. 




£ i 


= . < 


3. £ s. 


d 


164 6 









5 2 


2 






5 













174 8 


2 






3 2 


5 






1 15 


1 






7 


6 






6 3 


4 










11 8 
620 


4 









,£805 16 


6- 





Payments. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


3y General Fund — 










Advances to date 










„ Balance at this date — 










Savings Bank of N.S.W 




... 197 


8 


5 


Government Savings 


Bank 


... 187 


17 


3 


Commonwealth Savings 


Bank 


... 150 


10 


10 



£ s. d 
270 



535 16 6 



£805 16 6 



Vlll ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

A report on the state of the Society's property and the 
annual report of the Council were read as follows : — 

Annual Report of the Council for the Year 1914-15. 

(1st May to 28th April). 

The Council regrets to report that we have lost by death 
six ordinary members. Ten members have resigned. On 
the other hand, twelve ordinary and two Honorary mem- 
bers have been elected during the year. 

To day (28th April, 1915) the roll of members stands at 
313. 

During the Society's year there have been nine occasions 
when members have assembled as a body, namely, — eight 
monthly meetings and the Annual Dinner which took place 
at Farmer's Restaurant on the 30th April, 1914, when we 
were honoured by the company of the Hon. W. A. Holman, 
m.l.a., Premier and Colonial Treasurer, and the Presidents 
of several Societies. 

The Council held ten meetings. 

A special meeting was held on the 21st May, 1914, in 
commemoration of the Tercentenary of the publication of 
the Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Description when 
Professor H. S. Carslaw, s c .d., delivered an address on 
"Napier and the Discovery of Logarithms." 

Three Popular Science Lectures were given, namely: — 

June 18 — "The Ore Deposits of Australia and their Origin" 
by 0. A. Sussmilch, f.g.s. 

July 16 — "Comets" by Professor Cooke, m.a., f.r.a.s. 

October 15 — " The Milk Supply of a Great City," by Professor 
Chapman, m.d. 

Twenty-nine papers were read at the Monthly Meetings 
and these, with a good number of exhibits, afforded much 
instruction and interest to members of the Society. 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. IX. 

On the motion of Mr. Hooper, seconded by Mr. Oarne, 
Mr. W. P. Minell was elected Auditor for the current 
year. 

The President, Mr. Charles Hedley, then delivered his 
Presidential Address. 

On the motion of Mr. Sussmilch seconded by Mr. A. G. 
Hamilton, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the 
retiring President for his valuable address. 

Mr. Hedley briefly acknowledged the compliment. 

There being no other nominations, the President declared 
the following gentlemen to be Officers and Council for the 
coming year : — 

President : 
R. GREIG-SMITH, d.sc. 
Vice-Presidents : 
F. H. QUAIFE, m.a., m.d. HENRY G. SMITH, f.c.s. 

J. H. MAIDEN, p.l.s. C. HEDLEY, f.l.s. 

Hon. Treasurer: 

H. G. CHAPMAN, m.d. 

Hon. Secretaries: 

R. H. CAMBAGE, l.s., f.l.s. | Prof. POLLOCK, d.sc. 

Members of Council : 



D. CARMENT, f.i.a., f.f.a. 
J. B. CLELAND, m.d., CH.M. 
Prof. T. W. E. DAVID, c.m.g., b.a., 
W. S. DUN. [> sc " F - B - s - 

T. H. HOUGHTON, m. inst. c.e. 



J. NANGLE, f.b.a.s. 

Prof. R. ROBINSON, d.sc. 

C. A. SUSSMILCH, f.g.s. 

H. D. WALSH, B.A.I., M. INST. C.E. 

Prof. W. H. WARREN, ll.d.,wh.cs. 



JUNE 2nd, 1915. 

The three hundred and seventy-third General Monthly 
Meeting of the Royal Society of New South Wales was 
held at the Society's House, 5 Elizabeth Street, at 8 p.m. 

Dr. R. Greig-Smith, President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members and two visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and 
confirmed. 



X. ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

The certificates of four candidates for admission as 
ordinary members were read: three for the second, and 
one for the first time. 

Judge Docker and Mr. W. Welch were appointed 
Scrutineers, and Mr. H. G. Smith deputed to preside at the 
Ballot Box. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary 
members of the Society: — 

William Walter Watts, Presbyterian Clergyman, 
"The Manse," Gladesville. 

Allan Olunies Ross, b.Sc Science Master, Church of 
England Grammar School, North Sydney. 

Albert John Sach, f.c.s., (formerly in charge o 
the Technical College, Goulburn), "Kelvedon," 
North Road, Ryde. 

On the motion of Professor Pollock, seconded by Dr. 
Chapman, it was resolved — That members on Active Service 
be exempted from the payment of annual subscriptions 
during the period of such service without loss of any of the 
rights of membership. 

The President announced that a Popular Science Lecture 
would be delivered by Mr. D. G. Stead, f.l.s., on the 17th 
June, entitled "Whales and Whaling in Australian Seas." 

The death was announced of Mr. G. D. Hirst, p.r.a.s., 
an old member of this Society, and it was resolved that a 
letter of sympathy be sent to his relatives. 

A letter was read from Mr. A. Gibb Maitland, p.g.s., 
expressing his appreciation of the honour which the Society 
had conferred upon him in electing him an Honorary 
Member. 

Mr. G. C. Du Faur wrote thanking the Society for 
sympathy in the death of his father Mr. E. Du Faur. 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. XI. 

A letter was read from Mr. Ivor Onslow Thompson 
thanking the Society for sympathy in the deat